Find a Security Clearance Job!

Military

*FM 6-2

Field Manual
FM 6-2
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
Washington, DC, 23 SEPTEMBER 1993

FM 6-2

Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for

FIELD ARTILLERY SURVEY

Table of Contents


Change 1, 16 October 1996

*Preface

CHAPTER 1 - MISSION,
RESPONSIBILITIES, AND DUTIES

1-1. SURVEY PLANNING

1-2. SURVEY OPERATIONS IN THE AIRLAND BATTLE

1-3. FUNDAMENTAL SURVEY OPERATIONS

1-4. PLANNING RESPONSIBILITIES

1-5. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE ENGINEER TOPOGRAPHIC BATTALION

1-6. FA SURVEY ORGANIZATIONS

1-7. SURVEY EQUIPMENT

* 1-8. DUTIES OF SURVEY PERSONNEL

CHAPTER 2 - DISTANCE
DETERMINATION

Section I - HORIZONTAL TAPING

2-1. TAPING TEAM

2-2. TAPES AND ACCESSORIES

2-3. TAPE ALIGNMENT

2-4. APPLYING TENSION TO TAPE

2-5. USE OF PLUMB BOBS

2-6. USE OF TAPING PINS

2-7. MEASURING THE FIRST FULL TAPE LENGTH

2-8. MOVING FORWARD

2-9. MEASURING SUCCEEDING FULL TAPE LENGTHS

2-10. BREAKING TAPE

2-11. MEASURING DISTANCES MORE THAN 10 TAPE LENGTHS

2-12. MEASURING PARTIAL TAPE LENGTHS

2-13. DETERMINING TAPED DISTANCE

2-14. USE OF TWO TAPING TEAMS

2-15. COMPARATIVE ACCURACY FOR DOUBLE-TAPED DISTANCES

2-16. TAPING ACCURACIES

2-17. ERRORS

2-18. TAPING AT NIGHT

2-19. MAINTENANCE OF STEEL TAPES

2-20. REPAIR OF BROKEN TAPE

* SECTION II - SURVEY EQUIPMENT, DISTANCE-MEASURING, ELECTRONIC (MEDIUM-RANGE)

2-21. DESCRIPTION OF COMPONENTS

2-22. SETTING UP THE SEDME-MR

2-23. OPERATING PROCEDURES

2-24. CARE AND MAINTENANCE

CHAPTER 3 - ANGLE
DETERMINATION

Section I - T16 THEODOLITE

3-1. ACCESSORIES

3-2. PREPARING THE T16 THEODOLITE FOR USE

3-3. TAKING DOWN THE T16 THEODOLITE

3-4. READING AND SETTING HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL CIRCLES WITH THE T16

