Haiti's political situation has improved in recent years, but remains fragile. The uncertainty that periodic vacancies in the prime minister’s position, cabinet changes, and infighting in Parliament created has hindered both reconstruction efforts and passage of important legislation. However, political violence is rare, and recent statistics suggest increasing capacity of law enforcement officials to deter and prosecute violent crime.
There have been no recent cases of political groups targeting foreign projects and/or installations. Historically, politically motivated civil disorder, such as periodic demonstrations and labor strikes, sometimes interrupted normal business operations. Land invasions by squatters are a problem in both urban and rural areas, and requests for help to law enforcement authorities often go unanswered.
Demonstrations are frequent in Port-au-Prince and other outlying areas for various reasons, to include dissatisfication of infrastructure and utilities to disapproval of Haitian government entities or UN presence. Any demonstration is capable of turning violent, and innocent bystanders or travelers can be caught up in a clash, rock throwing, and tire burning road blocks between demonstrators and the HNP.
Violent political protests occur regularly in downtown Port-au-Prince around the National Palace, the Champ de Mars, and the State University campuses, along with sporadic incidents scattered throughout the city. These protests had been frequent, averaging multiple incidents per week since mid-2009 and with 360 total in 2011. The demonstrations have been motivated by a wide-variety of political and social movements, ranging from minimum wage to school curriculum to the presence of UN forces in the country to cholera response and the Haitian presidential elections. They share a common trend in that protestors are quick to barricade streets and regularly stone the windows of passing motorists’ vehicles.
As in many developing countries, radio reaches the widest audience in Haiti. Estimates vary, but more than 300 radio stations are believed to broadcast throughout the country. Talk show programs serve as one of the few ways in which ordinary Haitians can speak out about politics and the government. A law passed in 1997 declares the airwaves to be the property of the government, but at least 133 unlicensed radio stations operate freely. In addition, there are 50 community-based stations throughout the country.
Television is available only to a minority of relatively wealthy households. Two television stations serve approximately 42,000 households that have television receivers. Satellite stations from foreign countries are available in Haiti, but only to those with the expensive equipment necessary to receive them. Haiti's three French-language newspapers have a total circulation of less than 20,000. Small, Creole-language newspapers are printed irregularly.
While the United Nations’ Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), deployed in Haiti since 2004, supports the activities of the Haitian National Police (HNP), their numbers decreased during 2015 as mandated by the UN Security Council. The HNP, with assistance from MINUSTAH, is responsible for maintaining order and rendering assistance.
Election - 2015
On March 12, 2015 Haiti's Provisional Electoral Council set a date for the delayed legislative elections that had been a source of political contention. The vote for 20 members of the Senate and 118 members of the Chamber of Deputies would be August 9, the council announced. The presidential election would be held on October 25. If no candidate receives more than half of the votes, a runoff would be held on December 27.
It took a long time, unfortunately, to get to the point of having elections taking place because of a variety of disagreements among the key political actors in Haiti. Haitians voted in the first legislative elections in more than three years on 09 August 2015, in a test of stability for the country. More than 1,800 candidates from dozens of parties were running, and preliminary results were expected in six to 10 days. The voting was marred by clashes at some polling places, including in the capital, Port-au-Prince. At other sites, voters had to wait for hours after the polls were due to open, and in some cases were given extra time.
After these elections took place the US made its views quietly known to the Provisional Electoral Council (CEP), to the executive, encouraging the CEP to take some additional steps to improve the processes that were in place and working with the government to get them to urge the police to be a little more proactive in their securing of the voting sites and getting police out to the sites a little bit earlier so they could get to know the terrain, the people involved, etc.
The electoral council is largely seen to be influenced by the United States and was the target of protests over the weekend demanding the resignation of the director and the implementation of independent oversight. The United States paid US$31 million to support the electoral process, and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton had repeatedly been accused of meddling both in the 2010 elections and in post-hurricane political reconstruction.
