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FM 5-100
HEADQUARTERS
DEPTARTMENT OF ARMY
Washington, D.C., 27 February 1996

FM 5-100

ENGINEER OPERATIONS


TABLE OF CONTENTS


PREFACE

CHAPTER 1

Challenges in Army and
Engineer Operations

THE NATURE OF WAR
THE THREAT
GENERAL SITUATION
FOREIGN MILITARY TRENDS
ARMY OPERATIONS DOCTRINE AND ITS FOUNDATION
PRINCIPLES OF WAR
Objective
Offensive
Mass
Economy of Force
Maneuver
Unity of Command
Security
Surprise
Simplicity
TENETS OF ARMY OPERATIONS DOCTRINE
Initiative
Agility
Depth
Synchronization
Versatility
DYNAMICS OF COMBAT POWER
Maneuver
Firepower
Protection
Leadership
DEEP, CLOSE, AND REAR OPERATIONS
DEEP OPERATIONS
CLOSE OPERATIONS
REAR OPERATIONS
THE ENGINEER FOCUS
THE ROLES OF ENGINEERS
MOBILITY
COUNTERMOBILITY
SURVIVABILITY
GENERAL ENGINEERING
TOPOGRAPHIC ENGINEERING
ENGINEERS AND TECHNOLOGY

CHAPTER 2

Fundamentals of Engineer Operations

BATTLE COMMAND/C2
COMMAND AND SUPPORT RELATIONSHIPS
COMMAND
Attachment
Operational Control
Operational Command
SUPPORT
Direct Support (DS)
General Support (GS)
TASK ORGANIZATION
CONTROL
USE OF ENGINEER HQ
Engineer Command
Theater Army (TA) Engineer Brigade
Corps Engineer Brigade
Engineer Group
Division Engineer Brigade
Division Engineer Battalion
Engineer Company
Engineer Platoon
ENGINEER COORDINATION
Area Assignment
Task Assignment
ENGINEER INFORMATION FLOW
Unit Status
Mission Status
Terrain Information
Army Battle Command System (ABCS)
Control
ROLES OF ENGINEER COMMANDERS AND STAFF ELEMENTS
ASCC ENGINEER
CORPS ENGINEER
DIVISION ENGINEER
BRIGADE ENGINEER
BATTALION/TF ENGINEER
ENGINEER ECHELON ARCHITECTURE
ORGANIZATIONAL PRINCIPLES
Task-Organize Engineer Forces to Requirements
Give Priority to the Main Effort
Integrate Engineers with Maneuver
and Fire
Ensure That Current Engineer Operations Promote Future Force Operations
Do Not Hold Engineers in Reserve
Build a Logistically Sustainable Force
Maintain Effective C2
Use All Local Resources
ORGANIZATION OF THE THEATER
COMMUNICATIONS ZONE
Tactical Operations
Construction
Topographic Engineering
Real-Property Maintenance Activities
CORPS'S AREA
TACTICAL OPERATIONS
CONSTRUCTION
TOPOGRAPHIC ENGINEERING
REAL-PROPERTY MAINTENANCE
DIVISION AREA
TACTICAL OPERATIONS
TOPOGRAPHIC ENGINEERING

CHAPTER 3

Force Projection

CHARACTERISTICS
CONSIDERATIONS
LETHALITY FOR THE
DEPLOYING FORCE
ANTICIPATION AND INTELLIGENCE
FORCE TAILORING AND TEAMWORK
BATTLE COMMAND
LOGISTICS
TRAINING AND MULTIFORCE OPERATIONS
MEDIA IMPACT
POSTCONFLICT
OPERATION PHASES
PREDEPLOYMENT PHASE
MOBILIZATION PHASE
DEPLOYMENT PHASE
ENTRY PHASE
OPERATIONS PHASE
WAR-TERMINATION AND
POSTCONFLICT PHASE
REDEPLOYMENT AND
RECONSTITUTION PHASE
DEMOBILIZATION PHASE

