Military

*FM 6-50

FIELD MANUAL
No. 6-50
MARINE CORPS WARFIGHTING PUBLICATION
No. 3-1.6.23
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS
Washington, DC, 23 December 1996

FM 6-50

Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for
THE FIELD ARTILLERY CANNON BATTERY

Table of Contents


PREFACE

CHAPTER 1

MISSION, ORGANIZATION, AND KEY PERSONNEL

Section I - MISSION AND GENERAL ORGANIZATION

1-2. FIELD ARTILLERY ORGANIZATION

1-3. COMMAND AND CONTROL OF BATTERIES

Section II - CANNON BATTERIES IN PLATOON-BASED FIELD ARTILLERY BATTALIONS

1-5. TACTICAL DUTIES OF KEY PERSONNEL

1-6. BATTERY COMMANDER

1-7. FIRST SERGEANT

1-8. PLATOON LEADER

1-9. FIRE DIRECTION OFFICER

1-10. PLATOON SERGEANT

1-11. GUNNERY SERGEANT

1-12. HOWITZER SECTION CHIEF

Section III - CANNON BATTERIES IN BATTERY-BASED FIELD ARTILLERY BATTALIONS

1-14. TACTICAL DUTIES OF KEY PERSONNEL

1-15. BATTERY COMMANDER

1-16. FIRST SERGEANT

1-17. EXECUTIVE OFFICER

1-18. ASSISTANT EXECUTIVE OFFICER (USMC only)

1-19. FIRE DIRECTION OFFICER

1-20. CHIEF OF FIRING BATTERY

1-21. GUNNERY SERGEANT

1-22. HOWITZER SECTION CHIEF

CHAPTER 2

RECONNAISSANCE, SELECTION, AND OCCUPATION
OF A POSITION

Section I - RECONNAISSANCE AND THE ADVANCE PARTY

2-2. CONSIDERATIONS

2-3. RECEIPT OF THE ORDER

2-4. ARTILLERY TROOP LEADING PROCEDURES

2-5. RSOP OPERATIONS

2-6. METHODS OF RECONNAISSANCE

2-7. PLANNING THE RECONNAISSANCE

2-8. THE RECONNAISSANCE PARTY

2-9. ASSEMBLING THE ADVANCE PARTY

2-10. TAKING A FIRING CAPABILITY FORWARD

2-11. MOVEMENT BRIEFING

2-12. ROUTE RECONNAISSANCE

Section II - SELECTING THE NEW POSITION

2-14. TYPES OF POSITIONS

Section III - ORGANIZING THE NEW POSITION

2-15. ADVANCE PARTY PREPARATIONS

2-16. FORMATIONS

Section IV - PREPARATION FOR OCCUPATION

2-18. LIMITED TIME PREPARATIONS

2-19. NIGHT OCCUPATION

2-20. SECTION CHIEF'S REPORT

Section V - TACTICAL MARCHES

2-22. OPEN COLUMN

2-23. CLOSE COLUMN

2-24. INFILTRATION

2-25. TERRAIN MARCH

Section VI - PREPARING FOR MOVEMENT

2-27. LOAD PLANS

2-28. MOVEMENT PREPARATIONS

2-29. ORGANIZATION OF THE COLUMN

Section VII - CONDUCTING THE MARCH

2-31. CONVOY CONTROL MEASURES

2-32. HALTS

2-33. MARCH COLUMN CONTINGENCIES

2-34. OTHER MOVEMENTS

2-35. MOVEMENT PROCEDURES

Section VIII - OCCUPYING THE POSITION

2-37. DELIBERATE OCCUPATION

2-38. HASTY OCCUPATION

2-39. EMERGENCY OCCUPATION

2-40. SUSTAINING ACTIONS

2-41. TRAINING TIPS

CHAPTER 3

BATTERY DEFENSE

Section I - INTRODUCTION

3-2. BATTERY RESPONSIBILITIES

Section II - CONSIDERATIONS FOR DEFENSE

3-4. DEFENSE IN DEPTH

3-5. SECURITY

3-6. DISPERSION

3-7. PRIORITIES

3-8. DEFENSE IN ALL DIRECTIONS

3-9. MUTUAL SUPPORT

3-10. CONTROL

3-11. FLEXIBILITY

Section III - DEFENSE DIAGRAM

3-13. CONSTRUCTION OF THE DIAGRAM

3-14. DISPOSITION OF THE DIAGRAM

3-15. PREPARING RANGE CARDS

Section IV - CONDUCT OF THE DEFENSE

3-17. DEFENSE AGAINST AIR ATTACK

3-18. DEFENSE AGAINST DISMOUNTED ATTACK

3-19. DEFENSE IN OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR (OOTW)

