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AIM-9X Sidewinder

The AIM-9X Sidewinder Air-to-Air missile program developed a short range heat seeking weapon to be employed in both offensive and defensive counter-air operations. Offensively, the weapon will assure that US and combined air forces have the ability project the necessary power to insure dominant maneuver. In the defensive counter-air role, the missile system will provide a key capability for force protection. The multi-service Air Intercept Missile (AIM-9X Sidewinder) development will field a high off-boresight capable short range heat seeking missile to be employed on US Air Force and Navy/Marine Corps fighters. The missile will be used both for offensive and defensive counter-air operations as a short range, launch and leave air combat missile that uses infra red guidance. The AIM-9X will complement longer range radar guided missiles such as the Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM). The AIM-9X system design approach incorporates a fifth-generation staring Focal Plane Array seeker for robust guidance performance, and Infrared Countermeasure resistance and jet vane control for extremely agile turning performance.

The new missile is required to reestablish the parity of US aircraft in short range air combat, vis-ŗ-vis improved foreign export aircraft and missiles. Specific deficiencies exist in the current AIM-9M in high off-boresight angle capability, infra-red counter-countermeasures robustness, kinematic performance, and missile maneuverability. The MiG-29 with its AA-10/AA-11 missiles are the major threat to US forces. Additionally, there are a number of other missiles on the world market that outperform the current US inventory AIM-9M weapon system in the critical operational employment areas.

The AIM-9X will expand the capabilities of the current AIM-9M by developing a new seeker imaging infra-red focal plane array, a high performance airframe, and a new signal processor for the seeker/sensor. The current acquisition strategy seeks to retain the warhead, fuze, and rocket motor of the current design in order to capitalize on the large existing inventory of AIM-9 weapons. The F-15C/D and the F/A-18C/D will be the initial platforms for integration and T&E.

The early operational assessment of the Hughes and Raytheon DEMVAL results was that both the Hughes and Raytheon missiles showed potential for meeting both the mission effectiveness and suitability requirements of the AIM-9X operational requirements document. Specifically, all critical operational issues were rated green (potentially effective/suitable) except counter-countermeasures capability, lethality, built in test functionality, and reprogrammability. Counter-countermeasures capability of both missiles was initially below the operationally required threshold values, however the Hughes missile showed a rapid improvement through the course of the evaluation. The missiles demonstrated acceptable performance levels in the air-to-air phase. The other assessment areas not resolved as green had insufficient data for conclusive evaluation. However, again, the risk of either DEMVAL missile not meeting the threshold requirement was rated as low. The results of the operational assessment were integral to the Service source selection decision to award the engineering, manufacturing, development contract to Hughes Missile Systems Corporation.

The early operational assessment of the British ASRAAM foreign comparative test (FCT) focused on the risk areas of the ASRAAM: focal plane array effectiveness, seeker signal processing, warhead effectiveness, rocket motor testing, and kinematic/guidance ability to support the lethality requirements of the AIM-9X. The resulting assessment was that the ASRAAM (as is) cannot meet the AIM-9X operational requirements in high off-boresight angle performance, infrared counter-countermeasures robustness, lethality, and interoperability.

The AIM-9X is a supersonic, air-to-air, guided missile which employs a passive IR target acquisition system, proportional navigational guidance, a closed-loop position servo Control Actuation Section (CAS), and an AOTD. The AIM-9X is launched from an aircraft after target detection to home in on IR emissions and to intercept and destroy enemy aircraft. The missile interfaces with the aircraft through the missile launcher using a forward umbilical cable, a mid-body umbilical connector and three missile hangars. The AIM-9X has three basic phases of operation: captive flight, launch, and free flight.

The AIM-9X utilizes the existing AIM-9M AOTD, warhead, and rocket motor, but incorporates a new Guidance Section (GS), new hangars, a new mid-body connector, new harness and harness cover, new titanium wings and fins, and a new CAS. The missile is propelled by the AIM-9M solid-propellant rocket motor, but uses a new Arm and Fire Device (AFD) handle design. Also, the AIM-9M rocket motor is modified to mount the CAS on its aft end. Aerodynamic lift and stability for the missile are provided by four forward-mounted , fixed titanium wings. Airframe maneuvering is accomplished by four titanium control fins mounted in line with the fixed wings and activated by the CAS, which includes a thrust vector control system that uses four jet vanes to direct the flow of the rocket motor exhaust. The AIM-9X is configured with the AIM-9M Annular Blast Fragmentation (ABF) warhead, which incorporates a new Electronic Safe and Arm Device (ESAD) to arm the warhead after launch. The AIM-9M AOTD is used to detect the presence of a target at distances out to the maximum effective range of the missile warhead and command detonation.