3-5. FOCUSING THE TELESCOPE TO ELIMINATE THE PARALLAX

3-6. MEASURING HORIZONTAL ANGLES WITH THE T16

3-7. DETERMINING VERTICAL ANGLES WITH THE T16

3-8. COMPUTING HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL ANGLES

3-9. CARE OF THE T16 THEODOLITE

3-10. CLEANING THE T16 THEODOLITE

3-11. REPAIR OF THE T16 THEODOLITE

3-12. TESTS AND ADJUSTMENTS OF THE T16 THEODOLITE

3-13. T16 PLATE LEVEL TEST AND ADJUSTMENT

3-14. T16 OPTICAL PLUMB TEST AND ADJUSTMENT

3-15. T16 HORIZONTAL COLLIMATION TEST AND ADJUSTMENT

3-16. T16 VERTIAL COLLIMATION TEST AND ADJUSTMENT

3-17. TESTS AND ADJUSTMENTS OF THE T16-84 THEODOLITE

3-18. T16-84 CIRCULAR BUBBLE TEST AND ADJUSTMENT

3-19. T16-84 OPTICAL PLUMB TEST AND ADJUSTMENT

3-20. CARE AND USE OF THE TRIPOD

Section II - T2 THEODOLITE

3-21. PREPARING AND TAKING DOWN THE T2 THEODOLITE

3-22. CIRCLE READINGS WITH THE T2

3-23. HORIZONTAL CIRCLE READINGS WITH THE T2

3-24. STEPS IN CIRCLE READING

3-25. VERTICAL CIRCLE READINGS WITH THE T2 THEODOLITE

3-26. SETTING THE HORIZONTAL CIRCLE

3-27. MEASURING HORIZONTAL ANGLES WITH THE T2

3-28. DETERMINING VERTICAL ANGLES WITH THE T2

3-29. TESTS AND ADJUSTMENTS OF THE T2 THEODOLITE

3-30. T2 PLATE LEVEL TEST AND ADJUSTMENT

3-31. T2 OPTICAL PLUMB TEST AND ADJUSTMENT

3-32. T2 VERTICALITY TEST AND ADJUSTMENT

3-33. T2 HORIZONTAL COLLIMATION TEST AND ADJUSTMENT

3-34. T2 VERTICAL COLLIMATION TEST AND ADJUSTMENT

* CHAPTER 4 - FIELD NOTES

4-1. FIELD NOTEBOOK

4-2. DATA RECORDED

4-3. RECORDING

4-4. TYPES OF FIELD NOTES

4-5. SECURITY OF FIELD NOTES

CHAPTER 5 - TRAVERSE

Section I - METHODS AND PROCEDURES

5-1. FIELDWORK

5-2. STARTING CONTROL (TRAVERSE REQUIREMENTS)

