AN/SPY-6(V) Air and Missile Defense Radar (AMDR)
Air & Missile Defense Radar (A&MD Radar)
The Navy's Air and Missile Defense Radar (AMDR) is a next-generation radar system designed to provide ballistic missile defense, air defense, and surface warfare capabilities. AMDR will initially support DDG 51 Flight III. The AMDR suite consists of an S-band radar (AMDR-S) for ballistic missile and air defense, X-band radar, and a Radar Suite Controller (RSC). AMDR-S is a new development Integrated Air and Missile Defense radar providing sensitivity for long range detection and engagement of advanced threats. The X-band radar is a horizon-search radar based on existing technology. The RSC provides S and X band radar resource management, coordination, and interface to the combat system. The Navy expects AMDR to provide a scalable radar architecture that can be used to defeat advanced threats.
The Air and Missile Defense Radar (AMDR) was initially developed to support Theater Air and Missile Defense requirements as part of a next generation cruiser, CG(X), radar suite.
The AMDR will provide multi-mission capabilities, supporting both long range, exoatmospheric detection, tracking and discrimination of ballistic missiles, as well as Area and Self Defense against air and surface threats. For the BMD capability, increased radar sensitivity and bandwidth over the current SPY-1 system is needed to detect, track and support engagements of advanced ballistic missile threats at the required ranges.
For the Area Air Defense and Self Defense capability, increased sensitivity and clutter rejection capability is needed to detect, react to, and engage stressing Very Low Observable / Very Low Flyer (VLO/VLF) threats in the presence of heavy land, sea, and rain clutter. This effort provides for the development of an active phased array radar with the required capabilities to pace the evolving threat. Modularity of hardware and software, a designed in growth path for technology insertion, and Open Architecture (OA) Compliance are required for performance and technology enhancements throughout service life.
AMDR provides greater detection ranges and increased discrimination accuracy compared to the AN/SPY-1D(V) radar onboard today’s destroyers. The system is built with individual ‘building blocks’ called Radar Modular Assemblies. Each RMA is a self-contained radar transmitter and receiver in a 2’x2’x2’ box. These RMAs stack together to fit the required array size of any ship, making AMDR the Navy’s first truly scalable radar.
This advanced radar comprises:
- S-band radar – a new, integrated air and missile defense radar
- X-band radar – a horizon-search radar based on existing technology
- The Radar Suite Controller (RSC) – a new component to manage radar resources and integrate with the ship’s combat management system
- Scalable to suit any size aperture or mission requirement
- Over 30 times more sensitive than AN/SPY-1D(V)
- Can simultaneously handle over 30 times the targets than AN/SPY-1D(V) to counter large and complex raids
- Adaptive digital beamforming and radar signal/data processing functionality is reprogrammable to adapt to new missions or emerging threats
AMDR’s performance and reliability are a direct result of more than 10 years of investment in core technologies, leveraging development, testing and production of high-powered Gallium Nitride (GaN) semiconductors, distributed receiver exciters, and adaptive digital beamforming. AMDR’s GaN components cost 34% less than Gallium Arsenide alternatives, deliver higher power density and efficiency, and have demonstrated meantime between failures at an impressive 100 million hours.
. AMDR has a fully programmable, back-end radar controller built out of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) x86 processors. This programmability allows the system to adapt to emerging threats. The commercial nature of the x86 processors simplifies obsolescence replacement – as opposed to costly technical refresh/upgrades and associated downtime – savings that lower radar sustainment costs over each ship’s service life. AMDR has an extremely high predicted operational availability due to the reliable GaN transmit/receive modules, the low mean-time-to-repair rate, and a very low number of Line Replaceable Units. Designed for maintainability, standard LRU replacement in the RMA can be accomplished in under six minutes – requiring only two tools.
Inefficiencies in radar transmitters lead to large prime power and cooling requirements for radars. The resulting RADAR prime power and cooling needs have a significant impact on radar weight, deckhouse volume, and cost and in turn can drive platform design. These problems are exacerbated for Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) applications requiring long pulse lengths. Power amplifier (PA) inefficiencies are the driving factor for transmitter inefficiencies and improvements in power amplifier efficiency will provide significant Radar and platform benefits.
Plans for the Air and Missile Defense Radar are to leverage research and development investments, integrate sufficiently matured fundamental advanced technologies from technology risk reduction efforts and allies, and incorporate Open Architecture approaches to develop a scalable radar design with major improvements in power, sensitivity, resistance to natural and man-made environments over curren radar systems for multi-mission TAMD (BMD and Area AAW). System design will be accomplished using proven advanced technologies and commercial standards to lower schedule risk and develop a product with the lowest life-cycle cost.