CHAPTER 4

Joint, Multinational, and Interagency Engineer Organizations and Capabilities

OVERVIEW
US AIR FORCE (USAF) ENGINEER SUPPORT
CIVIL-ENGINEERING MISSION
RED HORSE PROGRAM
RH-1
RH-2
RH-3
PRIME BEEF PROGRAM
Large-Scale CS Squadrons
Small Specialty CS Teams
PRIME RIBS PROGRAM
E&S FORCE MODULE
ARMY-AIR FORCE ENGINEER CONSIDERATIONS
US NAVY ENGINEER SUPPORT
NAVY BASE CONSTRUCTION
MARINE CORPS SUPPORT
AMPHIBIOUS OPERATIONS
MPF SUPPORT
Beaches
Ports
Arrival Airfield
Railheads
NAVY BASE MAINTENANCE
DISASTER RELIEF
CIVIC ACTION
NAVAL-CONSTRUCTION FORCES
Naval-Construction
Battalion Commanders
Naval-Construction Brigade (NCB)
Naval-Construction Regiment
Naval-Construction-Force Support Unit (NCFSU)
Naval Mobile-Construction Battalion
NMCB Air Detachment
NMCB Civic-Action Team (Seabee Team)
Amphibious-Construction Battalion (PHIBCB)
Construction-Battalion Maintenance Unit (CBMU)
Underwater-Construction Team (UCT)
Construction Battalion Unit (CBU)
ARMY-NAVY ENGINEER CONSIDERATIONS
US MARINE CORPS ENGINEER SUPPORT
MARINE AIR-GROUND TF
Command Element
Aviation-Combat Element
Ground-Combat Element
Combat-Service-Support Element
MARINE EXPEDITIONARY FORCE
MARINE EXPEDITIONARY BRIGADE
MARINE EXPEDITIONARY UNIT
MARINE COMBAT-ENGINEER BATTALION (CEB)
MARINE ENGINEER-OPERATIONS DIVISION
MARINE ENGINEER-SUPPORT BATTALION (ESB)
ARMY-MARINE CORPS ENGINEER CONSIDERATIONS
MULTINATIONAL ENGINEERS
MULTINATIONAL ENGINEER CAPABILITIES
MULTINATIONAL ENGINEER C2
MULTINATIONAL ENGINEER CONSIDERATIONS
CONTRACTED CIVILIAN ENGINEERS
CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION AGENTS
LOGISTICAL CIVIL AUGMENTATION PROGRAM (LOGCAP)
CONTRACTED CIVILIAN-ENGINEER CONSIDERATIONS
US GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES, NGO, PVO, AND UN AGENCIES

CHAPTER 5

Operational Engineering

THEATER DEVELOPMENT
ENGINEER FUNCTIONS
TOPOGRAPHIC SUPPORT
CONSTRUCTION PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT
US ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS
CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES
CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS
CONSTRUCTION PRIORITIES
CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT
WARTIME-CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES
GENERAL CONSTRUCTION PRINCIPLES
TROOP CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT
CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
CONSTRUCTION-PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS
CONSTRUCTION-DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
CONTRACTOR SUPPORT
BASE DEVELOPMENT
REAL ESTATE PLANNING AND ACQUISITION
OPERATION, REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE OF FACILITIES AND UTILITIES
FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION
REFUSE COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL
ENGINEER SUPPORT TO DEVELOPING THEATERS
ENGINEER SUPPORT TO MATURE THEATERS
AREA DAMAGE CONTROL

CHAPTER 6

Engineers in Close Combat

CONCEPT
FIGHTING AS ENGINEERS
ENGINEER COMBAT ORGANIZATION
Mechanized
Wheeled
Light
Heavy and Topographic
ENGINEER COMBAT CAPABILITIES
FIGHTING AS INFANTRY
EMPLOYMENT CONSIDERATIONS
Division Level
Corps Level
ORGANIC COMBAT POWER
Engineer Platoon (Mechanized)
Engineer Company (Mechanized)
Engineer Battalion (Mechanized)
Engineer Platoon (Light)
Engineer Company (Light)
Engineer Battalion (Light)
UNIT CAPABILITIES

CHAPTER 7

Tactical Planning

THE ENGINEER MEMBER OF THE COMBINED-ARMS TEAM
THE PLANNING PROCESS
STEP 1. RECEIVE THE MISSION
STEP 2. ISSUE A WO
STEP 3. MAKE A TENTATIVE PLAN
Mission Analysis
Higher Mission and Intent Analysis
Commander's Restated Mission and Planning Guidance
COA Development
COA Analysis
COA Comparison
Recommendation/Decision
STEP 4. INITIATE MOVEMENT
STEP 5. CONDUCT RECONNAISSANCE
STEP 6. COMPLETE THE PLAN
STEP 7. ISSUE THE ORDER
STEP 8. SUPERVISE
PLANS AND ORDERS
MANEUVER FORCE OPORD/OPLAN
Task Organization
Engineer Concept
SCATMINE Concept
Engineer-Unit Subparagraph
Service Support
Engineer Annex
ENGINEER UNIT OPORD/OPLAN