5-3. TYPES OF TRAVERSE

5-4. TRAVERSE STATIONS

5-5. ORGANIZATION OF CONVENTIONAL TRAVERSE PARTIES

5-6. NIGHT TRAVERSE

5-7. TRAVERSE FIELD NOTES

Section II - TRIGONOMETRY OF TRAVERSE

5-8. AZIMUTH DETERMINATION

5-9. EXTENDING AZIMUTH

5-10. AZIMUTH AND DISTANCE COMPUTATIONS

5-11. DA FORM 5590-R

5-12. AZIMUTH AND BEARING ANGLE RELATIONSHIP

5-13. DETERMINATION OF BEARING ANGLE

5-14. TRIGONOMETRY AND THE TRAVERSE LEG

5-15. COORDINATE COMPUTATIONS

5-16. DETERMINATION OF dH

5-17. UNIVERSAL TRANSVERSE MERCATOR GRID

Section III - TRAVERSE COMPUTATIONS

5-18. COMPUTING THE TRAVERSE LEG

5-19. DETERMINATION OF HEIGHT

5-20. DA FORM 5591-R

5-21. RECIPROCAL MEASUREMENT OF VERTICAL ANGLES

5-22. ACCURACY RATIO

5-23. RADIAL ERROR OF CLOSURE

5-24. CLOSING AZIMUTH ERROR

5-25. ACCURACIES, SPECIFICATIONS, AND TECHNIQUES

SECTION IV - TRIG TRAVERSE

5-26. METHOD

5-27. BASE ACCURACY

5-28. ANGLES

5-29. TARGETS

5-30. DISTANCE COMPUTATION

5-31. DA FORM 5603-R

Section V - LOCATION OF TRAVERSE ERRORS

5-32. ANALYSIS OF TRAVERSE FOR ERRORS

5-33. ISOLATION OF DISTANCE ERRORS

5-34. ISOLATION OF AZIMUTH ERRORS

5-35. ISOLATION OF MULTIPLE ERRORS

Section VI - TRAVERSE ADJUSTMENT

5-36. SOURCES OF ERRORS

5-37. AZIMUTH ADJUSTMENT

5-38. COORDINATE ADJUSTMENT

5-39. HEIGHT ADJUSTMENT

5-40. DISCRETION ADJUSTMENT

CHAPTER 6 - TRIANGULATION

SECTION I - METHODS AND OPERATIONS

6-1. SURVEY METHODS USING TRIANGLES

6-2. TRIANGULATION PARTIES

6-3. TRIANGULATION FIELD NOTES

6-4. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS

Section II - TRIANGULATION COMPUTATION

6-5. SURVEY APPLICATION OF BASIC TRIANGLE

6-6. DISTANCE ANGLES OF A SINGLE TRIANGLE

Section III - TRIANGULATION SCHEMES

6-7. DESCRIPTION, SOLUTION, AND CHECKS OF A CHAIN OF TRIANGLES

6-8. TRIANGLE CLOSURE

6-9. DA FORM 5592-R

Section IV. INTERSECTION

6-10. LIMITATIONS

6-11. POINT VISIBILITY

6-12. INTERSECTION COMPUTATIONS

6-13. INTERSECTION ACCURACY

Section V - THREE-POINT RESECTION

6-14. DA FORM 5593-R

6-15. CHECKS AND CLOSURE

6-16. LAW OF SINES

CHAPTER 7 - ASTRONOMY
FOR FIELD ARTILLERY

SECTION I - BASIC ASTRONOMY

7-1. EARTH

7-2. CELESTIAL SPHERE

7-3. SPHERICAL COORDINATES

7-4. ASTRONOMIC TRIANGLE

7-5. TIME

7-6. SOLAR TIME

7-7. SIDEREAL TIME

Section II - ASTRONOMIC OBSERVATION TECHNIQUES

7-8. PURPOSE OF ASTRONOMIC OBSERVATIONS

7-9. METHODS OF DETERMINING AZIMUTH

7-10. FIELD REQUIREMENTS FOR ASTRONOMIC OBSERVATIONS

7-11. FIELD DATA REQUIREMENTS

7-12. TEMPERATURE AND TIME

7-13. POINTING TECHNIQUES

7-14. TRACKING AND OBSERVING PROCEDURES

7-15. RECORDING AND MEANING DATA

Section III - THE ARMY EPHEMERIS

7-16. TABLE 1b, ASTRONOMIC REFRACTION CORRECTED FOR TEMPERATURE (MILS)

7-17. TABLE 2, SUN (CURRENT YEAR) FOR ZERO HOURS UNIVERSAL TIME (GMT)

7-18. TABLE 9, ALPHABETICAL STAR LIST

7-19. TABLES 10a (DEGREES) AND 10b (MILS), APPARENT PLACES OF STARS

7-20. TABLE 11, APPARENT PLACES OF POLARIS (STAR NUMBER 10)

7-21. TABLE 12, TO DETERMINE AZIMUTH FROM POLARIS

7-22. TABLE 13, GRID AZIMUTH CORRECTION, SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATION

Section IV - STAR SELECTION AND IDENTIFICATION

7-23. STAR FINDER AND IDENTIFIER

7-24. HAUGHT (FIELD-EXPEDIENT) METHOD FOR ORIENTING THE STAR IDENTIFIER

7-25. SELECTION OF STARS FOR OBSERVATION

7-26. WORLD STAR CHART

7-27. LOCATING STARS

7-28. STAR IDENTIFICATION (BUCS)

Section V - ALTITUDE METHOD

7-29. POSITIONS OF CELESTIAL BODIES

7-30. APPARENT DISPLACEMENT

7-31. ALTITUDE METHOD COMPUTATIONS

7-32. FIELDWORK

7-33. EFFECT OF ERRORS

7-34. DETERMINATION OF FINAL AZIMUTH

Section VI - ARTY ASTRO OBSERVATION METHOD (SUN)

7-35. POSITION OF SUN

7-36. ARTY ASTRO (SUN/STAR) COMPUTATIONS

Section VII - ARTY ASTRO METHOD (STAR)

7-37. POSITION OF STARS

7-38. OBSERVATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF POLARIS

Section VIII. POLARIS TABULAR METHOD

7-39. COMPUTATION OF AZIMUTH

7-40. DA FORM 5598-R

Section IX - SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS

7-41. PROCEDURES FOR SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS

7-42. ACCURACY OF SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS

7-43. HASTY ASTRO OBSERVATION

Section X - SELECTION OF METHODS OF OBSERVATION

7-44. FIFTH-ORDER AZIMUTHS

7-45. FOURTH-ORDER AZIMUTHS

7-46. CHOICE OF CELESTIAL BODY

7-47. CHOICE OF METHOD

7-48. SOLUTION OF THE PZS TRIANGLE TO ESTABLISH AZIMUTH (SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE)

CHAPTER 8 - GYROSCOPIC
AZIMUTH

Section I - SIAGL (LEAR)