Haitians voted 25 October 2015 for a new president from more than 50 candidates running for the country's top office, as well as casting ballots for lawmakers and local officials. There were 54 presidential candidates going forward, an unprecedented number, which added a level of complexity to the entire process. The elections on October 25 were a marked improvement over what took place in August. The preliminary results, at least of the presidential race were announced on 05 November 2015. The results were of Jovenel Moïse coming in first place with around 32-33% of the vote, and Jude Célestin coming in second place with 25%. Moïse Jean Charles came in third place with about 12%. The Lavalas candidate Dr. Maryse Narcisse, a physician who had the backing of former president Jean-Bertrand Aristide, came in fourth with 7%. Lavalas remains popular amonst Haiti's impoverished majority. Election observers said the vote was largely free of major problems and the violence that had plagued parliamentary elections in August.
A runoff presidential vote was scheduled in December 2015 between the top two candidates. Two people emerged as serious contenders in the race -- Jude Celestin, who was eliminated from the second round in the controversial 2010 vote following an OAS recount. A banana plantation owner and the former head of Haiti's government construction agency will face off against each other in Haiti's presidential runoff 27 December 2015. The 47-year-old of Bald Heads - named in honor of the outgoing president - would face 53-year-old Jude Celestin of the Alternative League for Progress and Emancipation of Haiti.
Jovenel Moise, the 47-year-old candidate of current President Michel Martelly’s Parti Haitien Tet Kale (PHTK), was born in the countryside of Haiti from a modest family of farmers, and studied Educational Sciences in the capital Port au Prince, succeeding as a businessman in the banana industry. He promised to revive agriculture in Haiti and improve education. He also aimed to put Haiti on the financial map by improving tourism and exports. Another proposal was to improve security and strengthen justice to restore the rule of law.
Second place in the presidential race was held by Jude Celestin from the opposition League for Progress and Haitian Emancipation (LAPEH). This is the second time that the 53-year-old engineer was running for president. He was the runner-up in the 2010 presidential elections and although he has been absent in politics for the past five years, he enjoyed great popularity among Haitians. Celestine was largely supported by former President Rene Preval and claimed that if elected, his government would give priority to job creation, rationalization of government expenditure and the fight against corruption. A poll released 19 November 2015 showed that up to 90 percent of Haitians had deep suspicions of the recent elections in the country, while opposition supporters continued to protest in the streets, calling the elections a fraud. The poll was conducted by an independent Brazil-based research group called Igarape. The company did two separate polls to measure public confidence in the elections. The first on the day of the Oct. 25 election and the second on Nov. 5, after the preliminary results were announced. After the first poll, 82 percent of Haitians polled said they agreed with the statement, “As far as I can see, this election is fair, there is no fraud.” However, in the second round of polling almost 90 percent of those approached said they believed the opposite.
The poll also found that when asked who of the 54 candidates they voted for, just over 6 percent of Haitians said they voted for the government-backed candidate Jovenel Moise, which would have placed him fourth in the running. Critics viewed his sudden ascent to prominence with suspicion, suggesting Martelly was trying to keep a hand in the government after he left office by using Moise as his proxy.
A group of eight candidates in the November 2015 disputed presidential vote demanded changes in Haiti's electoral council and national police department. Among those signing the 28 November 2015 declaration was Jude Celestin, the second-place finisher who was due to face the government-backed candidate, Jovenel Moise, in the 27 December 2015 runoff. The third-place finisher, former Sen. Moise Jean-Charles, belongs to the opposition alliance. The fourth-place finisher, Maryse Narcisse of the Fanmi Lavalas party founded by former President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, was not a member of the alliance.
Rights groups said the first-round vote was so plagued with irregularities and alleged vote-rigging that they had no confidence in the official results that put the previously obscure government-backed candidate finishing first. The group of diplomats calling themselves the Core Group, believed the contests had went well. Non-governmental foreign observers, a Brazilian observation firm, as well as, a few US civil society observers, all agreed with the Haitians that massive fraud had occurred.