3-20. DEFENSE AGAINST INDIRECT FIRE

3-21. DEFENSE AGAINST NBC ATTACK

3-22. EQUIPMENT AND MATERIEL DESTRUCTION PROCEDURES

3-23. EMERGENCY ALARMS OF HAZARD OR ATTACK

3-24. BOMBING, SHELLING, ROCKETING, MORTARING, AND LOCATION REPORTS

CHAPTER 4

LAYING THE BATTERY, MEASURING, AND REPORTING

Section I - THE AIMING CIRCLE

4-2. SETTING UP THE AIMING CIRCLE

4-3. LEVELING THE AIMING CIRCLE

4-4. TAKING DOWN THE AIMING CIRCLE

4-5. DECLINATING THE AIMING CIRCLE

4-6. CARE AND HANDLING OF THE AIMING CIRCLE

Section II - PRECISION LIGHTWEIGHT GPS RECEIVER (PLGR)

4-8. FA SURVEY APPLICATIONS

4-9. GPS LIMITATIONS AND CONSIDERATIONS

Section III - GUN LAYING AND POSITIONING SYSTEM

Section IV - THE M2 COMPASS

4-12. DECLINATING THE M2 COMPASS

4-13. MEASURING AN AZIMUTH AND SITE TO CREST WITH THE M2 COMPASS

4-14. CARE AND HANDLING OF THE M2 COMPASS

Section V - LAYING

4-16. PROCEDURES FOR LAYING

4-17. LAYING BY ORIENTING ANGLE

4-18. LAYING BY GRID AZIMUTH

4-19. COMMANDS

4-20. LAYING BY ALTERNATE METHODS

4-21. M2 COMPASS METHOD

4-22. AIMING POINT-DEFLECTION METHOD

4-23. HOWITZER BACK-LAY METHOD

4-24. ESTABLISHING AIMING POINTS

4-25. SAFETY AND VERIFYING THE LAY OF THE PLATOON

4-26. MEASURING VERTICAL ANGLES

4-27. MEMORY AIDS

Section VI - MEASURING AND REPORTING DATA

4-29. BACKWARD AZIMUTH RULE

4-30. REPORTING THE CORRECT DEFLECTION

4-31. MEASURING THE AZIMUTH OF THE LINE OF FIRE

4-32. CORRECTING BORESIGHT ERROR

4-33. TRAINING

CHAPTER 5

HASTY SURVEY TECHNIQUES

Section I - SURVEY CONTROL

5-2. ELEMENTS OF SURVEY CONTROL

Section II - DIRECTION

5-4. POLARIS-KOCHAB METHOD

5-5. POLARIS 2 METHOD

5-6. DIRECTIONAL TRAVERSE

Section III - LOCATION

5-8. GRAPHIC RESECTION

5-9. GRAPHIC TRAVERSE

5-10. DISTANCE MEASURING

5-11. AUTOMATED COMPUTATIONS

5-12. AFU INPUT FOR GRAPHIC TRAVERSE USING BUCS, REV 1

5-13. ALTITUDE DETERMINATION

CHAPTER 6

MINIMUM QUADRANT ELEVATION

6-1. RESPONSIBILITIES

6-2. ELEMENTS OF COMPUTATION

6-3. MEASURING ANGLE OF SITE TO CREST

6-4. MEASURING PIECE-TO-CREST RANGE

6-5. COMPUTATION FOR FUZES OTHER THAN ARMED VARIABLE TIME

6-6. COMPUTATING FOR ARMED VT FUZES (LOW-ANGLE FIRE)