Guidance Section. The GS provides the missile tracking, guidance, and control signals. It consists of three major subassemblies: (1) a mid-wave IR Focal Plane Array (FPA) seeker assembly for detecting the target, (2) an electronics unit that converts the detected target information to tracking and guidance command signals, and (3) a center section containing the cryoengine, contact fuze device, two thermal batteries, and required harnesses and connectors. The coolant supply for the GS is provided by the twin-opposed-piston, linear drive, Stirling cryoengine.

Forward Hangar/Mid-body Umbilical Connector and Buffer Connector. The hangers on the AIM-9M rocket motor are replaced by slightly "taller" hangers for AIM-9X. These taller hangers provide additional separation between the missile and the launcher. This separation is needed to provide adequate clearance for the AIM-9X on all the launcher configurations. The middle and aft hanger mounting is unchanged from the AIM-9M configuration. The forward hanger is replaced by an integrated forward hanger/mid-body umbilical assembly. The mid-body umbilical connector adds a mid-body interface with the LAU-127 launcher. This connection provides the missile MIL-STD-1553 digital communications with the launching aircraft, and requires a buffer connector similar to the Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) buffer connector. The forward hanger/mid-body umbilical assembly is an integrated assembly that consists of the hanger, the mid-body umbilical connector, the umbilical cabling, and the rocket motor AFD wiring to the hanger striker points. The rocket motor AFD wiring is unchanged from that used in the AIM-9M and will interface with the striker points as in the AIM-9M configuration.

Harness and Harness Cover. Unlike the AIM-9M, an electronic harness has been added to the AIM-9X to provide the communications interface between the electronics unit in the GS and the other missile components. Due to the lack of space internally, the harness had to be mounted externally on the underside of the missile surface. The harness cover spans most of the length of the missile and provides an aerodynamic surface and protective cover for the electronic harness and the CAS electronic circuit board.

The AIM-9X will utilize mid-wave IR FPA seeker technology in lieu of the single-element IR seeker used in the AIM-9M. The AIM-9X will be a digital missile with Built-In-Test (BIT) and re-programming capability that is not present in the the analog AIM-9M. A buffer connector must be used on the mid-body umbilical connector when the AIM-9X is loaded on the LAU-127 launcher. The AIM-9X will use an internal cryogenic engine, called a cryoengine, for IR element cooling. The cryoengine does not require externally-supplied coolant, e.g., nitrogen, and thus does not use the nitrogen receiver assemblies contained in the LAU-7 and LAU-127 launchers, which provide IR element coolant for the AIM-9M. The AIM-9X will use titanium wings and fins. Also, the AIM-9X will use a CAS to direct movement of the aft fins and four internal jet vanes. The jet vanes direct the flow of the rocket motor exhaust to generate thrust vector control.

In the past, hundreds of live firings were conducted at great expense, to properly test a missile. Now, using simulations, this number is drastically reduced. For example, in 1964 the Sidewinder AIM-9D required 129 firings. In the 70's, the AIM-9L only required 69 and the AIM-9M only required 35. The newest generations of Sidewinder will probably require less than 20 live tests before it is ready for the fleet.

Fleet introduction of the AIM-9X missile is planned to begin in FY02 via aircraft carrier load outs. Low-Rate Initial Production (LRIP) All-Up-Round (AUR) missile deliveries begin in FY01 and continue through FY04, when Full-Rate Production deliveries begin.

