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Xi Jinping

On 15 November 2012 it was announced that Xi Jinping has succeeded Hu Jintao, taking over his top positions as head of the Communist Party and the Partys powerful Central Military Commission. Appointment as President and chair of the state Central Military Commission would follow at the National Party Congress in March 2013. Xi Jinping is representative of the Princeling Faction - children of senior party leaders, currently has the upper hand.

Chinese Vice President Xi Jinping was appointed Vice-Chairman of the Central Military Commission (CMC) of the Communist Party of China (CPC). The Fifth Plenary Session of the 17th CPC Central Committee announced in a communique at the close of the four-day meeting 18 October 2010 that the CMC was augmented to include Xi as a Vice-Chairman. While Mr. Xi's appointment will have little immediate effect on Xi's power, as Hu Jiantao and his top generals are expected to remain in control of the nations military, Hu is likely to retire in late 2012 and it is largely suspected that Mr. Xi will take China's top job then. Where Hu Jiantao's appointment to General Secretary of the CPC was largely due to the powerful Deng Xiaopeng with minimal input from the then current General Secretary Jiang Zemin, Mr. Xi's appointment came at the strong suggestion of the current General Secretary, Hu Jiantao.

Xi Jinping emerged as a compromise choice for CCP General Secretary, due both to his popularity with Party Elders and prominent members of the Shanghai Faction, as well as to his acceptability to the Hu-Wen leadership team and their supporters.

Xi Jinping, an ethnic Han and native of Fuping in Shaanxi Province, was born in June 1953. Xi graduated from the School of Humanities and Social Sciences of Tsinghua University, majoring in Marxist theory and ideological education. Xi holds an LLD degree through an on-the-job postgraduate education program. Upon completing his LLD he joined the CPC in January 1974.

Mr. Xi is the son of the late Xi Zhongxun, who was a senior official under Mao during the Chinese Communist revolution. This lineage makes Xi a member of the informal "princeling party," a group composed of the sons of party members and leading officials during the early days of the Chinese Communist revolution. Princelings are favored by party leaders because their strong connection to the Chinese Communist Party and ensuring the party remains in power. Xi used his status as a Princling to become an assistant to the defense minister who was a colleague of his father.

Xi Jinpings father was Xi Zhongxun was purged by Mao in 1962. Xi was deeply affected by the experience of his father, a revolutionary hero who was jailed by Mao in the 1960s and rehabilitated after his death. Xi worked harder than many contemporaries to prove their allegiance to Mao as a young man, and was left with a heightened sense of how to get ahead in Chinese politics. The elder Xi was rehabilitated after Maos death in part due to assistance from Hu Jintaos patron Hu Yaobang and served as Governor of Guangdong from 1979-1981, where he played a major role in supporting economic reforms.

From 1969-1975 Xi worked as an educated youth sent to the countryside at Liangjiahe Brigade, Wen'anyi Commune, Yanchuan County, Shaanxi Province, and served as Party branch secretary. In 1975 Xi became a Student of basic organic synthesis at the Chemical Engineering Department of Tsinghua University. Upon graduation in 1979 Xi became a secretary at the General Office of the State Council and the General Office of the Central Military Commission (as an officer in active service). Xi was promoted in 1982 to Deputy secretary of the CPC Zhengding County Committee, Hebei Province and promoted again in 1983 to Secretary of the CPC Zhengding County Committee, Hebei Province, first political commissar and first secretary of the Party committee of people's armed forces department of Zhengding County.

In 1985 Xi became a Member of the Standing Committee of the Municipal Party Committee and vice mayor of Xiamen, Fujian Province. Then in 1988 Xi became Secretary of the CPC Ningde Prefectural Committee, Fujian Province, first secretary of the Party committee of Ningde Sub-Military Area Command. Xi became Secretary of the CPC Fuzhou Municipal Committee and chairman of the Standing Committee of the Fuzhou Municipal People's Congress, Fujian Province, first secretary of the Party committee of Fuzhou Sub-Military Area Command in 1990.

Xi became a Member of the Standing Committee of the CPC Fujian Provincial Committee, secretary of the CPC Fuzhou Municipal Committee and chairman of the Standing Committee of the Fuzhou Municipal People's Congress, first secretary of the Party committee of Fuzhou Sub-Military Area Command in 1993.

In 1995 Xi was promoted to Deputy secretary of the CPC Fujian Provincial Committee, secretary of the CPC Fuzhou Municipal Committee and chairman of the Standing Committee of the Fuzhou Municipal People's Congress, first secretary of the Party committee of Fuzhou Sub-Military Area Command and in 1996 Xi was promoted again to Deputy secretary of the CPC Fujian Provincial Committee, first political commissar of antiaircraft artillery reserve division of Fujian Provincial Military Area Command.

