Ilyushin Il-62 Classic
The IL-62 is a long-range turbojet passenger airliner. For many years this airplane remained the flag aircraft of the national air fleet. This airplane is able to perform flights in adverse weather conditions, at all latitudes and at any time of the day.
On December 17, 1956 the Council of Ministers of the USSR adopted a resolution that conferred the Chief Designer title to S.V. Ilyushin and charged him with a duty of Executive Director at Plant No. 240 of The Ministry of Aviation Industry (the MAI). In mid-1960-s the domestic airlines began to receive second-generation turbojet airplanes. These airplanes differed from the previous generation airplanes by higher speed and enhanced comfort for the passengers. The IL-62 designed by the ILYUSHIN team really represented the aircraft of that generation.
The layout engine aft fuselage, adopted by the Il-62, reduces noise, improves comfort, increases the fineness "clean" wing and the effectiveness of its mechanization, located across the scale wing. The application of this scheme chassis, developed by EDO (and patented in 9 countries including the UK, Italy, France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Japan), significantly reduced the weight and cost to create construction on the effectiveness of some weight equivalent planes with engines under the wing. Aerodynamic design sagittal wing with unusual speed form the front edge has provided strong resistance characteristics in the whole range of angles of attack. The T-shaped tail is much smaller than that of the aircraft-analogs, which reduced the mass of the aircraft and greatly simplified management system (deleted hydraulic booster). Fuel tanks (valve bends wing) are located throughout the body of the wing, including the center. IL-62 can take off safely complete failure of one engine, a cruising flight and landing approach - in case of failure of two engines. The reliability of all provided with multiple redundant systems.
The four engined Il-62 was the Soviet Union's first long range jetliner designed for intercontinental flights such as Moscow to New York nonstop. Designed for Aeroflot's intercontinental routes and looking more than a little like the British VC-10, the Il-62 made its first flight on 03 January 1963 (Crew CO's: V.K.Kokkinaki and E.I.Kuznetsov). This aircraft crashed on 25 February 1965. On this day, the crew of pilot test AS Lipko had to perform the 127th flight with a maximum takeoff weight. The plane left the ground at a great angle of attack and the lack of speed (as determined afterwards, because of a surge and the loss of traction by one of the engines). The crash killed ten, including the crew and lead designer P.V.Kazakov.
It is widely believed that four prototypes were built, including the one that crashed in 1965. Another was used solely for water tank pressurisation tests. In 1967 the aircraft was presented at the Paris Air Show, it had more powerful engines and increased weight, indicative of initial problems with both the airframe and engines.
It entered scheduled passenger services on 10 March 1967 from Moscow to Novosibirsk and Khabarovsk. The first scheduled international service was on 15 September 1967 to Montreal, following which the aircraft became a familiar sight all over the Aeroflot network.The IL-62 was certified to fly in accordance with Standards for Airworthiness of the ICAO for civil aircraft. These airplanes by their technical data were at the same level with the best foreign intercontinental airliners of the same generation. A number of leading industrial countries of the world even now used principally new type of landing gear designed for Il-62.
Airplane configuration with four engines placed in the rear part of the fuselage, rational "pure" wing shape with the effective wing aerodynamic devices ensured the optimal flight, take-off and landing characteristics, decreased the noise level inside the cabin, increased the passenger comfort level. The flight control navigation equipment, automatic control system, unique manual control system for a jumbo size aircraft combined with a multiple redundancy system of aggregates and the main parameters control system ensured the airplane high reliability and operational safety.
The modification works of the IL-62 long-range passenger airplane began in 1969 at the Il'yushin design office. Flight tests of IL-62M aircraft were held in 1970- 1972. The improved Il-62M appeared at the 1971 Paris Airshow and introduced more economical Soloviev D30KU turbofans, increased fuel capacity and modified mechanised cargo holds capable of housing containers. The IL-62M began its regular passenger operations on January 8, 1974, and it remains in operation till now. IL-62M aircraft operate on the most extended routes. In 1975 IL-62M made a flight from Moscow to Seattle (USA) through North Pole.
Finally the airplane was equipped with a more efficient turbojet engines designed by P.A.Soloviev. The engines were installed inside the nacelles that had improved aerodynamic shape. There was an additional fuel tank installed inside the airplane fin, and that modification increased the airplane flight range. The IL-62M airplane cruising speed finally increased, and the more effective double-slotted flaps allowed to reduce landing speed. The modified airplane was equipped with the luggage power-driven loading system, the modified stabilizer control system, the new steering control wheels (in order to improve vision for pilots and to provide for the standard instruments location at the pilots control panel), the improved auxiliary power plant designed for both the main engines start and cabin air conditioning.
IL-62MK appeared in 1978, designed for transportation of 195 passengers. The maximal take-off weight of aircraft was increased up to 167 tons, and payload reached 25 tons. The common avionics complex with electromechanical means of indication is used on board the aircraft. Use of more perfect equipment allows to make automatic landing in bad weather conditions under category III of ICAO.
Production at Kazan was once said to have continued until 1995, though subsequent reports said that the last aircraft were built during 1993. As the last aircraft was certified by mid 1993 this seems correct. Including the prototypes, total production now is surmised at as many as 289. However, the factory states 292 (5 prototypes, 94 Il-62's and 193 Il-62M's). The last four aircraft remained unsold at the factory in 1997 and the last delivery was reported as being on 10 January 1996, though RA-86586 of Magma was probably delivered in 1999.
Early models of the Il-62 had a five digit serial number which denoted the year of manufacture, the batch number and the number of the aircraft in the batch (never more than 05). In 1977, after completion of the fourth aircraft in the 25th batch, a new system was introduced using a seven figure number, which showed the quarter of the year in which manufacture took place as well as the batch number and the number of the aircraft in the batch. However, the fifth and the seventh digits have no meanning, as the Kazan plant added random numbers to make it all look more complexe. Some aircraft which originally had five digit serial number now display the seven digit variety and these are given where known.
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