PE 0604501N Advanced Above Water Sensors was established for the FY2008 President's Budget. Previous Budget Submissions were PE 0604307N AEGIS Combat System Engineering - project 3044 / Solid State SPY Radar and PE 0603513N / Shipboard System Component Development - project 4019 / Radar Upgrades. Air and Missile Defense Radar funding was transferred from Project 3044 within PE 0604307N starting in FY2008 to PE0604501N Advanced Above Water Sensors Project 3186.
By 2007 R&D / Risk Reduction contractors were Raytheon, Northrop Grumman, and Lockheed Martin. Through support of the Congress and some work with the acquisition team, the Navy had used Cobra Judy, the replacement ship for ballistic missile defense data collection, as a pathway, along with the DD(X) Dual Band Radar and combat system work, to set a stage for a competition in the combat system and radar suite on CG(X).
As of early 2007 the Air & Missile Defense Radar (A&MD Radar) advanced radar system was being developed as the primary air and missile defense radar for the Navy's next generation cruiser, CG(X), according to the 2007 edition of Sea Power For A New Era, which is virtually the only attestation for this form of the program name. The A&MD RADAR is being developed as a competitive program, with requirements definition underway in 2007, along with several risk-reduction projects [Next-Generation Maritime Air & Missile Defense / Multi-Function Advanced Active Phased-Array Radar - terms of art not elsewhere attested] to mature technologies for this advanced radar. The design and development after competitor down-select will lead to EDM development, testing, and production to support the IOC for CG(X).
In May 2007 Navy Secretary Donald C. Winter told a San Diego audience that service officials are studying the possibility of nuclear power for a new class of cruisers, a strategy that has drawn congressional interest. "We are folding in a nuclear option, a nuclear power option, into the analysis of alternatives that's ongoing for the next-generation cruiser, the CGX," Winter told a May 16 breakfast meeting of the Military Affairs Council in San Diego. Winter said the preliminary analysis of a nuclear-powered cruiser suggests the biggest power drain isn't on keeping the ship running but in maintaining the constant operation of the large Air and Missile Defense Radar that's planned.
The FY2009 budget submit noted that the title of the PU 3186 / Air and Missile Defense Radar under 0605863N / RDT&E Ship and Aircraft Support was misleading. When funding PU was established of FY 2008, it was mislabeled in the database. Establishment of a new PU name (T&E Enterprise), with a new title was established as PU 3206 and FY09 and out funding was moved to that line. This project provides Test and Evaluation Enterprise efforts for DDG 1000, LHA 6, CVN 78, and LCS programs. The T&E Enterprise solution integrates Self Defense Test Ship, Probability of Raid Annihilation Test Bed, and lead and operational ship at-sea test events across combat system variants to eliminate duplication and minimize combat system testing across ship classes.
The AMDR suite will be delivered through three separate acquisition programs. The AMDR-S/RSC portion received Milestone B approval in October 2013 and was designated an Acquisition Category ID program. For the first 12 ship sets, the X-band radar will be delivered via the AN/SPQ-9B program. For ship sets 13-22, the program office will establish a separately executed program to develop, integrate and test, and procure future X-Band radar sets.
In June 2009, after full and open competition, the program awarded three AMDR-S/RSC Concept Studies (CS) contracts to Lockheed Martin, Raytheon and Northrop Grumman. Each of the three contractors developed concepts for AMDR showing the major subsystems and expected features of the AMDR Suite. Under these contracts, each contractor: reviewed and provided feedback on the Government’s requirements documents; conducted system engineering trade studies; developed an initial system concept; and developed a draft technology prototype and demonstration plan to achieve Technology Readiness Level 6. The Concept Studies phase concluded December 2009.
The Government used the results of the CS phase to refine performance requirements and identify technical risks in preparation for transition to the Technology Development (TD) phase. In September 2010, the Navy awarded three Technology Development (TD) phase contracts to Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman and Raytheon to refine each contractor's design concepts developed during the Concept Studies phase and to also mature key technologies. Under these contracts, each contractor: demonstrated maturity of AMDR-S critical technologies; conducted system engineering efforts, including studies and analyses, to develop an initial system design to a level sufficient to conduct a Preliminary Design Review (PDR); conducted Technology Demonstration Review to present its test data and analysis of their demonstrations; conducted a Systems Requirements Review (SRR), System Functional Review (SFR), Test Readiness Review; and provided a TD prototype.