8-1. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

8-2. COMPONENTS AND ACCURACY

8-3. INITIAL SETUP PROCEDURES

8-4. FINAL SETUP PROCEDURES

8-5. HORIZONTAL CIRCLE ALIGNMENT PROCEDURE

8-6. SELF-TEST

8-7. OPERATION OF THE INSTRUMENTS

8-8. READING THE THEODOLITE

8-9. MARCH-ORDERING EQUIPMENT

8-10. MAINTENANCE

Section II - CONVERSION OF GYROSCOPIC AZIMUTH TO GRID AZIMUTH

8-11. DETERMINATION OF CONVERGENCE

8-12. DETERMINATION OF CONVERGENCE WITH NOMOGRAPH

*Section III - NORTH-SEEKING GYROSCOPE

8-13. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

8-14. COMPONENTS

8-15. INITIAL SETUP PROCEDURES

8-16. SURVEY APPLICATIONS

8-17. DETERMINATION OF E-2 ADDITIVE CONSTANT

8-18. MAINTENANCE

CHAPTER 9 - POSITION AND
AZIMUTH DETERMINING SYSTEM

9-1. SYSTEM USES AND CONFIGURATIONS

9-2. PADS COMPONENTS

9-3. PADS OPERATION

9-4. PADS MISSION CLOSURE

*9-5. UPDATING THE PADS

9-6. PADS SURVEY PLANNING

9-7. PADS USE IN SPECIAL SITUATIONS

CHAPTER 10 - FORWARD ENTRY
DEVICE METEOROLOGICAL/SURVEY

Section I - OVERVIEW

10-1. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

10-2. PREPARATION FOR OPERATION

10-3. SURVEY OPTIONS

10-4. FORWARD OBSERVER OPERATIONS

10-5. GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES

Section II - SURVEY CALCULATIONS WITH THE FED MSR

10-6. SURVEY CALCULATIONS

10-7. AZIMUTH AND DISTANCE CALCULATION FILE

10-8. TRAVERSE CALCULATION FILE

10-9. TRIANGULATION CALCULATION FILE

10-10. RESECTION CALCULATION FILE

10-11. COMPUTATION OF ASTRONOMIC AZIMUTH BY ALTITUDE METHOD (SUN AND STAR)

10-12. HASTY ASTRO CALCULATION FILE (SUN AND STAR)

10-13. STAR ID CALCULATION FILE

10-14. POLARIS TABULAR METHOD CALCULATION FILE

10-15. GRID CONVERGENCE CALCULATION FILE

10-16. TRIG TRAVERSE CALCULATION FILE

10-17. INTERSECTION CALCULATION FILE

10-18. ARTY ASTRO CALCULATION FILES (SUN AND STAR)

Section III - CONVERSION AND TRANSFORMATION WITH THE FED MSR

10-19. TRANSFORMATIONS

10-20. UTM TO GEO COORDINATE CONVERSION FILE

10-21. GEO TO UTM COORDINATE CONVERSION FILE

10-22. ZONE-TO-ZONE COORDINATE CONVERSION FILE

10-23. UTM TO UTM DATUM CONVERSION FILE

10-24. UTM TO GEO DATUM CONVERSION FILE

10-25. GEO TO UTM DATUM CONVERSION FILE

10-26. GEO TO GEO DATUM CONVERSION FILE

10-27. KRASSOVSKY TO UTM DATUM CONVERSION FILE

10-28. UTM TO KRASSOVSKY DATUM CONVERSION FILE

10-29. BESSEL TO UTM DATUM CONVERSION FILE

10-30. UTM TO BESSEL DATUM CONVERSION FILE

10-31. USER-DEFINED TO USER-DEFINED DATUM CONVERSION FILE

10-32. USER-DEFINED TO LISTED DATUM CONVERSION FILE

10-33. LISTED TO USER-DEFINED DATUM CONVERSION FILE

CHAPTER 11 - CONVERSION
AND TRANSFORMATION

Section I - CONVERTING GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATES TO UTM COORDINATES AND UTM COORDINATES TO GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATES

