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Military

*FM 90-7
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
Washington, DC, 29 September 1994

FM 90-7

Combined Arms Obstacle Integration


Table of Contents

  1. Change 1

  2. Preface

  3. Chapter 1. Obstacles and the Combined Arms Team

    1. Historical Use of Obstacles
    2. Characteristics of Obstacles
    3. Dynamics of Combat Power and Obstacle Integration
        Maneuver
        Firepower
        Protection
        Leadership
    4. Other Obstacle Considerations
        Obstacle Clearing
        Effects on Noncombatants

  4. Chapter 2. Obstacle Framework

    1. Obstacle Classification
        Existing Obstacles
        Reinforcing Obstacles
          Tactical Obstacles
            Directed Obstacles.
            Situational Obstacles.
            Reserve Obstacles.
            Tactical Obstacle Design.
        Protective Obstacles
          Hasty Protective Obstacles.
          Deliberate Protective Obstacles.
    2. Obstacle Intent
        Target
        Obstacle Effect
          Disrupt Effect
          Turn Effect
          Fix Effect
          Block Effect
          Obstacle Effect Graphics
        Relative Location
    3. Obstacle Protection
        Counterreconnaissance
        Breaching Asset Destruction
        Obstacle Repair
        Phony Obstacles
    4. Obstacle Command and Control
      Obstacle-Emplacement Authority
      Obstacle Control
        Obstacle-Control Measures
          Obstacle Zones.
          Obstacle Belts.
          Obstacle Groups.
          Obstacle Restrictions.
        Obstacle Numbers

  5. Chapter 3. Obstacle-Integration Principles

    1. Intelligence
        Analyze the Terrain
        Determine Enemy Force Size
        Determine Enemy Vulnerability
    2. Obstacle Intent
        Target
        Obstacle Effect
        Relative Location
    3. Fires and Obstacle Effect
        Fires and Disrupt Effect
        Fires and Turn Effect
        Fires and Fix Effect
        Fires and Block Effect
    4. Obstacles and Operations in Depth
        Deep Operations
        Close Operations
        Rear Operations
    5. Obstacle Control
        Support Current Operations
        Maximize Subordinate Flexibility
        Facilitate Future Operations
    6. Echelons of Obstacle Planning
        Corps-Level Planning
        Division-Level Planning
        Brigade-Level Planning
        Task-Force-Level Planning
        Company-Team-Level Planning

  6. Chapter 4. Obstacle Planning at Corps, Division and Brigade Levels

    1. Decision-Making Process and Obstacles
        Mission Analysis
          Determine Facts and Develop Assumptions
            Intelligence Estimate.
            Logistics Estimate.
            Fire-Support Estimate.
            Engineer Estimate.
          Analyze Higher Headquarters' Mission and Commander's Intent
            Intent.
            AOs and Deception.
            Tasks.
            Limitations.
            Assets Available.
            Risks.
            Time Analysis.
          Analyze Relative Combat Power
          Issue Commander's Guidance
        Course-of-Action Development
        Course-of-Action Analysis
        Decision and Execution
          Recommendation and Decision
          Plans and Orders
          Execution and Supervision
    2. Division Defensive Scenario
        Mission Analysis
        Course-of-Action Development
        Course-of-Action Analysis
        Decision and Execution
    3. Offensive Obstacle Planning
        Types of Offensive Operations
          Movement to Contact
          Attack
          Exploitation
          Pursuit
        Techniques for Offensive Obstacle Planning
          War-Game
          Use a Grid System

  7. Chapter 5. Obstacle Planning at Task-Force Level and Below

    1. Obstacle Planning at Task-Force Level
        Mission Analysis
          Determine Facts and Develop Assumptions
          Analyze Relative Combat Power
          Analyze Higher Headquarters' Mission and Commander's Intent
          Issue Commander's Guidance
        Course-of-Action Development
          Fires Analysis
          Obstacle Intent Integration
          Obstacle Priorities
        Course-of-Action Analysis
          Mobility Requirements
          Obstacle Design and Resourcing
        Decision and Execution
          Scheme-of-Obstacles Overlay
          Obstacle-Execution Matrix
    2. Task-Force Obstacle Scenario
    3. Obstacle Planning Below Task-Force Level
        Coordination with the Maneuver Commander
        Siting the Obstacle
        Obstacle Turnover and Transfer

