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F-X BR / FX-2

The Brazilian government announced 18 December 2013 the selection of Gripen NG.

The new generation F-X fighter program is one of Brazil's most important military modernization efforts. On November 4, 2007 the F-X Project was revived. In January 2008, Brazil’s President Lula authorized Brazilian Air Force Commander Juniti Saito to restart the long-delayed F-X fighter replacement program. As of late 2008 a decision was to be made in March 2009, with a final contract award in October of 2009. But in 2011 Brazil postponed the expected purchase to 2012, citing the need for budget cuts in 2011 due to the deteriorating world economy.

The fighter jet saga was spurred by the release of the Brazilian National Defense Strategy in December 2008. Amidst all the concerns to deal with, in Air Force development, the item that inspires more active and pressing efforts is the way to substitute the current fighter aircraft in the period 2015-2025, as to extend their life by modernizing their weapon systems, their avionics and parts of their structure and fuselage no longer exists. Brazil, in that matter, faces the current dilemma all over the world: maintain the priority of future capacities over the current expenses, without tolerating air unprotection. It is necessary to invest in the capacities that ensure independent production potential of its air defense means. It cannot, however, accept the lack of an air shield while it gathers the conditions to gain such independence. The solution to be given to this problem is so important, and exerts so different effects on the country’s strategic situation in South America and in the world, that it transcends a mere discussion on equipment acquisition and deserves to be understood as a part of the National Strategy of Defense.

The generic principle of the solution is that of refusing extreme solutions – either merely purchasing a “fifth generation” fighter aircraft in the international market, or sacrificing the purchase to invest in the modernization of the existing aircraft, in unmanned aerial vehicle projects, in the joint development of a futurist manned jet fighter prototype along with another country, and in the massive training of the scientific and technical personnel. A hybrid solution seems to be convenient. A solution that provides fighter aircrafts within the necessary time period, but doing this in a way to create the conditions for the national manufacturing of advanced manned jet fighters.

This hybrid solution may meet either of two models. Although these two models may theoretically co-exist, in practical terms one of them shall prevail upon the other. Both exceed by far the conventional limits of purchasing along with technology transfer, or “off-set”, and involve a substantial initiative in terms of design and manufacturing in Brazil. They achieve the same goals via different pathways.

According to the first model, a partnership would be established, with one or more countries, to design and manufacture in Brazil the substitute for a fifth-generation jet fighter on sale in the international market, within the relevant timeframe. The substitute would be designed and made in a way to overcome the significant technical and operational limitations of the current version of that aircraft (its operation range, its limitations in terms of vectored thrust, its lack of low radar signature, for example). The solution in focus would provide simultaneous responses to both the problems of technical limitation and technological independence.

According to the second model, a fifth-generation jet fighter would be purchased in a negotiation involving the full transfer of technology, including the aircraft’s design and manufacturing technologies, and their relevant “source-codes.” The purchase would be made at the minimum necessary scale allowing the full transfer of these technologies. A Brazilian company starts producing a substitute for that purchased aircraft, under the guidance of the Brazilian State, authorized by prior negotiation with the selling country and company. The solution in focus would occur in a sequence, and not concurrently.

The choice of either model is a matter of circumstance and negotiation. Another point that might be decisive is the need of choosing an option that minimizes technological or political dependence related to any vendor that, by holding the aircraft components to be purchased or modernized, may intend, because of this participation, to inhibit or influence on defense initiatives unleashed by Brazil.

The Brazilian Air Force had 110 jets dating from the 1970s and 1980s that are too old and outdated for a country whose needs include patrolling 5 million square miles of territory, 10.5 million miles of national border, and vast offshore oil platforms. Brazil's most modern aircraft were 12 French Mirage 2000s, purchased second-hand and approaching their retirement dates. By contrast, neighbors Chile and Venezuela had 29 F-16s and 24 Sukhoi 30s respectively, both representing the most advanced models available. With Hugo Chavez buying over $3 billion in aircraft, tanks, and assault weapons from Russia, Brazil also sought to enhance its regional military capabilities.

Now known as Project FX-2 and with a bigger budget, the initial competitors for acquisition were the Eurofighter Typhoon, Sukhoi Su-35, Saab Gripen, Dassault Rafale, Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and, although information on Lockheed Martin's F-35 Lightning II was requested, Lockheed Martin presented an F-16 Fighting Falcon variant (designated F-16BR). In October 2008 Brazil's F-X2 fighter competition eliminated three of the six bidders as the focus shifts to scrutinising the technology transfer and offset proposals for each of the finalists Boeing's F/A-18E/F Super Hornet was a finalist along with the French Rafale and the Swedish Gripen. Five criteria will be used to make a decision: the quality of the platform, the technology being offered, the training being offered, the price, and the life-cycle cost.

The outstanding performance and capabilities of the Typhoon are not always a requirement for every Air Force. The Eurofighter Typhoon and the Rafale were more (in terms of performance and cost) than Brazil needed which explains why the Eurofighter Typhoon was discounted from the Brazil competition early. The Air Forces of India, Japan, Switzerland and Greece among others, may have different requirements to Brazil.

Brazil wanted to be the only South American country to produce and develop jet fighters. Brazil had an aerospace industry but it would need several things from other counries such as engines, avionoics, radars ect. Without these, all you have is an airframe. Also, Brazil won't be buying many, so the unit cost of each aircraft would be substantial. Brazil's best option was to find a country that is looking for a similar aircraft and co-develop it with them, then import the engines, avionics and radars.

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