The AIM-9X seeks and homes in on IR energy emitted by the target. When an IR-emitting source enters the seeker field of view, an audio signal is generated by the electronics unit. The pilot hears the signal through the headset, indicating that the AIM-9X has acquired a potential target. One method of cueing the AIM-9X to the target's IR energy source is referred to as boresight, whereby the missile is physically pointed toward the target via the pilot maneuvering the aircraft. The IR energy gathered by the missile seeker is converted to electronic signals that enable the missile to acquire and track the target up to its seeker gimbal limits. A second method of cueing the AIM-9X to the target's IR energy is the Sidewinder Expanded Acquisition Mode (SEAM). SEAM slaves the AIM-9X seeker to the aircraft radar. The aircraft avionics system can slave the missile seeker up to a given number of degrees from the missile/aircraft boresight axis. The missile seeker is slaved until an audible signal indicates seeker target acquisition. Upon target acquisition, a seeker interlock in the missile is released (uncaged) and the missile seeker begins tracking the target. The AIM-9X seeker will then continue to track the target. A third method for cueing the AIM-9X to the target's IR energy is through use of the JHMCS. This method allows the pilot to cue the AIM-9X seeker to high off-boresight targets via helmet movement. The pilot can launch the AIM-9X anytime after receipt of the appropriate audible signal.

The AIM-9X is required to be compatible, at full capability, with the F/A-18C/D/E/F, F-15C/D/E, F-16C/D, and F-22 aircraft, and be capable of being used in a reduced capacity on other aircraft with MIL-STD-1760 signal set capability (F-14B Upgrade, F-14D, AV-8B, and AH-1W). The AIM-9X is also backward compatible to aircraft/launchers only capable of AIM-9M analog communication. For analog interfaces, the AIM-9X operates, and is identified, as an AIM-9M. This backward compatibility includes the analog seeker slave mode. The AIM-9X will be integrated with the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS), a helmet-mounted display with capability to cue and verify cueing of high off-boresight sensors and weapons. This missile-helmet marriage will provide the aircrew with first-look, first-shot capability in the air-to-air, within visual range, combat arena. Increased off-boresight acquisition angle and improved situational awareness will be achieved through the integrated combination of the AIM-9X missile, the JHMCS and the aircraft.

For the USN and United States Marine Corps (USMC), two guided missile launchers are available to carry and launch the AIM-9X on the F/A-18 aircraft. The LAU-7 guided missile launcher can be used on all applicable Sidewinder weapons stations, however, it requires modification of the current power supply and the addition of digital and addressing lines to the forward umbilical to carry and launch the AIM-9X. With these modifications, it will be designated the LAU-7D/A. The LAU-127 guided missile launcher can be used on the F/A-18 aircraft wing stations only. F/A-18 aircraft wing stations require a LAU-115 guided missile launcher in order to attach the LAU-127.

The Naval Air Systems Command Air-to-Air Missile Program Office announced 17 May 2004 that the AIM-9X Sidewinder has been approved for Full-Rate Production. Authorization for this milestone was granted by the Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, Development and Acquisition, the Honorable John J. Youngon. The AIM-9X program underwent an extensive and highly successful flight test program. The program successfully scored an unprecedented 18 of 19 guided flight successes during development testing and completed 22 operational evaluation firings. AIM-9X also proved to be highly reliable in more than 3,500 hours of rigorous captive flight-testing. Both services have declared Initial Operational Capability (IOC). The U.S. Air Force declared IOC in November 2003 at Elmendorf AFB, Alaska, and the Navy, along with Marine Squadrons at Iwakuni, Japan, in February 2004.

AIM-9X Sidewinder Block II

The AIM-9X Block II is a Navy-led program to acquire short-range air-to-air missiles for the F-35, the Navy's F-18, and the Air Force's F-15, F-16, and F-22A fighter aircraft. It is designed to detect, acquire, intercept, and destroy a range of airborne threats. Block II includes hardware and software upgrades intended to improve the range from which the AIM-9X can engage targets, target discrimination, and interoperability. It was designated a major defense acquisition program in June 2011.

The missile program provides a launch and leave, air combat munitions that uses passive Infrared (IR) energy for acquisition and tracking of enemy aircraft and complements the Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile. Air superiority in the short-range air-to-air missile arena is essential and includes first shot, first kill opportunity against enemy employing IR countermeasures. Anti-Tamper features have been incorporated to protect improvements inherent in this design.

The AIM-9X Block II entered production in June 2011 with mature critical technologies, a stable and demonstrated design, and production processes that had been demonstrated on a production line but were not in control.