Efforts by stakeholders included the establishment of an electoral evaluation commission on 16 December to address the concerns of opposition parties and ensure the successful and timely conclusion of the presidential elections. According to press reports, the run-off had been set for 27 December between Jovenel Moise from the governing party and former government executive Jude Celestin, but the election has been postponed until further notice.
On 21 December 2015 Haiti's electoral authority postponed the presidential runoff vote. In a surprise statement just days before the 27 December 2015 presidential runoff election, Haiti’s Provisional Electoral Council said the vote would be pushed back. A new date was yet to be announced, though electoral officials have previously suggested the vote could be pushed back as far as early February 2016.
On January 03, 2016 an independent panel concluded that Haiti's president and parliamentary elections in October 2015 were marred by irregularities. The panel's report supported charges of fraud made by opposition presidential candidate Jude Celestin. Problems included ballots where the votes were crossed out, miscounting, and discrepancies in voter identification. Allegations of fraud led to street protests that forced officials to cancel the second round of voting.
It is unclear when the runoff will be held, but Haiti's constitution called for a new president to take office by February 7. On January 01, 2016 President Martelly announced that a postponed presidential runoff vote would be held on 17 January 2016, later delayed to 24 January 2016. President Michel Martelly, outside of the Electoral Decree and Constitution of Haiti, rushed to install the 50th Legislature from those elections. It was estimated by Senator Steven Benoit (Ouest/Alternativ) that 40% of the lawmakers sworn-in to the Parliament were not legitimately elected.
Presidential Runoff Election - 2016
Haiti’s presidential runoff was postponed three times because of allegations of fraud that forced the country into a polarizing crisis with violent street protests. Campaigning for Haiti's presidential runoff election began 08 January 2016, with only one candidate participating, government-backed contender Jovenel Moise. The campaign team of the second-place finisher, Jude Celestin said he would take part in the runoff only if sweeping changes recently recommended by a special commission were adopted to improve Haiti's flawed electoral machinery.
Embattled Haitian President Michel Martelly left office 07 February 2016 as required by Haiti's constitution, ending his 5-year term with no one elected to replace him. Ahead of Martelly's departure, the former pop music star told lawmakers in Port-Au-Prince that he is leaving office "to contribute to constitutional normalcy." He then handed the reins of power to the leader of the heavily guarded national assembly, after an 11th hour deal under which lawmakers were expected to choose an interim president to take Martelly's place. Prime Minister Evans Paul was Haiti's temporary leader until the provisional president was chosen.
On 20 March 2016, Haiti's lower chamber rejected a program submitted by Prime Minister Fritz Jean, who only received 38 votes in favor, falling short of the 60 votes required for his appointment. Most of his opponents were supporters of former President Michel Martelly. Just days after the Congress rejected a new interim Prime Minister, on 22 March 2016 interim President Jocelerme Privert named via decree Jean Charles Enex to head the organizing of the presidential runoff vote after a disputed electoral results. This time, Privert took the time to reach a consensus among lawmakers before formally appointing via decree Jean Charles Enex, an experienced lawyer, after a one-day long debate between the different parliamentary groups.
Haiti will hold elections as soon as possible, new interim Prime Minister Enex Jean-Charles said on 25 March 2016, but he could not guarantee that an April 24 deadline could be met for the presidential vote that had already been postponed three times. Several thorny issues must be resolved before elections can be held, including demands by parties which lost in the October 2015 first round of the presidential election and which allege the result were fraudulent.
The presidential runoff vote was rescheduled for 24 April. The winner was set to take office by 14 May. The delay has triggered protests by supporters of the front-runner in the presidential elections, Jovenel Moise. He is set to go up against Jude Celestin when the vote is eventually held. Although the April 24 deadline for the election was widely seen as unrealistic, thousands of protesters took to the streets to demand the chance to cast their votes.
On 25 April 2016, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said he was deeply concerned that the agreed-upon date for holding elections in Haiti – 24 April – had not been met. That date had been set following an agreement – known as the 5 February Agreement – between Haitian stakeholders to preserve institutional continuity and further the electoral process.
