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* FM 9-207/TO 36-1-40

Field Manual
9-207
Technical Order
36-1-40

Headquarters
Departments of the Army and the Air Force
Washington, DC, 20 March 1998

FM 9-207/TO 36-1-40

OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE OF ORDNANCE MATERIEL IN COLD WEATHER

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface

Chapter 1 - Cold Weather Considerations

Section I - The Cold Weather Challenge

Impact on Military Forces
Operational Effects

Section II - Operational Considerations

Personnel
Levels of Operation
Effects on Materiel
Effects on Mission Functions

Section III - Logistical Considerations

Factors Impacting Logistics
Planning
Host Nation Support
Maintenance
Maintenance Facilities
Equipment Recovery

Section IV - Antifreeze, Fuels, Hydraulic Fluids, and Lubricants

Antifreeze
Fuels
Hydraulic Fluids
Lubricants
Materials
Lubrication Orders

Section V - Batteries

Vehicle Batteries
Small Equipment Batteries
Nickel-Cadmium Batteries
Lithium Sulfur Batteries

Section VI - Winterization Equipment

Personnel Heaters
Power Plant Heaters
Portable Fuel-Burning Heaters
Hardtop Closure Kit
Quick Heat System
Standby Heat System
Auxiliary Power (Slave) Receptacle

Chapter 2 - Preparation for Operation

Section I - Chassis and Body Components

Special Considerations
Before Operations Checks

Section II - Power Train

Engines
Transmissions/Transfer Cases/Differentials/Final Drives
Cooling Systems
Fuel Systems
Universal and Slip Joints

Section III - Electrical System

Special Concerns
System Preparations

Section IV - Auxiliary Equipment

Air Compressors
Auxiliary Engines and Generators
Power Takeoff Assemblies

Chapter 3 - Operating and Maintenance Procedures

Section I - Operating Vehicle Engines in Cold Weather

Operating and Idling
Starting Without Assistance
Using Auxiliary Power (Slave) Receptacle
Towing to Start Engine

Section II - Chassis and Body Components

Operational Considerations

Section III - Power Train

Operational Considerations

Section IV - Engine Lubrication System

Operational Considerations
Maintenance

Section V - Electrical System

Starting Procedures
During Operation
Maintenance

Section VI - Fuel System

Fuel Storage
Maintenance

Section VII - Cooling System

Starting Considerations
Maintenance

Section VIII - Auxiliary Equipment

Operational Considerations
Power Takeoff Assemblies

Chapter 4 - Weapons, Munitions, and Fire Control Equipment

Section I - Effects of Cold Weather

Climatic Conditions
Weapons Functioning

Section II - Lubrication in Cold Weather

Special Considerations
Procedures for Lubricating Weapons

Section III - Operation and Maintenance of Weapons

Use of Covers
Dealing with Condensation
Crewmember Considerations
Exercising
Daily Care
Travel
Emplacement
Breech and Firing Mechanisms
Bores
Recoil Mechanisms
Recoil Slides
Equilibrators
Elevating and Traversing Mechanisms
Cradle, Sleigh, Carriage and Mount

Section IV - Direct Fire Weapons

Armor Vehicle Main Armament

Section V - Indirect Fire Weapons

Field Artillery
Mortars

Section VI - Antitank Wire-Guided Missiles/Rockets

Missiles
Rockets

Section VII - Field Artillery Missiles/Rockets

Missiles

Section VIII - Air Defense Weapons

Missiles
Guns

Section IX - Ammunition and Munitions

Ammunition
Grenades
Mines
Demolitions

Section X - Fire Control Equipment

Precautions
Fogging of Eyepieces
Purging
Powered Systems
Protection of Tube Extensions and Eyepieces
Level Vials
Compensated Sight Picture
Lasers
Compasses, Binoculars, and other Optical Instruments
Digitized Equipment

Chapter 5 - Small Arms

Section I - Cold Weather Problems

Climatic Conditions
Functioning Difficulties

Section II - Effects of Cold on Small Arms and Ammunition

Precautions
Pistols
Rifles
Machine Guns
Ammunition

Chapter 6 - Communication and Information Systems Equipment

Section I - Cold Weather Problems

Phenomena

Section II - Operation and Maintenance of Communications and Information Systems

Radio Systems
Antenna Systems
Wire and Cable Systems
Power Sources
Computers

 

Appendices

A — Antifreeze Materials, Fuels, Hydraulic Fluids, and Lubricants for Use in Cold Weather (0 to -65F)

B — Special Materials for use in Cold Weather (0 to -65F)

C — Environmental Protection Concerns

D — Sample Cold Weather Supplement to Unit Maintenance SOP

E — NBC Defense in Cold Conditions

Glossary

References

Authentication

 

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.


*This publication supersedes FM 9-207/TO 36-1-40, 10 August 1989.


PREFACE

 

As stated in Field Manual (FM) 100-1, The Army, it is the Army's fundamental purpose to win wars through land force dominance regardless of location or climate. This FM provides general doctrinal and technical guidance for operating equipment and ordnance materiel under extremely harsh cold weather conditions (0 to -65F). Its primary purpose is to familiarize operators and crews with the special procedures and techniques for working in sub-zero temperatures. Also, this manual will assist unit commanders, supervisors (motor sergeants, battalion motor officers [BMOs]), and maintenance personnel in anticipating and planning for the onset of cold weather or an arctic deployment. Failure to follow this guidance can cause injury to personnel and damage to equipment, besides limiting mission accomplishment.

This FM does not replace applicable technical manuals (TMs) for specific equipment operations, servicing, or repair. It is intended to provide an overview of the special and unique difficulties encountered in cold weather operations. Refer to the appropriate operator or higher-level manual for specific instructions.

The proponent of this publication is Headquarters, United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). Much of the information in this manual was provided by the USA Cold Regions Test Activity, which is responsible for testing equipment designed for use by the soldier on the winter battlefield and the USA Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, which exists largely to solve technical problems that develop in cold regions, especially problems related to construction, transportation, and military operations.. Access to more information can be obtained though points of contact on their World Wide Web pages. Submit changes for improving this publication on DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms), directly to:

 

Commander
US Army Combined Arms Support Command
ATTN: ATCL-A
Fort Lee, Virginia 23801-1713

 

Note: Unless otherwise stated, whenever the masculine gender is used, both men and women are included.

 



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