11-1. CONVERSION OF GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATES TO UTM COORDINATES COMPUTATION

11-2. CONVERSION OF UTM COORDINATES TO GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATES COMPUTATIONS

Section II - ZONE-TO-ZONE TRANSFORMATIONS

11-3. TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES AND AZIMUTH

11-4. TRANSFORMATION COMPUTATIONS

SECTION III - DATUM-TO-DATUM TRANSFORMATIONS

11-5. ELLIPSOIDS AND DATUMS

11-6. BUCS DDCT MODULE

11-7. BUCS DDCT APPLICATION

11-8. BACKUP, TOP OF FILE, ERROR CORRECTION, AND ABORT CAPABILITIES

11-9. ERROR WARNING MESSAGES

11-10. DDCT PROGRAMS

11-11. PROGRAM 14--LISTED DATUMS

11-12. PROGRAM 15--GAUSS-KRUGER

11-13. PROGRAM 16--USER-DEFINED

* CHAPTER 12 - BACKUP
COMPUTER SYSTEM

12-1. BUCS CONFIGURATIONS

12-2. ALPHANUMERIC KEYBOARD FUNCTIONS

12-3. STATUS ANNUNCIATORS

12-4. PREPARATION FOR BUCS OPERATION

12-5. SURVEY PROGRAM MODULE

12-6. SURVEY PROGRAMS

12-7. SPECIAL APPLICATIONS

12-8. MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLESHOOTING

*CHAPTER 13 - SATELLITE SIGNALS
NAVIGATION SET AN/PSN-11

13-1. GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

13-2. STANDARD POSITIONING SYSTEM AND PRECISE POSITIONING SYSTEM

13-3. FA SURVEY APPLICATION

13-4. GPS LIMITATIONS AND CONSIDERATIONS

CHAPTER 14 - SURVEY
OPERATIONS

Section I - CANNON BATTALION SURVEY

14-1. REASONS FOR COMMON GRID

14-2. VARIATIONS IN STARTING CONTROL

14-3. CONVERSION TO COMMON GRID

14-4. POSITION AREA SURVEY REQUIREMENTS

14-5. CONVENTIONAL METHODS OF POSITION AREA SURVEY

14-6. CONNECTION AREA SURVEY

14-7. TARGET AREA SURVEY

14-8. PALADIN SURVEY

Section II - MISSILE AND ROCKET BATTALION SURVEY

14-9. MLRS SURVEY

14-10. PATRIOT MISSILE BATTALION SURVEY

Section III - DIVISION ARTILLERY SURVEY

14-11. DIV ARTY SURVEY OFFICER

14-12. DIV ARTY SURVEY SECTION

Section IV - TARGET ACQUISITION BATTERY AND DETACHMENT

14-13. TARGET ACQUISITION BATTERY

14-14. DETACHMENT

Section V - SURVEY PLANNING AND COORDINATION ELEMENT (CORPS AND BRIGADE)

14-15. CORPS ARTILLERY SPCE

14-16. FA BRIGADE SPCE

14-17. COLLECTION OF SURVEY INFORMATION

14-18. MAINTENANCE OF SURVEY INFORMATION

14-19. EVALUATION OF SURVEY INFORMATION

14-20. DISSEMINATION OF SURVEY INFORMATION

Section VI - SURVEY IN SPECIAL ENVIRONMENTS

14-21. ARCTIC AREAS

14-22. DESERT AREAS

14-23. JUNGLE AREAS

14-24. URBAN AREAS

CHAPTER 15 - SURVEY
PLANNING

15-1. CONDUCT OF PLANNING

15-2. SURVEY PLANNERS

15-3. ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD SURVEY PLAN

15-4. FACTORS AFFECTING SURVEY PLANNING

15-5. METHODS OF SURVEY

15-6. STEPS IN SURVEY PLANNING

15-7. THE SURVEY ORDER

15-8. PRINCIPLES OF A SURVEY SOP

15-9. SURVEY PLANNER'S GUIDELINES

APPENDIX A - STANDARDIZED
PROCEDURES

* APPENDIX B - SURVEY STANDARDS
AND SPECIFICATIONS

B-1. GEODETIC CONTROL SURVEYS

B-2. FIELD ARTILLERY CONTROL SURVEYS

APPENDIX C - TRAINING THE
FIELD ARTILLERY SURVEYOR, MOS 82C

C-1. TRAINING PHILOSOPHY

C-2. TRAINING THE TRAINER

C-3. TRAINING THE SURVEYOR

C-4. TRAINING THE SURVEY PARTY OR SECTION

C-5. SURVEY PARTY OR SECTION MINIATURE FIELD EXERCISE

* APPENDIX D - REPRODUCIBLE
FORMS

*APPENDIX E - ELLIPSOIDS
AND DATUMS

E-1. REFERENCES

E-2. TABLES

E-3. WORLD GEODETIC SYSTEM

E-4. DATUM TRANSFORMATION TABLES

E-5. NOTES FOR DATUM TABLES

APPENDIX F - GRID
ZONE CHART

APPENDIX G - STAR CARDS

*APPENDIX H - STANDARDIZATION
AGREEMENTS

Section I - GENERAL

Section II - STANDARD SURVEY ACCURACY REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE-TO-SURFACE ARTILLERY

Section III - RECORDING OF DATA FOR ARTILLERY SURVEY CONTROL POINTS

*GLOSSARY

*REFERENCES

AUTHORIZATION LETTER

BLANK FORMS


DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

*This publication supersedes FM 6-2, 3 November 1986 and rescinds DA Form 3913 (December 1986), DA Form 4009 (December 1986), DA Form 4009a, (December 1986), DA Form 4109 (December 1986), DA Form 4110 (June 1973), DA Form 4168 (October 1973), DA Form 4175 (October 1973), DA Form 4211 (February 1974), DA Form 4212 (February 1974), DA Form 4214 (December 1986), DA Form 4259-R (September 1983), DA Form 4362 (April 1975), DA Form 4626 (May 1977), DA Form 5596-R (December 1986), and DA Form 5597-R (December 1986).



NEWSLETTER
Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list