Interim president Jocelerme Privert said the electorate will probably have to wait until October to cast their votes. Privert said the second round of elections which has already been postponed three times, will likely be staged the same time as the Senate elections on 30 October 2016.
On 14 May 2016 the United Nations Security Council has expressed its deep disappointment that Haitian actors failed to meet the election and inauguration deadlines agreed upon in the February political accord, calling on all actors to ensure the prompt return to constitutional order. In a statement, the Council welcomed, however, the reconstitution of the Provisional Electoral Council (CEP) and noted the establishment of a commission to evaluate and verify the elections held in 2015, stressing the need for the commission to be technical, a-political, transparent and complete its work within its 30-day mandate.
The Independent Commission of Evaluation and Electoral Verification [CIEVE] on 31 May 2016 found that 99% of the electoral process was fraudulent. The Commission found that the October 25 first-round presidential vote was plagued by irregularities and a high presumption of fraud. The Commission recommended sweeping changes to the electoral machine, including a new nine-member electoral body. CIEVE recommended a do-over, also including legislative and local elections.
At the 01 June 2016 daily press briefing, the spokesman for the State Department John Kirby responding to a question on the position of the US Government, following the recommendation of the Independent Commission of Evaluation and Electoral Verification (CIEVE) to cancel the first round of the presidential election in Haiti. "As we’ve said before, the Haitian people deserve to have their voices heard and their needs met through a democratically elected president. We continue to believe that they urgently need to complete this process with a democratically elected government to address the challenges that Haiti continues to face. We urge the provisional electoral council to publish on June 6th, if not sooner, the revised electoral calendar establishing a date for prompt installation of the president-elect. Although this is a Haitian-led process, the longer it takes for Haiti to have a democratically elected president, the longer it’s going to take for the United States to consider new elements of partnership in helping Haiti confront the mounting economic, climate, and health challenges that they continue to face today."
The Provisional Electoral Council (CEP) of Leopold Berlanger, on 06 June 2016, announced a do-over first round of presidential elections for October 9, 2016 and a second round on January 8, instead of fixing a date for the holding of the second round of the 2015 election between Jovenel Moïse (PHTK) and Celestin (LAPEH) according to final results published. These recommendations come after the international community coughed up more than $70 million to organize the new elections.
Several hundred supporters of former President Michel Martelly’s Haitian Tet Kale Party protested 08 June 2016 in Port-au-Prince yesterday after the results of last year’s election were nixed. The European Union announced 08 June 2016 that that it was leaving Haiti and ending its election observation mission because it disagreed with the country’s decision to nullify and redo the 2015 elections. The European Commission Vice President, Federica Mogherini, said “the conditions were not met for the continuation of its activities in Haiti.” In a separate statement, the head of the observation mission, Elena Valenciano, said the work of Haiti’s independent commission “had many factual, legal, methodological and conceptual weakness.”
Interim president Jocelerme Privert succeeded Michel Martelly when he stepped down without a successor in February 2016. Privert’s term was scheduled to end 14 June 2016. Privert said he will stay in office until 2017 to transfer power to an elected president unless parliament rules otherwise. The majority of support Privert enjoyed in the Senate would make his departure by legislative vote difficult to obtain. But some members of the Chamber of Deputies, the Lower House of the Legislature, approached June 14 as a day where the term of the Provisional Head of State ends, with or without a vote.
On 07 July 2016 the US Government announced it had suspended its assistance toward completion of the presidential electoral process there, though it made notification to government officials in Haiti on 01 July 2016. The US had provided over $30 million in assistance to the 2015 Haiti electoral cycle, and did not plan funding for two more electoral rounds in 2016-2017, per the revised electoral calendar. Suspension of US electoral financial assistance did not signal a reduction in US support for the people or development of Haiti; rather, it enabled the United States to retain vital humanitarian and development programs that help ordinary Haitians improve their lives.
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