  8. Chapter 6. Reserve Obstacles

    1. Employment Principles
    2. Responsibilities
        Authorizing Commander
        Guard Commander
        Firing Commander
    3. Reserve-Obstacle Planning Considerations
        Additional Facts and Assumptions
        Fires Analysis
        Obstacle Intent Integration
        Obstacle Priorities
        Mobility Requirements
        Obstacle Design and Resourcing
        Decision and Execution
        Scheme-of-Obstacles Overlay
    4. Obstacle-Execution Matrix
    5. Demolition Order
    6. Rehearsals

  9. Chapter 7. Situational Obstacles

    1. Employment Principles
        Identify the Need
        Plan For Resources
        Intigrate with Friendly Fires
        Plan the Obstacles
        Identify Execution Triggers
        Withhold Execution Until Needed
    2. Situational Obstacles in the Defense
    3. Situational Obstacles in the Offense
    4. Situational Obstacle Planning
        Mission Analysis
        Course-of-Action Development
        Course-of-Action Analysis
          Fires Analysis
          Obstacle Intent Integration
          Obstacle Priorities
          Mobility Requirements
          Obstacle Design and Resourcing
        Decision and Execution
          Scheme-of-Obstacles Overlay
          Situational-Obstacle-Execution Matrix
          Rehearsals
          Execution

  10. Chapter 8. Protective Obstacles

    1. Types of Protective Obstacles
        Hasty Protective Obstacles
        Deliberate Protective Obstacles
    2. Employment Guidelines
        Integrating
        Emplacing Unit
        Emplacing Authority
        Planning Level
        Resourcing
        Reporting, Recording and Tracking
    3. Protective-Obstacle Planning
        Mission Analysis
          Protective-Obstacle Bands
            Band One.
            Band Two.
            Band Three.
            Band Four.
          Protective-Obstacle Capabilities
    4. Course-of-Action Development
    5. Course-of-Action Analysis
    6. Decision and Execution
        Fires and Observation
        Obstacle Integration
        Obstacle Priorities
        Mobility Requirements
        Obstacle Design and Resourcing
          Band One
          Band Two
          Band Three
          Band Four
          Sources for Materials
            Unit Basic Load.
            Push Packages.
            Requisitioned Material.
          Other Design Considerations
            Employment in Depth.
            Obstacle Protection.
    7. Protective-Obstacle Overlay

  11. Appendix A. Individual Obstacles

    1. Individual Obstacle Types
        Demolition Obstacles
          Bridges
          Road Craters
          Abatis
        Constructed Obstacles
          Wire Obstacles
          Tetrahedrons and Hedgehogs
          Antitank Ditches
        Land Mines
          Conventional Mines
          Scatterable Mines
        Improvised Obstacles
        Complex Obstacles
        Phony Obstacles
    2. Individual Obstacle Designs
        Armor Threat
          Width
          Depth
          Antitank Mines
          Antipersonnel Mines
          Antihandling Devices
          Irregular Outer Edges (IOEs)
        Light Threat
          Width
          Depth
          Antitank Mines
          Antipersonnel Mines
          Antihandling Devices
          Irregular Outer Edges
    3. Individual Obstacle Array

  12. Appendix B. Obstacle Numbering, Reporting, Recording, and Tracking

    1. Obstacle Numbering
    2. Obstacle Reporting
        Report of Intention
          Obstacle-Control Measures
          Operation Plan
        Report of Initiation
        Report of Completion
        Additional Reports
          Report of Progress
          Report of Transfer
    3. Obstacle Recording
    4. Obstacle Tracking

  13. Appendix C. Obstacle Resourcing and Supply Operations

    1. Obstacle Resourcing
        Requirement-Based Resourcing
        Capability-Based Resourcing
    2. Obstacle Supply Operations
        Obstacle Resupply Nodes
          Class IV/Class V Supply Point
          Mine Dump
        Obstacle Resupply Rules
        Obstacle Supply Locations
          Carrying Capacity
          Traffic Circuit
          Camouflage and Cover
          Defense
          Time
          Operators
    3. Obstacle Material Resupply Methods
        Supply Point
          Advantages.
          Disadvantages.
        Service Station
          Advantages.
          Disadvantages.
        Tailgate
          Advantages.
          Disadvantages.

  14. GLOSSARY

  15. REFERENCES

  16. AUTHENTICATION



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