Solid State SPY Radar
Air and Missile Defense Radar (AMDR)
Air & Missile Defense Radar (A&MD Radar)
Next-Generation Maritime Air & Missile Defense
Multi-Function Advanced Active Phased-Array Radar
The Air and Missile Defense Radar (AMDR) is being developed to support Theater Air and Missile Defense requirements as part of a next generation cruiser, CG(X), radar suite. The AMDR [a program which is not widely attested] will provide multi-mission capabilities, supporting both long range, exoatmospheric detection, tracking and discrimination of ballistic missiles, as well as Area and Self Defense against air and surface threats. For the BMD capability, increased radar sensitivity and bandwidth over the current SPY-1 system is needed to detect, track and support engagements of advanced ballistic missile threats at the required ranges. For the Area Air Defense and Self Defense capability, increased sensitivity and clutter rejection capability is needed to detect, react to, and engage stressing Very Low Observable / Very Low Flyer (VLO/VLF) threats in the presence of heavy land, sea, and rain clutter. This effort provides for the development of an active phased array radar with the required capabilities to pace the evolving threat. Modularity of hardware and software, a designed in growth path for technology insertion, and Open Architecture (OA) Compliance are required for performance and technology enhancements throughout service life.
Inefficiencies in Radar transmitters lead to large prime power and cooling requirements for Radars. The resulting RADAR prime power and cooling needs have a significant impact on Radar weight, deckhouse volume, and cost and in turn can drive platform design. These problems are exacerbated for Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) applications requiring long pulse lengths. Power amplifier (PA) inefficiencies are the driving factor for transmitter inefficiencies and improvements in power amplifier efficiency will provide significant Radar and platform benefits.
Plans for the Air and Missile Defense Radar are to leverage research and development investments, integrate sufficiently matured fundamental advanced technologies from technology risk reduction efforts and allies, and incorporate Open Architecture approaches to develop a scalable radar design with major improvements in power, sensitivity, resistance to natural and man-made environments over curren radar systems for multi-mission TAMD (BMD and Area AAW). System design will be accomplished using proven advanced technologies and commercial standards to lower schedule risk and develop a product with the lowest life-cycle cost.
PE 0604501N Advanced Above Water Sensors was established for the FY2008 President's Budget. Previous Budget Submissions were PE 0604307N AEGIS Combat System Engineering - project 3044 / Solid State SPY Radar and PE 0603513N / Shipboard System Component Development - project 4019 / Radar Upgrades. Air and Missile Defense Radar funding was transferred from Project 3044 within PE 0604307N starting in FY2008 to PE0604501N Advanced Above Water Sensors Project 3186.
By 2007 R&D / Risk Reduction contractors were Raytheon, Northrop Grumman, and Lockheed Martin. Through support of the Congress and some work with the acquisition team, the Navy had used Cobra Judy, the replacement ship for ballistic missile defense data collection, as a pathway, along with the DD(X) Dual Band Radar and combat system work, to set a stage for a competition in the combat system and radar suite on CG(X).
As of early 2007 the Air & Missile Defense Radar (A&MD Radar) advanced radar system was being developed as the primary air and missile defense radar for the Navy's next generation cruiser, CG(X), according to the 2007 edition of Sea Power For A New Era, which is virtually the only attestation for this form of the program name. The A&MD RADAR is being developed as a competitive program, with requirements definition underway in 2007, along with several risk-reduction projects [Next-Generation Maritime Air & Missile Defense / Multi-Function Advanced Active Phased-Array Radar - terms of art not elsewhere attested] to mature technologies for this advanced radar. The design and development after competitor down-select will lead to EDM development, testing, and production to support the IOC for CG(X).
In May 2007 Navy Secretary Donald C. Winter told a San Diego audience that service officials are studying the possibility of nuclear power for a new class of cruisers, a strategy that has drawn congressional interest. "We are folding in a nuclear option, a nuclear power option, into the analysis of alternatives that's ongoing for the next-generation cruiser, the CGX," Winter told a May 16 breakfast meeting of the Military Affairs Council in San Diego. Winter said the preliminary analysis of a nuclear-powered cruiser suggests the biggest power drain isn't on keeping the ship running but in maintaining the constant operation of the large Air and Missile Defense Radar that's planned.