The program completed TD contracts in September 2012 and released a Request for Proposals for the E&MD Phase in June 2012. The AMDR program achieved Milestone B in September 2013 and received a signed an Acquisition Decision Memorandum on October 4, 2013. After a full and open competition, an Engineering and Manufacturing Development (E&MD) phase contract was awarded to Raytheon on October 10, 2013. Raytheon was awarded a $385,742,176 cost-plus-incentive-fee contract for the engineering and modeling development phase design, development, integration, test and delivery of Air and Missile Defense S-Band Radar (AMDR-S) and Radar Suite Controller (RSC).
Under the contract, Raytheon will build, integrate and test the AMDR-S and RSC Engineering Development Models (EDMs). For the ship sets covered under this contract, the AMDR suite will integrate with the existing AN/SPQ-9B X-band radar. The base contract begins with design work leading to Preliminary Design Review and culminates with system acceptance of the AMDR-S and RSC engineering development models at the end of testing. This contract includes options which, if exercised, would bring the cumulative value of this contract to $1,633,363,781. Previously appropriated FY13 funding in the amount of $156,960,000 will be obligated at time of award. This contract includes options for manufacturing low-rate initial production systems which may be exercised following Milestone C planned for fiscal year 2017.
Shortly after contract award, one of the unsuccessful offerors filed a bid protest with the Government Accountability Office that was subsequently withdrawn on January 9, 2014. On 13 January 2014 Raytheon received a resume work order from the U.S. Navy to commence development of the new Air and Missile Defense Radar. The order followed the official Government Accountability Office update of its database to reflect the status of the AMDR contract award protest as withdrawn.
The program was a 45-month E&MD contract with Raytheon. The E&MD phase is focusing on the design of the system and development of an affordable and executable manufacturing process leading to a Production Readiness Review. Additional activities during the E&MD phase will include a hardware and a software/system Critical Design Review to assess the completeness of the detailed design and how it supports the performance requirements. E&MD will include integration and test of a single-faced AMDR-S/RSC Engineering Development Model with an AN/SPQ-9B asset at the land-based test site at the Pacific Missile Range Facility in Kauai, HI. The E&MD phase will conclude in an AMDR Milestone C decision.
The Navy's Air and Missile Defense Radar (AMDR) Program successfully completed a Hardware Delta Preliminary Design Review (PDR) in conjunction with the prime contractor, Raytheon, in Tewksbury, Massachusetts, 21 May 2014. The Hardware Delta PDR was the first major design review on this contract. Completed on schedule, this "delta" review was focused on design updates since the PDR conducted during the Technology Development Phase. It demonstrated that the preliminary AMDR hardware design will meet its allocated requirements with acceptable risk and within cost and schedule constraints. The AMDR program now proceeds to a Software/System Delta PDR as well as to detailed hardware design efforts to support a Critical Design Review planned for later in 2014.
In August 2014, AMDR completed its final preliminary design review, which assessed both hardware and software. The total number of design drawings required for AMDR had not been determined and will be finalized at the program's critical design review. However, AMDR officials were confident that the robust technology in the prototype represents the physical dimensions, weight, and power requirements to support DDG 51 Flight III integration. The AMDR program office provided an initial interface control document listing AMDR specifications to the DDG 51 Flight III program office. Ensuring correct AMDR design parameters is important since the available space, weight, power, and cooling for DDG 51 Flight III is constrained, and design efforts for the ship will begin before AMDR is fully matured.
The AMDR radar suite controller requires significant software development, with 1.2 million lines of code and four planned builds. The program also planned to apply an open systems approach to available commercial hardware to decrease development risk and cost. The program office identified that the first of four planned builds is complete, has passed the Navy's formal qualification testing and will enter developmental testing next summer. Each subsequent build will add more functionality and complexity. AMDR will eventually need to interface with the Aegis combat management system found on DDG 51 destroyers. This interface will be developed in later software builds for fielding in 2020, and the Navy plans on conducting early combat system integration and risk reduction testing prior to making a production decision.
The Air and Missile Defense Radar (AMDR) Program successfully completed a Hardware Critical Design Review (CDR) in conjunction with prime contractor, Raytheon, in Sudbury, Massachusetts, 03 December 2014. Completed on schedule, this review assessed the hardware baseline, examining all design information to ensure that the system will meet required specifications within cost and schedule constraints, including readiness to incorporate AMDR into the Flight III of the Arleigh Burke class DDG in fiscal year 2016. The Hardware CDR was a major program milestone - further demonstrating the maturity of the system hardware - and the program now proceeded to production of the Engineering Development Model full-scale array beginning in the spring of 2015.