CHAPTER 7

FIRE COMMANDS AND FIRING REPORTS

7-1. DEFINITIONS

7-2. SEQUENCE OF FIRE COMMANDS

7-3. TYPES OF FIRE COMMANDS

7-4. ELEMENTS OF THE FIRE COMMANDS

7-5. WARNING ORDER

7-6. PIECES TO FOLLOW, PIECES TO FIRE, AND METHOD OF FIRE

7-7. SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS

7-8. PROJECTILE

7-9. AMMUNITION LOT

7-10. CHARGE

7-11. FUZE

7-12. FUZE SETTING

7-13. DEFLECTION

7-14. QUADRANT ELEVATION

7-15. METHOD OF FIRE FOR EFFECT

7-16. SPECIAL METHODS OF FIRE

7-17. CHECK FIRING

7-18. CEASE LOADING

7-19. END OF MISSION

7-20. PLANNED TARGETS

7-21. REPETITION AND CORRECTION OF FIRE COMMANDS

7-22. FIRING REPORTS

7-23. STANDARDIZING ELEMENTS OF THE FIRE COMMAND

7-24. EXAMPLE OF FIRE COMMANDS

7-25. RECORD OF MISSIONS FIRED

CHAPTER 8

SPECIAL SITUATIONS

8-1. DIRECT FIRE

8-2. DIRECT FIRE SIGHTING METHODS

8-3. DIRECT FIRE LAYING METHODS

8-4. COMMANDS FOR DIRECT FIRE

8-5. EMERGENCY BORESIGHTING

8-6. COLLIMATOR METHOD OF BORESIGHTING

8-7. STANDARD ANGLE METHOD OF BORESIGHTING

8-8. AIMING CIRCLE METHOD OF BORESIGHTING

CHAPTER 9

COMMUNICATIONS

9-1. COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT

9-2. BATTERY COMMUNICATIONS SECTION

9-3. BATTERY WIRE SYSTEM

9-4. BATTERY RADIO NET STRUCTURE

9-5. AN/PRC-68 AND AN/PRC-126 PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS

9-6. BCS-TO-GDU COMMUNICATIONS

CHAPTER 10

AMMUNITION

10-1. REFERENCES

10-2. EXTERIOR COMPONENTS OF AN ARTILLERY PROJECTILE

10-3. PROJECTILE PAINTING AND MARKING

10-4. CARE AND HANDLING OF AMMUNITION

10-5. PROJECTILES

10-6. FUZES

10-7. PROPELLING CHARGES

10-8. FLASH REDUCERS

10-9. PRIMERS

10-10. CARTRIDGE CASES

10-11. SEGREGATION OF AMMUNITION LOTS

10-12. FIELD STORAGE OF AMMUNITION

10-13. STORAGE AND TRANSPORTATION TECHNIQUES

10-14. ACCIDENTS

10-15. MISFIRE PROCEDURES

10-16. TRAINING

10-17. AMMUNITION PLANNING GUIDE

CHAPTER 11

SAFETY PROCEDURES

11-1. RESPONSIBILITIES

11-2. DUTIES OF SAFETY PERSONNEL

11-3. SAFETY AIDS

11-4. SAFETY COMPUTATIONS

CHAPTER 12

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

12-1. RESPONSIBILITIES

12-2. BATTALION TRAIN

12-3. LOGISTICS PACKAGES

12-4. BATTERY INTERFACE WITH THE ALOC

12-5. CLASSES OF SUPPLY

12-6. MAINTENANCE, RECOVERY, AND REPAIR

12-7. REFUEL, REARM, AND RESUPPLY POINT

APPENDIX A

STANDARDIZED PROCEDURES

APPENDIX B

SAMPLE GUNNER'S QUALIFICATION TEST

B-1. USE OF TEST

B-2. STANDARDS OF PRECISION

B-3. ASSISTANCE

B-4. TASK SCORING

B-5. QUALIFICATION SCORES

B-6. EQUIPMENT, PERSONNEL, AND SITE REQUIREMENTS

B-7. TASKS

APPENDIX C

SAMPLE OPERATIONS CHECKLIST

C-1. DESCRIPTION

C-2. PRECOMBAT CHECKLISTS

C-3. BATTERY STATUS INVENTORY

C-4. CRITICAL EVENTS TIME LINE

C-5. BATTERY WARNING ORDER

C-6. BATTERY ORDER

APPENDIX D

COMMON MISTAKES AND MALPRACTICES

D-1. PROBLEM AREAS

D-2. PRECUTTING CHARGES

D-3. LAYING ON THE WRONG AIMING POSTS

D-4. IMPROPER EMPLACEMENT OF AIMING POINTS

D-5. FAILURE TO COMPUTE TERRAIN GUN POSITION CORRECTIONS

D-6. USING THE M139 OR M140 ALIGNMENT DEVICE TO VERIFY BORESIGHT

D-7. OTHER MISTAKES

D-8. MALPRACTICES

D-9. ERRORS IN SETTING UP AND ORIENTING THE AIMING CIRCLE

D-10. INCIDENTS

APPENDIX E

LOAD PLANS FOR HOWITZER AMMUNITION VEHICLES AND CAMOUFLAGE CONFIGURATION

APPENDIX F

SPECIAL OPERATIONS

F-1. OPERATIONS IN MOUNTAINOUS TERRAIN

F-2. OPERATIONS IN JUNGLE TERRAIN

F-3. NORTHERN OPERATIONS

F-4. MILITARY OPERATIONS ON URBANIZED TERRAIN

F-5. DESERT OPERATIONS

F-6. AMPHIBIOUS ASSAULT

F-7. AIR ASSAULT OPERATIONS

F-8. ARTILLERY RAIDS

F-9. OPERATIONS OTHER THEN WAR (OOTW)