The FY2009 budget submit noted that the title of the PU 3186 / Air and Missile Defense Radar under 0605863N / RDT&E Ship and Aircraft Support was misleading. When funding PU was established of FY 2008, it was mislabeled in the database. Establishment of a new PU name (T&E Enterprise), with a new title was established as PU 3206 and FY09 and out funding was moved to that line. This project provides Test and Evaluation Enterprise efforts for DDG 1000, LHA 6, CVN 78, and LCS programs. The T&E Enterprise solution integrates Self Defense Test Ship, Probability of Raid Annihilation Test Bed, and lead and operational ship at-sea test events across combat system variants to eliminate duplication and minimize combat system testing across ship classes.
S-Band Solid State SPY Radar SS-SPY
The AEGIS SPY-1 radar initially served as the foundation of the Navy's ability to detect and track ballistic missile threats. In the near term, planned upgrades to this radar enhanced its detection and discrimination capabilities for effectively performing the BMD mission. Over the longer term, the advanced solid-state radar to be deployed with CG(X) will provide even greater power, sensitivity and discrimination to enable sea-based detection and tracking to keep pace with the evolving ballistic missile threat.
The Solid State SPY Radar is being developed to support Theater Air and Missile Defense requirements as part of a next generation cruiser, CG(X), radar suite. The S-Band Solid State SPY Radar will provide multi-mission capabilities, supporting both long range, exoatmospheric detection, tracking and discrimination of ballistic missiles, as well as robust Ballistic Missile Defense and Self Defense against air and surface threats. For the BMD capability, increased radar sensitivity and bandwidth over the current SPY-1 system is needed to detect, track and support engagements of advanced ballistic missile threats at the required ranges. For the Ballistic Missile Defense and Self Defense capability, increased sensitivity and clutter rejection capability is needed to detect, react to, and engage stressing Very Low Observable / Very Low Flyer (VLO/VLF) threats in the presence of heavy land, sea, and rain clutter. This effort provides for the development of an S-Band solid state replacement for the SPY-1 Radar with the required capabilities to pace the evolving threat.
Wideband multifunction radars are capable of concurrently performing hemispheric surveillance, tracking and simultaneously illuminating multiple targets in diverse environments. It is widely recognized that only active phased array antenna and radar systems with their inherent waveform flexibility, high stability and beam switching speed can successfully cope with this broad mission.
Conventionally, shipborne radar systems are a single integral unit with travelling wave tube amplifiers for high power, high frequency applications. Such units have to be substantially redesigned for each change in application. Providing for graceful degradation by providing multiple components to avoid a single point failure is expensive. Similarly, repair of the unit typically requires removal of the entire electronic assembly for shop repair.
In other applications, solid state devices are sometimes used in a radar transmitter. Low power applications with relatively low coherency requirements can use IMPATT diodes. Low frequency (and usually low power) applications can use silicon bipolar transistors. For example, a Westinghouse SPS-40 requires about 4 m3 (135 cu. ft.) for a transmitter producing 300 KW peak and 5 KW average and thus is practically limited to shipboard use in mobile applications. However, improvements in the reliability and ease of maintenance of high power, high frequency radar transmitters are desired.
Such a solid state radar system consists of elements comprising system control means for controlling operation of the radar system; radio frequency means for producing a radio frequency signal; a plurality of power modules, each having a plurality of high frequency transistors connected in parallel, for amplifying the radio frequency signal to produce amplifier signals; means for connecting the power modules in parallel to produce a transmitter output signal; amplifier control means for individually controlling the solid state power amplifiers; and receiver means for receiving a return signal and supplying the return signal to the system control means for processing. The power modules, parallel connection means and amplifier control means might form a separate transmitter unit and the receiver is a separate unit. The system control means may be one or more modules including digital and general signal processors and a synchronizer for the system. Other units include a stabilized local oscillator and a regulated power supply.
In one embodiment, each of the power modules in the transmitter includes a power control unit to control operation of the power module using control signals; the power amplifiers, each amplifying the radio frequency signal into an amplified signal in dependence upon the control signals; a power splitter to distribute the radio frequency signal to the power amplifiers; and a power combiner to combine the amplified signal from each of the transistors to form a module output signal. The parallel connection means might include a module splitter for distributing the radio frequency signal from the stabilized local oscillator to each of the power modules and a module combiner for combining the module output signal from each of the power modules to produce the transmitter output signal.
SS-SPY Solid State SPY Radar Program
The Solid State SPY Radar Program was awarded to Lockheed Martin in June 1999 based upon a competitive selection resulting from a Broad Agency Announcement (BAA). This program was for the competition of a prototype radar system. A milestone decision for EDM would be based upon successful completion of this prototype phase.
