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Military

Field Manual
No. 5-484

*FM 5-484
NAVFAC P-1065
AFMAN 32-1072

Navy Facilities Engineering
Command Pamphlet
No. 1065

Air Force Manual
No. 32-1072

HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY
DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE
Washington, DC, 8 March 1994

 

FM 5-484

MULTISERVICE PROCEDURES FOR WELL-DRILLING OPERATIONS

Table of Contents


Foreword

List of Figures and Tables

Preface

PART ONE - BASICS

Chapter 1 - Introduction

1-1. Field Water Supply

1-2. Water Detection

Responsibilities

Procedures

Equipment

1-3. Well Drilling

Forward Deployed Forces in a Developed TO

Permanent or Semipermanent Fixed Installation Forces in a Developed TO

Combat Zone (Corps Level and Below)

Communications Zone (EAC)

1-4. Well Drilling Teams

Army

Navy

Air Force

Chapter 2 - Groundwater

2-1. Fundamentals

2-2. Hydrologic Cycle

Recharge and Discharge

Water Storage

2-3. Groundwater Occurrence

2-4. Geological Setting

Unconsolidated Deposits (Soil)

Consolidated Deposits (Rock)

2-5. Groundwater Hydraulics

Porosity

Permeability

Specific Yield and Retention

Transmissivity

Yield and Drawdown

Hydraulic Gradient

Aquifer Tests

2-6. Aquifers

Unconfined

Confined

Perched

Catchment

Material

2-7. Groundwater Exploration

Reservoir Indicators

Boundary Indicators

Surface Indicators

2-8. Desert Environments

2-9. Water Quality

Aquifer Contamination

Saltwater Intrusion

Groundwater Contamination

Chapter 3 - Field Operations

3-1. Team Concept

Commander

Driller

Helper

3-2. Team Planning, Coordination, and Preparation

3-3. Deploying Teams

3-4. Site Preparation

3-5. Equipment

600-Foot WDS

CF-15-S Drilling System

3-6. Transportation

600-Foot WDS

CF-15-S Drilling System

3-7. Drill-Rig Setup

3-8. Drilling Fluid

3-9. Well-Drilling Operations

Starting the Operation

Finishing the Operation

3-10. Sampling and Logging

3-11. Casing and Well Screen

Surface Casing

Screening

Filtering and Backfilling

3-12. Well Development

3-13. Sanitary Seals

3-14. Pumping Tests

Chapter 4 - Pumps

4-1. Fundamentals

Pump Types

Selection Criteria

4-2. Shallow-Well Pumps

Pitcher Pump

Rotary Pump

Centrifugal Pump

Self-Priming Pump

4-3. Deep-Well Pumps

Submersible Pump

Turbine Pump

Helical-Rotor Pump

Jet Pump

4-4. Air-Lift Pumps

Principle

Installation Design

PART TWO - WELL DRILLING

Chapter 5 - Well-Drilling Methods

5-1. Mud Rotary Drilling

Rotary Rigs

Drill Bits

Rotary Operation

Variables

Drilling Fluids

Rotary Drilling Problems

5-2. Air Rotary Drilling

Air Supply

Foamers

5-3. Percussion Drilling

Equipment

Power

Procedure

Adjusting to Variables

5-4. Reverse Circulation

Advantages and Disadvantages

Rig Configuration

5-5. Drilling Information

Driller's Log

Soil Sampling

Chapter 6 - Well-Installation Procedures

6-1. Setting Casing

6-2. Selecting Casing

6-3. Installing Casing

Open-Hole Method

Single-String Method

Wash-In Method (Jetted Wells)

Driven Method (Driven Wells)

