S 44 Shishumar Class
In 1981, almost fourteen years after the initial dialogue with HDW of Germany, Kockums of Sweden, Vickers of Britain, DCN of France and Nevesbu of Holland, a contract was signed with HDW of Germany for four submarines - two to be built in Germany and two in Mazagon Docks, Bombay. These four submarines, called SSKs, entered service between 1986 and 1994. In December 1981 the Indian government reached an agreement with Howaldtswerke Deutsche Werft AG Kiel for the construction of four HDW 209 class subs.
The first two submarines arrived in India in 1987. A subsequent agreement that called for the construction for two additional subs was cancelled following the May 1998 nuclear tests.
Two SSK class submarines were built at Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL), using material packages imported by the Navy. In August 1989, the Government revised the submarine project costs from Rs.509 crores to Rs.795 crores. This included an increase in the construction cost of the submarine at MDL from Rs.196.91 crores to Rs.348.70 crores. Of this, the increase in cost of MDL effort for the construction was from Rs.63 crores (inclusive of Rs.7.9 crores as profit to MDL) to Rs.152 crores (inclusive of Rs.20.96 crores towards profit). Although a separate agreement was to be signed with MDL indicating the terms and conditions for indigenous construction of the submarines, there was no agreement when the construction of the two submarines commenced in January and September 1984 respectively. The delay in concluding a contract with MDL occurred on account of the time taken for resolving various issues relating to its terms and conditions.
The Navy invested a total amount of Rs 41.80 crore for creation of facilities in MDL to undertake construction of 'S' class submarines. Out of this investment, Rs 16.67 crore were utilised for setting up welding stations, jigs etc. which were dedicated to hull construction of 'S' class submarines and could not be utilised for any other purpose. The construction of two 'S' class submarines by MDL commenced between January 1984 and September 1984, and fabrication of the two hulls were completed by 1986-87, one submarine was delivered to the Navy in February 1992 and a second one in May 1994 at a total cost of Rs 390 crore. After commencement of construction of these two submarines by MDL, the Ministry decided in April 1989 that no further construction should be undertaken without examining the feasibility of importing ready-built vessels of another class. As of August 1996, the aforementioned feasibility study remained incomplete and no further construction of submarines had been ordered, as a result of which the dedicated facility for hull construction, created at a cost of Rs 16.67 crore, remained unutilised from 1986-87.
The INS Shishumar completed a mid-life refit in 2000. Subsequently, the INS Shankul began its refit.
The United New of India (UNI) reported in September 2004 that the German Company Siemens has offered upgrades to the Indian Navy for the 4 Shishumar Class submarines.
|Builder||S 44-45, Howaldtswerke
SS 46-47, Mazagon Docks Ltd
|Displacement (tons)||1,450 tons Standard
|Speed (kts)||11 knots Surfaced
20-22 knots Submerged
|Dimensions (m):||64.4 meters long
6.5 meters beam
6.0 meters draft
|Propulsion:||diesel and electric motors|
|Diving depth:||260 m|
13,000 surfaced (@ 10 knots)|
8,000 - 8,200 miles With snorkel (@ 8 knots)
|SHISHUMAR||S 44||Howaldtswerke (HDW)||22 Sept 1986|
|SHANKUSH||S 45||Howaldtswerke (HDW)||20 Nov 1986|
|SHALKI||S 46||Mazagon||07 Feb 1992|
|SHANKUL||S 47||Mazagon||28 May 1994|
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