CHAPTER 8

Offense

OPERATIONS IN DEPTH
ENGINEER FOCUS IN THE OFFENSE
PLANNING ENGINEER OPERATIONS IN THE OFFENSE
MISSION, ENEMY, TERRAIN, TROOPS, AND TIME AVAILABLE
TASK ORGANIZATION
PREPARATION
ENGINEERS IN THE OFFENSE
RECONNAISSANCE
MOVEMENT TO CONTACT
ATTACKS
Hasty
Deliberate
Spoiling and Counterattacks, Raids, Feints, and Demonstrations
EXPLOITATION AND PURSUIT
TRANSITIONING TO THE DEFENSE

CHAPTER 9

Defense

OPERATIONS IN DEPTH
ENGINEER FOCUS IN THE DEFENSE
MOBILITY
COUNTERMOBILITY
Obstacle-Emplacement Authority
Obstacle Control
Obstacle-Control Measures
Echelons of Planning
Obstacle Reporting
SURVIVABILITY
GENERAL ENGINEERING
TOPOGRAPHIC ENGINEERING
PLANNING ENGINEER OPERATIONS IN THE DEFENSE
MISSION, ENEMY, TERRAIN, TROOPS, AND TIME AVAILABLE
Mission
Enemy
Terrain
Troops
Time Available
TASK ORGANIZATION
PREPARATION
ENGINEERS IN THE DEFENSE
MOBILE DEFENSE
AREA DEFENSE
TRANSITION TO THE OFFENSE

CHAPTER 10

Retrograde

ENGINEER FOCUS IN RETROGRADE OPERATIONS
MOBILITY
COUNTERMOBILITY
SURVIVABILITY
GENERAL ENGINEERING
TOPOGRAPHIC SUPPORT
PLANNING ENGINEER OPERATIONS FOR RETROGRADE
MISSION, ENEMY, TERRAIN, TROOPS, AND TIME AVAILABLE
Mission
Enemy
Terrain
Troops
Time Available
TASK ORGANIZATION
Delays
Withdrawal
Retirement
Transition in Retrograde Operations
Transition to the Offense
Transition to the Defense
DENIAL OPERATIONS
TARGET SELECTION
LIMITATIONS
PLANNING

CHAPTER 11

Logistics

FORCE SUSTAINMENT
THE UNDERPINNINGS OF LOGISTICS
LOGISTICS CHARACTERISTICS
ANTICIPATION
Predeployment and Deployment Phases
Entry and Operations Phases
War Termination, Postconflict Operations, and Redeployment Phases
INTEGRATION
RESPONSIVENESS
CONTINUITY
IMPROVISATION
ENGINEER LOGISTICS PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS
ENGINEER PREPARATION OF THE THEATER
LOGISTICS FORCE COMPOSITION
ENGINEER LOGISTICS PRIORITIES
JOINT LOGISTICS SUPPORT FOR ENGINEERS
MULTINATIONAL LOGISTICS SUPPORT FOR ENGINEERS
HN SUPPORT FOR ENGINEERS
CAPTURED ENGINEER RESOURCES
CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS SUPPORT
LOGISTICS SUPPORT FOR ENGINEER UNITS
ARMY SERVICE COMPONENT COMMANDER
JTF, JOINT FORCE LOGISTICS SUPPORT COMMAND (JFLSC), AND ARFOR
CORPS
DIVISION
BRIGADE
COMMAND AND SUPPORT RELATIONSHIPS
ENGINEER LOGISTICS CONCEPT
ENGINEER LOGISTICS LAYDOWN
FLOW OF SUPPORT
Unit Sustainment
Mission Sustainment
ENGINEER SUPPORT TO LOGISTICS OPERATIONS
LOC CONSTRUCTION
LOGISTICS-FACILITY CONSTRUCTION
WATER-SUPPLY SUPPORT
MEDICAL-FACILITY CONSTRUCTION
RECONSTITUTION SUPPORT
LOGISTICS FORCE-PROTECTION SUPPORT
KEY ENGINEER LOGISTICS LEADERS
Staff Engineer
Executive Officer
Adjutant (US Army) (S1)
Supply Officer (US Army)
HHC Commander
Company 1SG
ENGINEER LOGISTICS C2
Rear CP Engineer Section
Main CP Engineer Section
Tactical or Assault CP
Engineer Section
Engineer Brigade and Group
CSS Cells
Engineer Brigade and Group HHC CPs
Engineer Company Trains Element
ENGINEER'S ROLE IN PLANNING AND COORDINATING

