AN/SPY-6(V) Air and Missile Defense Radar (AMDR)
Air & Missile Defense Radar (A&MD Radar)
The Air and Missile Defense Radar (AMDR) was initially being developed to support Theater Air and Missile Defense requirements as part of a next generation cruiser, CG(X), radar suite. The culmination of over a decade of Navy investment in advanced radar technology, AMDR is being designed for Flight III Arleigh Burke (DDG 51) class destroyers beginning in 2016.
The AMDR will provide multi-mission capabilities, supporting both long range, exoatmospheric detection, tracking and discrimination of ballistic missiles, as well as Area and Self Defense against air and surface threats. For the BMD capability, increased radar sensitivity and bandwidth over the current SPY-1 system is needed to detect, track and support engagements of advanced ballistic missile threats at the required ranges.
For the Area Air Defense and Self Defense capability, increased sensitivity and clutter rejection capability is needed to detect, react to, and engage stressing Very Low Observable / Very Low Flyer (VLO/VLF) threats in the presence of heavy land, sea, and rain clutter. This effort provides for the development of an active phased array radar with the required capabilities to pace the evolving threat. Modularity of hardware and software, a designed in growth path for technology insertion, and Open Architecture (OA) Compliance are required for performance and technology enhancements throughout service life.
AMDR provides greater detection ranges and increased discrimination accuracy compared to the AN/SPY-1D(V) radar onboard today’s destroyers. The system is built with individual ‘building blocks’ called Radar Modular Assemblies. Each RMA is a self-contained radar transmitter and receiver in a 2’x2’x2’ box. These RMAs stack together to fit the required array size of any ship, making AMDR the Navy’s first truly scalable radar.
This advanced radar comprises:
- S-band radar – a new, integrated air and missile defense radar
- X-band radar – a horizon-search radar based on existing technology
- The Radar Suite Controller (RSC) – a new component to manage radar resources and integrate with the ship’s combat management system
- Scalable to suit any size aperture or mission requirement
- Over 30 times more sensitive than AN/SPY-1D(V)
- Can simultaneously handle over 30 times the targets than AN/SPY-1D(V) to counter large and complex raids
- Adaptive digital beamforming and radar signal/data processing functionality is reprogrammable to adapt to new missions or emerging threats
AMDR’s performance and reliability are a direct result of more than 10 years of investment in core technologies, leveraging development, testing and production of high-powered Gallium Nitride (GaN) semiconductors, distributed receiver exciters, and adaptive digital beamforming. AMDR’s GaN components cost 34% less than Gallium Arsenide alternatives, deliver higher power density and efficiency, and have demonstrated meantime between failures at an impressive 100 million hours.
. AMDR has a fully programmable, back-end radar controller built out of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) x86 processors. This programmability allows the system to adapt to emerging threats. The commercial nature of the x86 processors simplifies obsolescence replacement – as opposed to costly technical refresh/upgrades and associated downtime – savings that lower radar sustainment costs over each ship’s service life. AMDR has an extremely high predicted operational availability due to the reliable GaN transmit/receive modules, the low mean-time-to-repair rate, and a very low number of Line Replaceable Units. Designed for maintainability, standard LRU replacement in the RMA can be accomplished in under six minutes – requiring only two tools.
Inefficiencies in Radar transmitters lead to large prime power and cooling requirements for Radars. The resulting RADAR prime power and cooling needs have a significant impact on Radar weight, deckhouse volume, and cost and in turn can drive platform design. These problems are exacerbated for Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) applications requiring long pulse lengths. Power amplifier (PA) inefficiencies are the driving factor for transmitter inefficiencies and improvements in power amplifier efficiency will provide significant Radar and platform benefits.
Plans for the Air and Missile Defense Radar are to leverage research and development investments, integrate sufficiently matured fundamental advanced technologies from technology risk reduction efforts and allies, and incorporate Open Architecture approaches to develop a scalable radar design with major improvements in power, sensitivity, resistance to natural and man-made environments over curren radar systems for multi-mission TAMD (BMD and Area AAW). System design will be accomplished using proven advanced technologies and commercial standards to lower schedule risk and develop a product with the lowest life-cycle cost.
PE 0604501N Advanced Above Water Sensors was established for the FY2008 President's Budget. Previous Budget Submissions were PE 0604307N AEGIS Combat System Engineering - project 3044 / Solid State SPY Radar and PE 0603513N / Shipboard System Component Development - project 4019 / Radar Upgrades. Air and Missile Defense Radar funding was transferred from Project 3044 within PE 0604307N starting in FY2008 to PE0604501N Advanced Above Water Sensors Project 3186.
By 2007 R&D / Risk Reduction contractors were Raytheon, Northrop Grumman, and Lockheed Martin. Through support of the Congress and some work with the acquisition team, the Navy had used Cobra Judy, the replacement ship for ballistic missile defense data collection, as a pathway, along with the DD(X) Dual Band Radar and combat system work, to set a stage for a competition in the combat system and radar suite on CG(X).
As of early 2007 the Air & Missile Defense Radar (A&MD Radar) advanced radar system was being developed as the primary air and missile defense radar for the Navy's next generation cruiser, CG(X), according to the 2007 edition of Sea Power For A New Era, which is virtually the only attestation for this form of the program name. The A&MD RADAR is being developed as a competitive program, with requirements definition underway in 2007, along with several risk-reduction projects [Next-Generation Maritime Air & Missile Defense / Multi-Function Advanced Active Phased-Array Radar - terms of art not elsewhere attested] to mature technologies for this advanced radar. The design and development after competitor down-select will lead to EDM development, testing, and production to support the IOC for CG(X).