On 30 July 2003 the Navy decided to use S-Band rather than L-Band technology for the Volume Search Radar that will be on the next-generation destroyer, DD(X). This higher frequency radar would improve the ability of the destroyer to track aircraft and missiles and to counterattack shore-based gun or missile batteries that attempt to strike the ship. "The shift to S-Band technology is a very carefully considered, logical decision which seeks to ensure every investment dollar is leveraged to achieve near term and long term goals," according to the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Research Development and Acquisition John Young.
The decision effectively created a radar road map for the Navy, which draws on extensive, successful experience with S-Band on Aegis, provides enhanced capability for DD(X) as well as a future growth path, and supports the advancement of radar technology necessary for the CG(X) cruiser. Industry partners, Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin, and Raytheon were exceptional in working cooperatively to allow this decision to be made, demonstrating their understanding of the benefits to the Fleet and the priority they place on supporting the Navy and Marine Corps.
DD(X) was not envisioned to perform ballistic missile defense. Its S-Band radar will not have the power output required to fulfill that mission. However, the radar does have the potential to be scaled up in size for possible use on the next-generation cruiser, CG(X), which will have significant ballistic missile defense capability. The shift to S-Band technology was not expected to impact the major milestones for the next-generation destroyer program. The change to S-Band was effected through a contract modification to the existing DD(X) contract with Northrop Grumman Ship Systems. Raytheon and Lockheed Martin are subcontractors under the contract.
Systems Planning and Analysis, Inc. [SPA] applied its expertise in radar technology and open architecture engineering to support the Major Program Manager for Above Water Sensors, Program Executive Office for Integrated Warfare Systems (PEO IWS 2.0)'s acquisition of an advanced multifunction S-Band radar for the next-generation cruiser, CG(X). SPA played key roles on the U.S. Navy's CG(X) Radar Acquisition Team, joining with SPA's Radar and Sensor Group (RSG) in assisting PEO IWS 2.0's navigation of the acquisition process and establishment of the CG(X) Radar Competition. SPA participation allowed the U.S. Navy to directly leverage the significant technical risk mitigation gained from ongoing international cooperative naval radar and open architecture research efforts into the CG(X) acquisition, in turn facilitating lower development and procurement costs.
As of 2004 the SS-SPY Radar Next-generation S-Band Multi-function Active Phased-Array Radar was being developed as a competitive program through two research and development programs : the S-Band Advanced Radar prototype and the Active S-Band Radar program for the USNS Observation Island replacement ship. At that time, down-select for the SS-SPY program was planned for 2009.
RDTEN 0604307N - 3044 Solid State SPY Radar receive $10,931,000 for FY2006, $35,294,000 for FY2007, and no funding thereafter. For FY2008 this funding was reported as "Other Program Funding" for Project 3186 Air and Missile Defense Radar, PE 0604501N Advanced Above Water Sensors.
As of 2006 the SS-SPY advanced radar system was being developed as the primary Air and Missile Defense Radar for the Navy's next- generation cruiser CG(X). It was to be a multi-function, active phased-array radar capable of search, detection, tracking of airborne and ballistic missile targets, and missile engagement support. The advanced functions of this radar include multi-mission performance in a stressing environment that will enable simultaneous defense from all Theater Air and Missile Defense (TAMD) threats. The multi-mission capability will be effective in both air dominance of the battle space (Area Air Warfare) and in defense against ballistic missiles. The SS-SPY Radar was being developed as a competitive program and the requirements definition began in 2006, along with several risk-reduction projects to mature technologies for this advanced radar. The design and development after competitor down-select will lead to EDM development, testing, and production to support the IOC for CG(X).
The 2007 edition of Sea Power For A New Era subsumes the discussion of the requirements for the Solid State SPY Radar contained in the 2006 Sea Power For A New Era under the rubric of Air & Missile Defense Radar, and does not mention a Solid State SPY Radar as a potential candidate for meeting those requirements.
The FY2009 budget submit for 0604307N Surface Combatant Combat System Engineering notes that the Solid State SPY Radar is being developed to support Theater Air and Missile Defense requirements as part of a next generation cruiser, CG(X), radar suite. This effort provides for the development of an S-Band solid state replacement for the SPY-1 Radar with the required capabilities to pace the evolving threat. Modularity of hardware and software, a designed in growth path for technology insertion, and Open Architecture (OA) Compliance are required for performance and technology enhancements throughout service life. Project 3044 funding has been realigned to PE 0604501N starting in FY08.
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