Xi served as Deputy secretary of the CPC Fujian Provincial Committee and acting governor of Fujian Province, vice director of commission for national defense mobilization of Nanjing Military Area Command, director of Fujian Provincial commission for national defense mobilization, first political commissar of antiaircraft artillery reserve division of Fujian Provincial Military Area Command in 1999-2000.

From 2000-2002 Deputy secretary of the CPC Fujian Provincial Committee and governor of Fujian Province, vice director of commission for national defense mobilization of Nanjing Military Area Command, director of Fujian Provincial commission for national defense mobilization, first political commissar of antiaircraft artillery reserve division of Fujian Provincial Military Area Command (1998-2002 Studied Marxist theory and ideological education in an on-the-job postgraduate program at the School of Humanities and Social Sciences of Tsinghua University and graduated with an LLD degree).

In 2002 Xi became the Deputy secretary of the CPC Zhejiang Provincial Committee and acting governor of Zhejiang Province, vice director of commission for national defense mobilization of Nanjing Military Area Command, director of Zhejiang Provincial commission for national defense mobilization and was promoted in 2002 to the Secretary of the CPC Zhejiang Provincial Committee and acting governor of Zhejiang Province, first secretary of the Party committee of Zhejiang Provincial Military Area Command, vice director of commission for national defense mobilization of Nanjing Military Area Command, director of Zhejiang Provincial commission for national defense mobilization. From 2003-2007 Xi served as Secretary of the CPC Zhejiang Provincial Committee and chairman of the Standing Committee of the Zhejiang Provincial People's Congress, first secretary of the Party committee of Zhejiang Provincial Military Area Command.

For 7 months in 2007 Xi was Secretary of the CPC Shanghai Municipal Committee, first secretary of the Party committee of Shanghai Garrison. After Shanghai Xi became a Member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee, president of Party School of the CPC Central Committee. In 2008 Xi became a Member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee, vice president of the People's Republic of China and president of Party School of the CPC Central Committee. as of 2003 Xi served as an alternate member of the Fifteenth CPC Central Committee, and member of the Sixteenth CPC Central Committee. Member of the Seventeenth CPC Central Committee, member of the Political Bureau and its Standing Committee, and member of the Secretariat of the Seventeenth CPC Central Committee. Xi was elected vice president of the People's Republic of China at the First Session of the 11th National People's Congress.

Xi was a member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee, vice president of the People's Republic of China, vice chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission and president of Party School of the CPC Central Committee. Xi has served as the party leader in China's more prosperous provinces of Fujian and Zhejiang, completed 7 months as the party leader in Shanghai, and presided over the 2008 Olympics in Beijing.

Some refer to Xi as a silent liberal and suspect Xi supports private enterprise, having been influenced by his father's reformist credentials. While in Zhejiang province, Xi supported a team of senior researchers to compose a six-volume work called "The Zhejiang Experience and its Implication for the Development of China". "The Zhejiang Experience" states the importance of setting up party cells within private enterprises and even suggests experiments with grassroots democracy within the party and local governments.

Jayadeva Ranade noted that Xi Jinpings attempt to demonstrate that he will have a visibly different style of leadership came within a month of his being appointed General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and Chairman of the powerful Central Military Commission (CMC) by the 18th Party Congress, which was held in Beijing from November 8-14, 2012.

President Xi Jinping is supreme on the Standing Committee, which consists of the seven top leaders of the Chinese Communist Party. President Xi Jinping's one-man leadership style means that he appears to make the big decisions on national security to challenge American primacy in the Asia-Pacific region and establish a China-centric alternative without consultation with other senior leaders.

With power concentrated in one mans hands, foreign policy is decided by his strategic personality and his political beliefs. Xi's predecessors, Jiang Zemin [1993-2003] and Hu Jintao [2003-2013], made decisions collectively with the Standing Committee. Xi's use of Maoist imagery, rhetoric and strategy sets him apart from his two predecessors who both emphasized collective leadership.

Elizabeth C. Economy notes that "Xi has moved quickly to amass political power and to become, within the Chinese leadership, not first among equals but simply first.... Unlike previous presidents, who have let their premiers act as the states authority on the economy, Xi has assumed that role for himself. He has also taken a highly personal command of the Chinese military..."

"President Xi Jinping has made a lot of enemies at the helm of Chinas Communist Party, and they could use the slightest misstep ... as an opportunity for payback. Analysts say Xis position in the opaque politics of the ruling party is more precarious than it seems from the outside... the legacy of his sharp-elbowed rise to the top could make matters even more problematic"



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