F-10. FIRE BASE/HARDENED ARTILLERY POSITION OPERATIONS

F-11. EMERGENCY OCCUPATION PROCEDURES WITH BCS

APPENDIX G

CANNON SECTION EVALUATION AND TRAINING

G-1. SCOPE

G-2. PURPOSE

G-3. CONDUCT OF THE EVALUATION

G-4. EVALUATION FORMAT

G-5. SCORING

G-6. PREPARATION

G-7. QUALIFICATION

G-8. ORGANIZATION AND SCORING

G-9. PHASE I, ORIENTATION AND ORGANIZATION

G-10. PHASE II, PREPARATION FOR FIRING OPERATIONS

G-11. PHASE III, DELIBERATE OCCUPATION

G-12. PHASE IV, FIRE MISSIONS

G-13. PHASE V, CRITIQUE

APPENDIX H

UNIT DEFENSE CHECKLIST

H-1. ENTRANCE POINT

H-2. PASSIVE DEFENSIVE TECHNIQUES

H-3. ACTIVE DEFENSIVE TECHNIQUES

H-4. PERIMETER COMMUNICATIONS

H-5. ANTIARMOR ASSETS

H-6. MOVEMENT

H-7. LOCAL SECURITY

H-8. NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL

H-9. AIR DEFENSE COVERAGE

H-10. MEDICAL

H-11. ENEMY PRISONERS OF WAR (EPWs)

APPENDIX I

KILLER JUNIOR

I-1. DESCRIPTION

I-2. TYPES OF TARGETS

I-3. AMMUNITION

I-4. PROCEDURES

APPENDIX J

CRATER ANALYSIS AND REPORTING

J-1. CRATER ANALYSIS TEAM

J-2. EQUIPMENT

J-3. SHELL CRATER ANALYSIS

J-4. VALUE OF ANALYSIS

J-5. INSPECTION OF SHELLED AREAS

J-6. SURVEY OF CRATER LOCATION

J-7. DETERMINATION OF DIRECTION

J-8. CRATER ANALYSIS

J-9. LOW-ANGLE FUZE QUICK CRATERS (ARTILLERY)

J-10. LOW-ANGLE FUZE DELAY CRATERS (ARTILLERY)

J-11. HIGH-ANGLE SHELL CRATERS (MORTARS)

J-12. ROCKET CRATERS

J-13. SHELL FRAGMENT ANALYSIS

J-14. SHELLING REPORTS

APPENDIX K

MINIMUM QUADRANT ELEVATION RAPID FIRE TABLES

K-1. DESCRIPTION OF THE TABLES

K-2. USE OF THE RAPID FIRE TABLES

APPENDIX L

GUN DISPLAY UNIT

L-1. DESCRIPTION

L-2. SECTION CHIEF'S ASSEMBLY

L-3. CASE ASSEMBLY

L-4. GUN ASSEMBLY

L-5. CABLES

L-6. BCS - GUD WIRE LINK

L-7. WIRE OPERATIONS

L-8. M109-SERIES HOWITZERS

L-9. GUN DISPLAY UNIT POWER

L-10. TOWED HOWITZERS

L-11. SELF-PROPELLED HOWITZER POWER SOURCE

L-12. INOPERATIVE GUN DISPLAY UNIT

L-13. SMALL UNIT TRANSCEIVERS

L-14. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE

APPENDIX M

SELECTED CHARACTERISTICS OF FIELD ARTILLERY CANNONS

APPENDIX N

INTERCHANGEABILITY OF AMMUNITION

N-1. GENERAL

N-2. TRAINING

N-3. COMBAT

APPENDIX O

SAMPLE TESTS AND REPORTS

O-1. SAMPLE TESTS FOR THE QUALIFICATION OF SAFETY PERSONNEL

O-2. HANDS-ON SAFETY CERTIFICATION

O-3. VERIFICATION CHECKLIST

FORMS

GLOSSARY

REFERENCES

AUTHORIZATION LETTER


DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

*This publication supersedes FM 6-50, 20 November 1990.



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