In May 2007 Navy Secretary Donald C. Winter told a San Diego audience that service officials are studying the possibility of nuclear power for a new class of cruisers, a strategy that has drawn congressional interest. "We are folding in a nuclear option, a nuclear power option, into the analysis of alternatives that's ongoing for the next-generation cruiser, the CGX," Winter told a May 16 breakfast meeting of the Military Affairs Council in San Diego. Winter said the preliminary analysis of a nuclear-powered cruiser suggests the biggest power drain isn't on keeping the ship running but in maintaining the constant operation of the large Air and Missile Defense Radar that's planned.
The FY2009 budget submit noted that the title of the PU 3186 / Air and Missile Defense Radar under 0605863N / RDT&E Ship and Aircraft Support was misleading. When funding PU was established of FY 2008, it was mislabeled in the database. Establishment of a new PU name (T&E Enterprise), with a new title was established as PU 3206 and FY09 and out funding was moved to that line. This project provides Test and Evaluation Enterprise efforts for DDG 1000, LHA 6, CVN 78, and LCS programs. The T&E Enterprise solution integrates Self Defense Test Ship, Probability of Raid Annihilation Test Bed, and lead and operational ship at-sea test events across combat system variants to eliminate duplication and minimize combat system testing across ship classes.
On October 10, 2013, Raytheon was awarded a $385,742,176 cost-plus-incentive-fee contract for the engineering and modeling development phase design, development, integration, test and delivery of Air and Missile Defense S-Band Radar (AMDR-S) and Radar Suite Controller (RSC). AMDR is the Navy's next generation integrated air and missile defense radar and is being designed for Flight III Arleigh Burke (DDG 51) class destroyers beginning in 2016.
Under the contract, Raytheon will build, integrate and test the AMDR-S and RSC Engineering Development Models (EDMs). For the ship sets covered under this contract, the AMDR suite will integrate with the existing AN/SPQ-9B X-band radar. The base contract begins with design work leading to Preliminary Design Review and culminates with system acceptance of the AMDR-S and RSC engineering development models at the end of testing. This contract includes options which, if exercised, would bring the cumulative value of this contract to $1,633,363,781. Previously appropriated FY13 funding in the amount of $156,960,000 will be obligated at time of award. This contract includes options for manufacturing low-rate initial production systems which may be exercised following Milestone C planned for fiscal year 2017.
On 13 January 2014 Raytheon received a resume work order from the U.S. Navy to commence development of the new Air and Missile Defense Radar. The order followed the official Government Accountability Office update of its database to reflect the status of the AMDR contract award protest as withdrawn.
The Navy's Air and Missile Defense Radar (AMDR) Program successfully completed a Hardware Delta Preliminary Design Review (PDR) in conjunction with the prime contractor, Raytheon, in Tewksbury, Massachusetts, 21 May 2014. The Hardware Delta PDR was the first major design review on this contract. Completed on schedule, this "delta" review was focused on design updates since the PDR conducted during the Technology Development Phase. It demonstrated that the preliminary AMDR hardware design will meet its allocated requirements with acceptable risk and within cost and schedule constraints. The AMDR program now proceeds to a Software/System Delta PDR as well as to detailed hardware design efforts to support a Critical Design Review planned for later in 2014.
The U.S. Navy and Raytheon Company completed the AN/SPY-6(V) Air and Missile Defense Radar (AMDR) critical design review in May 2015. The outcome confirmed Raytheon’s design and technologies as mature, producible and low risk; on track to meet all radar performance requirements, on schedule and within cost.
The CDR assessed all technical aspects of the program, from hardware specifications, software development, risk mitigation and producibility analysis, to program management, test and evaluation schedules, and cost assessments. The review concluded with Navy stakeholders impressed with the radar’s progress to date and confident in the program’s path forward to on-time delivery.
“This successful milestone is the culmination of our team’s unwavering focus on continuous technology maturity, risk mitigation and cost reduction throughout all phases of development,” said Raytheon’s Kevin Peppe, vice president of Integrated Defense Systems’ Seapower Capability Systems business area. “With customer validation in hand, we will now advance production, driving toward the ultimate – and timely – delivery of this highly capable and much-needed integrated air and missile defense radar capability to the DDG 51 Flight III destroyer.”
The Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) phase of the program continues and was more than 40 percent complete. Raytheon attributed its performance to the implementation of an Agile development and management methodology for AMDR. This approach supported the ongoing hardware and software design verification, technology maturity, producibility, and risk-reduction imperatives – yielding benefits across all program elements in productivity, quality and affordability.
All aspects of the AMDR EMD phase were progressing according to plan, from software development to pilot array testing. The first Engineering Development Model production-representative Radar Modular Assembly (RMA) was undergoing testing in the risk-reduction pilot array at the company’s Near Field Range inSudbury, Mass.
The team also delivered the first external combat system interface definition language increment to the Combat System Integration Working Group – the Government-industry team comprised of Raytheon, Navy and Lockheed Martin experts that was focused on AMDR integration with the DDG 51 Flight III’s AEGIS combat system.
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