Uncased-Interval Method

6-4. Grouting and Sealing Casing

Dump-Bailer Method

Inside-Tremie Method

Outside-Tremie Method

6-5. Selecting Screens

Types

Lengths

Diameters

Slot Sizes

6-6. Installing Screen

Single-String Method

Pull-Back Method

Open-Hole Method

Washdown Method

Bail-Down Method

6-7. Placing Gravel

Open-Hole Placement

Tremie Placement

Bail-Down Placement

Double-Casing Placement

6-8. Using Alternative Methods

Formation Stabilizer

Unscreened Well

Chapter 7 - Well-Completion Procedures

7-1. Well Development

Jetting Method

Pump-Surge Method

Gravity-Outflow Method

Pressure-Pumping Method

Surge-Block Method

Compressed-Air Methods

7-2. Dispersion Treatment

7-3. Rock Development

7-4. Well Protection and Treatment

External Preparations

Sealing Casing

Disinfection

Cathodic Protection

Well Head and Collar

7-5. Well-Completion Report

Chapter 8 - Well-Performance Testing Procedures

8-1. Testing Pumps

Permanent Wells

Temporary Wells

Methods

8-2. Measuring Water Level

Electric-Line Method

Tape Method

Air-Line Method

8-3. Measuring Discharge Rate

Measured-Container Method

Flow-Meter Method

Circular-Orifice Method

Open-Pipe Method

PART THREE - SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

Chapter 9 - Alternative Well Construction

9-1. Fundamentals

9-2. Jetted Wells

Equipment

Methods

9-3. Driven-Point Wells

Equipment

Procedures

Well Completion

9-4. Cable-Tool Method

General

Equipment and Procedure

9-5. Augered Wells

Equipment

Procedures

Well Completion

Chapter 10 - Arctic Well Construction

10-1. Considerations

Arctic Water Supply

Discontinuous Permafrost

Thick, Continuous Permafrost

10-2. Well Drilling

Drilling Equipment

Rotary Drilling

Jet-Drive Drilling

Drilling Fluids

Air Rotary Drilling

Well Installation and Completion

Chapter 11 - Auxiliary Activities

11-1. Exploratory Drilling

Geological Exploration

Logging Techniques

Drilling Action

11-2. Sampling Soil and Rock

Rotary Cuttings

Depth Determination

Undisturbed Soil Samples

Rock Core Samples

11-3. Installing Monitoring Wells

Safety

Requirements

Installation

11-4. Supporting Construction and Demolition

Appendix A - Water Detection Response Team

A-1. Concept

A-2. Organization

A-3. Deployment

A-4. Operational Concept and WRDB

A-5. Water Resources Overlays

Existing Water-Supply Overlay

Surface-Water Overlay

Groundwater Overlay

Overlay Symbols

A-6. Potential Drilling Areas

Appendix B - Navy Well Drilling

B-1. General

B-2. Equipment

The ITWD

Air Compressor

Well-Completion Kit

Appendix C - Air Force Well Drilling

C-1. General

RH-1

RH-2

RH-3

C-2. Organization and Scope

Capabilities

Requirements

Team Composition

Publications and Documentation

Equipment

Appendix D - Electrical Logging System

D-1. Logging Unit

Well Probe

Resistivity Instrument

Power Supply

Logging Cable

Cable Reel and Reel Case

Extender Cable-Reel Assembly

Surface Lines

D-2. Types of Logging

With the Normal Arrangement

With the Lateral Arrangement

D-3. Mud Probe (on Units Modified for Mud Logging)

Calibrating

Setting up the Equipment

D-4. Troubleshooting Procedures

Checking Batteries

Using a Voltmeter

Calibrating the DR-74 Mud Logger (With a Known Salt Solution)

D-5. Maintenance

Of Resistivity Measurement

Of Cable and Reel Case

D-6. Interpretation of Electrical Logs

Preparation of the Log

Significance of 0.25-Foot Spacing

Significance of 2.5-Foot Spacing

Significance of the Lateral Log

Interpretation of Resistivity Values

Selection of Formation Contacts

Correlation of Electrical Logs

Effect of Metal on the Resistivity Log

SP Curve

Appendix E - Bit Maintenance

E-1. Maintenance

E-2. Failure

E-3. Reconditioning

E-4. Rule of Thumb

Glossary

References

Blank Forms

Authorization Letter


DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

*This publication supersedes FM 5-166, 30 June 1975



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