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Hangor Class (Fr Daphn)

French Daphne Class Submarines HANGOR, MANGRO, SHUSHUK and GHAZI have served actively in Pakistan Navy from 1967 till 02 January 2006, when the Daphne submarines were decommissioned from Pakistan Navy, after the relentless contribution in the defence of the motherland for four decades. These were the machines of great resilience and they served the Navy untiringly with full vigour yet silently. These boats had seen wars and crisis alike and performed extremely arduous sea duties with their moments of excitement and prolonged operational deployments. Daphne submarines were relatively simple war machines but they placed great demands on their officers and crew as they operated with stealth and attacked with swiftness and surprise. During war deployment in 1971, HANGOR sailed to sink INS KHUKRI and damaged INS KIRPAN. HANGOR and MANGRO returned from a successful mission during this war. The valiant crew of HANGOR was rewarded 04 Sitara-e-Jurrat, 06 Tamgha-e-Jurrat and 24 Imtiazi sanads in total.

PNS/M HANGOR Pakistan Navy Submarine was the first of the Daphne type submarines acquired by Pakistan Navy from France. It was commissioned on 1st December 1969 and arrived in Pakistan on 20th December 1970. Since its induction in the Pakistan Navy, PNS/M HANGOR had always been an efficient unit of the squadron and the Navy. She has actively participated in all the major exercises at home and abroad. The submarine has shown the Pakistan Flag at various foreign ports which includes Toulon, Puero de Laluz, Las Palmas, Dakar, Launda, Lounanco Marques, Diego Suarez, Bandar Abbas (Iran), Dubai, Abu Dahbi and Muscat (1993).

PNS/M MANGRO was commissioned in Pakistan Navy on 5th Aug 70 at France. In Pakistan, she has accomplished a variety of operational tasks & patrols and participated in many exercises with different countries. PNS/M MANGRO was a promising unit of Pakistan Fleet for more than 30 years and also participated in 1971 war. The submarine was equipped with variety of torpedoes and sub surface launch missiles.

PNS/M SHUSHUK was commissioned in Pakistan Navy on 12 Jan 70 at France. In Pakistan, she has accomplished a variety of operational tasks & patrols and participated in many exercises with different countries. PNS/M SHUSHUK was a promising unit of Pakistan fleet for more than 30 years and also participated in 1971 war. The unit has the distinction in the war and to be the first ever S/Ms to enter Kamafuli River (B.D) and Yanfoonriver (Myanmar). The submarine was equipped with variety of torpedoes and sub surface launch missiles.

PNS/M GHAZI (S-134) was the second submarine of this name. She was a Daphne type submarine built by France for Portuguese Navy in 1969. She flew Portuguese flag for 8 years as CACHALOTE (S-166), meaning Sperm Whale. The submarine was sold to Pakistan through France and commissioned as PNS/M GHAZI on 17 January 1977. The submarine was given a major refit and equipment updation at Toulon, France before being handed over to Pakistan. She joined the Pakistan Navy Submarine Force in April 1977. GHAZI was a Diesel-Electric propelled submarine and was fitted with the most modern electronic devices for detection and reliable weapons for attacking. She has been equipped to carry Sub Harpoon Anti-ship Missiles in subsurface to surface configuration. Her lethality has thus overtaken her old age and she now commands a new respect from the enemy. GHAZI was a high performance submarine which can operate deep, silent and for extended period at sea. GAHZI has taken part in various national and international maritime exercises in Arabian Sea and the Gulf.

These submarines played a pivotal role during the Indo-Pak war of 1971. PNS/M HANGOR sank Indian Navy Frigate KHUKRI and damaged KIRPAN in the outskirts of the Indian Ocean in vicinity of enemy waters. During 1971 Indo-Pak war, the burden of Pakistan Navy's was offensive effort hinged on the small but effective submarine force. PN Submarine HANGOR sailed in the early hours of 22 November 1971 to patrol off the Indian Kathiawar coast under the command of Commander Ahmed Tasnim S.J.

On 9 Dec, in an effort to locate the evasive enemy, HANGOR extended her patrol northward to investigate some radio transmissions intercepted on her sensors. Two contacts were picked up on passive sonar and were identified as warships. The initial range was 6 to 8 miles. A pursuit of the enemy began but the first attempt to attack these ships failed due to speed disadvantage. The submarine however managed to forecast target ships movement and succeeded in taking up a tactically advantageous position on the path of the patrolling frigates by 1900. At 1957 the submarine fired a down the throat shot with a homing torpedo at the northerly ship from a depth of 40 meters.

The torpedo was tracked but no explosion was heard. The second torpedo was therefore fired immediately on the incomming southerly ship and this was followed by a tremendous explosion. The torpedo had found its mark. The other enemy frigate came straight for the submarine when a third torpedo was fired. A distant explosion was heard subsequently and the submarine turned west towards deeper waters for evasion.

In this spectacular action, INS KHUKRI, the ship of the Squadron Commander of Indian 14th Frigate Sqn was sunk within two minutes after receiving a hit in the magazine where explosives were held. 18 Officers and 176 sailors including the Commanding Officer lost their lives. This came as a shattering blow to the Indian Navy. Hangor was the first submarine since World War II, to torpedo and sink another ship. HANGOR's action demonstrated Pakistan Navy's tactical superiority in sub-surface warfare and after the war even the BBC commentators praised Pakistan Naval effort. Considering the shape and size and age of the ships at its command, they said that the Pakistan Navy had acquitted itself well against the Indian Navy.

Prior to acquiring the Agosta class submarines, Pakistan's Navy had four Daphne class submarines which have been retired. All four boats were simultaneously decommissioned in January 2006. The Navy was in negotiations to transfer three to the Bangladesh Navy, while the fourth submarine was kept for the Navy museum. The Navy transferred its recently retired Submarine Hangor to Pakistan Maritime Museum in Karachi.

Specifications

Length 57.8m
Beam 6.8m
Draught 4.6m
Displacement surfaced 869 tons
Displacement dived 1043 tons
Complement 7 Officers, 47 Sailors
Sensors Radar, ESM, Periscopes
Armament 12 21-inch torpedo tubes (8 bow, 4 stern; 12 torpedos) (533mmTT (L-5HWT))
Harpoon USGW 4


Ships
Name No Builder Launched Commissioned Decomm
HangorS13128-6-196912-01-1971Jan 2006
ShushukS13230-07-196912-01-1971Jan 2006
MangroS13307-02-197008-08-1972Jan 2006
GhaziS13423-09-196801-10-1976Jan 2006




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