Pattani United Liberation Organization (PULO)
The Pattani United Liberation Organization (PULO) is synonymous with the Thai separatist terrorist movement and is the largest and most active. However, at its peak it had no more than 300 "soldiers." PULO was set up by Tuanku Biyo Kodoniyo on 22 March 1968, who has been serving as its chairman ever since. By late 1992, the organization had split into two factions. The first faction was headed by Dr. A-rong Muleng while the second one was lead by Hayihadi Mindosali. The first faction set up the PULO Leadership Council with a symbol of a dagger crossing with a sword as its logo. The name of its armed unit is called "Caddan Army." The second faction, also headed by Hajji Sama-ae Thanam, has set up the PULO Army Command Council or MPTP [expansion unknown] to give support to Tuanku Abdul Kade, the founder of the terrorist movement. The logo of the movement is an eagle and the name of its army is Abudaban.
In 1995, rifts emerged among the core leaders of the new PULO movement. As a result, Dr. A-rong Muleng decided to split his group from the movement to set up a new organization called "PULO 88" or the Abu Jihad PULO while the other group led by Hajji Habeng Abdul Rohman named its armed unit as "Caddan Army." In the meantime, the old PULO still retains its status quo with Tuanku Biyo Kodoniyo as leader. After some leaders of the old and new PULO movements were arrested in early 1998, confusion immediately occurred within this organization. As a result, morale became very low and some of its members, who lost faith in the group, gave themselves up to the Thai Government. However, the two factions have tried to patch up their differences and to strengthen mutual cooperation. At present, it is reported that the two factions have dispatched their armed units to carry out joint military and political operations in some areas of three southern border provinces. Command headquarters of the two factions are located in Malaysia.
The PULO is a popular organization formed to represent the Malay people of the southern predominantly Malay provinces formerly known as the Malay kingdom of Patani, fighting against Thai colonialism. It considers Thai constitution illegitimate in the area and its members are not under Thai jurisdiction. Therefore, if Thai justice system practices such inhumane activity, then PULO reserves the right to react accordingly.
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