By 2015 all four of AMDR's critical technologies — digital- beam-forming; transmit-receive modules; software; and digital receivers/exciters — were approaching full maturity, and program officials stated that AMDR was on pace to meet DDG 51 Flight III's schedule requirements.
In 2015, the contractor expected to complete an engineering development model consisting of a single full-sized 14 foot radar array — as opposed to the final four array configuration planned for installation on DDG 51 Flight III — and begin testing in the contractor's indoor facilities.
The Air and Missile Defense Radar (AMDR) program, AN/SPY-6(V), successfully completed its System Critical Design Review (CDR) 29 April 2015 the Navy reported 15 May 2015. The review assessed the complete radar system design baseline including its readiness for incorporation into Flight III of the Arleigh Burke (DDG 51) class guided-missile destroyer. The CDR assessed system performance, and included a thorough review of all design information to ensure that the system will meet required specifications within cost and schedule constraints.
Following the critical design review the program planned to install the array in the Navy's land-based radar test facility in Hawaii for further testing in a more representative environment. However, the Navy had no plans to test AMDR in a realistic (at-sea) environment prior to installation on the lead DDG 51 Flight III ship.
The outcome of the critical design review confirmed Raytheon’s design and technologies as mature, producible and low risk; on track to meet all radar performance requirements, on schedule and within cost.
The CDR assessed all technical aspects of the program, from hardware specifications, software development, risk mitigation and producibility analysis, to program management, test and evaluation schedules, and cost assessments. The review concluded with Navy stakeholders impressed with the radar’s progress to date and confident in the program’s path forward to on-time delivery.
“This successful milestone is the culmination of our team’s unwavering focus on continuous technology maturity, risk mitigation and cost reduction throughout all phases of development,” said Raytheon’s Kevin Peppe, vice president of Integrated Defense Systems’ Seapower Capability Systems business area. “With customer validation in hand, we will now advance production, driving toward the ultimate – and timely – delivery of this highly capable and much-needed integrated air and missile defense radar capability to the DDG 51 Flight III destroyer.”
The Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) phase of the program continued and by early 2015 was more than 40 percent complete. Raytheon attributed its performance to the implementation of an Agile development and management methodology for AMDR. This approach supported the ongoing hardware and software design verification, technology maturity, producibility, and risk-reduction imperatives – yielding benefits across all program elements in productivity, quality and affordability.
All aspects of the AMDR EMD phase were progressing according to plan, from software development to pilot array testing. The first Engineering Development Model production-representative Radar Modular Assembly (RMA) was undergoing testing in the risk-reduction pilot array at the company’s Near Field Range inSudbury, Mass.
The team also delivered the first external combat system interface definition language increment to the Combat System Integration Working Group – the Government-industry team comprised of Raytheon, Navy and Lockheed Martin experts that was focused on AMDR integration with the DDG 51 Flight III’s AEGIS combat system.
Though the Navy took some risk reduction measures, there were only 15 months planned to install and test the AMDR prototype prior to making a production decision. Delays may cause compounding effects on testing of upgrades to the Aegis combat system since the Navy plans to use the AMDR engineering development model in combat system integration and testing.
The Developmental Test (DT-2) Test Readiness Review (TRR) was successfully conducted in June 2015. The Engineering Model Design (EMD) array build completed December 2015 and Raytheon is on track to deliver the AMDR S-band array to Pacific Missile Range Facility for Developmental Testing (DT) in Spring 2016.
The contractor is producing an engineering development model consisting of a full-sized, single faced array and the required software. This array will go through testing at the contractor's indoor facilities and then be installed and tested at the Navy's land-based test facility after critical design review—but program officials stated it will not be tested at-sea prior to installation on DDG 51.
The total quantity of systems to sustain is 22. Each system includes four fully populated AMDR-S array faces and a Radar Suite Controller (RSC). Each system will have an operational life of 40 years. The O&S Time Horizon is 50 years (FY 2021 – FY 2070). The antecedent system is AN/SPY-1D(V). AN/SPY-1D(V) has fielded 32 systems, each with a planned service life of 35 years. The planned sustainment strategy for AMDR includes post-delivery routine software maintenance, software updates every two years to address new threats and other emergent capability requirements, Commercial Off The Shelf processing equipment upgrades on an 8-year cycle, and a two-level maintenance philosophy (Organization and Depot).
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