In July 2013, the Navy suspended operational testing due to missile performance issues. During Operational Test (OT) the program identified that the AIM-9X Blk II Missile did not satisfy the requirements of Probability of Kill and Maximum Range which resulted in the Block II program being decertified on July 29, 2013. Manufacturing process changes and software updates have been made and the program re-entered Integrated Testing in February 2014. The program resumed operational testing in June 2014 after identifying root causes and fixes for these issues.

A LRIP III/FY 2013 contract was awarded in August 2013. During LRIP, the program will procure AIM-9X Block II All-Up-Round missiles and Captive Air Training Missiles. A Full Rate Production (FRP) decision will be sought after successful completion of Initial Operational Test and Evaluation and following the Beyond-LRIP assessment of system operational effectiveness and suitability.

The Program Office estimate in the FY 2015 PB budget submission dated January 2014 assumed 10 carriers (worst case) deployed per year (beginning in the third year of operations). Unit level consumption primarily relates to the annual training firings (Non Combat Expenditures Allowances) for the Navy and Weapon System Evaluation Program for the Air Force) and transportation cycle time of failed assets to and from the Depot. The estimate spanned a period of 36 years, beginning with FY 2014 and ending with FY 2049. Contractor support is required to repair All-Up-Round (AUR)/Captive Air Training Missile (CATM)/container failures as a result of normal use, combat damage, catastrophic events, government misuse, abuse, or failure to exercise due diligence in testing, storing, or maintaining the item in accordance with approved procedures and specifications. This cost includes the required repair for out of AUR/CATM containers, software support, and technical publication revisions.

The program expected a full-rate production decision in June 2015, more than a year later than initially planned. AIM-9X Sidewinder Block II reached the full rate production milestone 17 August 2015. Sean Stackley, Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, Development and Acquisition, signed the Acquisition Decision Memorandum allowing the Air-to-Air Missile Systems Program Office (PMA-259), located at Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland, and industry partner, Raytheon Missile Systems, to move forward with mass production of the missile.

The program added a low-rate initial production lot in June 2014, nearly tripling the planned number of missiles procured before its full-rate production decision.

AIM-9X Block II entered operational testing with its critical technologies mature and its design stable and demonstrated. According to the Navy's May 2011 technology readiness assessment, Block II involves the integration of mature technologies, including a new active optical target detector/datalink, an upgraded electronics unit, and new operational flight software. The program estimated that 85 percent of Block II components were unchanged from Block I.

The Navy suspended operational testing on the AIM-9X Block II in July 2013 due to missile performance deficiencies related to hardware in the inertial measurement unit and concerns about the missile's target acquisition time, the latter of which required a software fix. The contractor delivered solutions to these issues in January 2014 and the program re-entered operational testing in June 2014. Operational testing was expected to be complete in January 2015.

AIM-9X Block II began production in June 2011, with manufacturing processes that had been demonstrated on a pilot production line but were not in control. Since the start of production, the program has further matured its processes, and program officials stated that they are now at a manufacturing readiness level that indicates they are in control. A production-related issue with the hardware for the inertial measurement unit contributed to the Navyís decision to suspend operational testing in 2013.

Specifically, under certain vibration conditions, the unitís hinges would fail. The program office reports that changes to the inertial measurement unitís hinge production process have resolved this issue.

The suspension of operational testing delayed the program's full-rate production decision from April 2014 to August 2015. Production of AIM-9X Block II continued during the suspension of operational testing, but the program office did not accept delivery of any additional missiles. To avoid a break in production, the program added another low-rate production lot in 2014 to procure 705 missiles, which is the same quantity that would have been procured in the first full-rate production lot.

Program officials said they would accept the risk associated with concurrent production and testing of the missiles, and the costs of any retrofits, rather than further delaying acquisition. Program officials estimated in 2015 that they would procure a total 1,086 Block II missiles, or approximately 18 percent of the planned procurement quantity of 6,000 Block II missiles through 2026, during low rate production. This was a nearly threefold increase over original estimates.

The air-intercept missile is 119 inches in length, weighs 186.2 pounds and is capable of being launched from the Navyís F/A-18 Hornet and Super Hornet, the Air Forceís F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon and various international partner aircraft equivalents. Its purpose is to detect, acquire, intercept and destroy a wide range of high-performance airborne and surface threats.



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