CHAPTER 12

Contingency Operations

INTRODUCTION
PRINCIPLES OF CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS
OBJECTIVE
UNITY OF EFFORT
LEGITIMACY
PERSEVERANCE
RESTRAINT
SECURITY
ENGINEER SUPPORT TO CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS
ARMS CONTROL
ATTACKS AND RAIDS
COMBATING TERRORISM
DISASTER RELIEF
HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE
NATION ASSISTANCE
SUPPORT TO AN INSURGENCY AND A COUNTERINSURGENCY
NONCOMBATANT-EVACUATION OPERATIONS
PEACE OPERATIONS
Support to Diplomacy
Peacekeeping Operations
Peace-Enforcement Operations
RESCUE-AND-RECOVERY OPERATIONS
DEMONSTRATIONS AND SHOWS OF FORCE
SUPPORT TO CIVIL AUTHORITIES
SUPPORT TO COUNTERDRUG OPERATIONS
ENGINEER CONSIDERATIONS FOR CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS
ENGINEER ASSESSMENT
JOINT ENGINEER C2
TOPOGRAPHIC SUPPORT
CONSTRUCTION SUPPORT
COUNTERMINE OPERATIONS
FORCE PROTECTION

APPENDIX A

Engineer Organizations and
Functions

ENGINEER OPERATIONS
DIVISION ENGINEER UNITS
HEADQUARTERS AND HEADQUARTERS DETACHMENT (HHD), ENGINEER BRIGADE, HEAVY DIVISION
ENGINEER COMBAT BATTALION, HEAVY DIVISION
ENGINEER COMBAT BATTALION, ENHANCED HEAVY SEPARATE BRIGADE
LIGHT ENGINEER DIVISIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
ENGINEER BATTALION, AIRBORNE DIVISION
ENGINEER BATTALION, AIR-ASSAULT DIVISION
ENGINEER BATTALION, LIGHT INFANTRY DIVISION
SEPARATE COMPANIES
ENGINEER COMPANY, LIGHT ARMORED CAVALRY REGIMENT
ENGINEER COMPANY, ARMORED CAVALRY REGIMENT
ENGINEER COMPANY, HEAVY SEPARATE BRIGADE
ENGINEER COMPANY, SEPARATE INFANTRY BRIGADE
SEPARATE TEAMS
TOPOGRAPHIC TERRAIN DS TEAM, HEAVY DIVISION
TOPOGRAPHIC TERRAIN ANALYSIS TEAM, HEAVY DIVISION
TOPOGRAPHIC TERRAIN ANALYSIS TEAM, LIGHT DIVISION
CORPS ENGINEER UNITS
ENGINEER BRIGADE, CORPS
ENGINEER GROUP, COMBAT
ENGINEER COMBAT BATTALION, CORPS WHEELED
ENGINEER COMBAT BATTALION, CORPS MECHANIZED
ENGINEER COMBAT BATTALION, CORPS AIRBORNE
ENGINEER COMBAT BATTALION, CORPS LIGHT
ENGINEER COMBAT BATTALION, HEAVY
SEPARATE CORPS COMPANIES
ENGINEER COMBAT-SUPPORT EQUIPMENT COMPANY
ENGINEER COMPANY LIGHT EQUIPMENT, AIRBORNE
ENGINEER COMPANY LIGHT EQUIPMENT, AIR ASSAULT/LIGHT
ENGINEER MGB COMPANY
ENGINEER PANEL-BRIDGE COMPANY
ENGINEER ASSAULT FLOAT-BRIDGE COMPANY
ENGINEER TOPOGRAPHIC COMPANY
OPERATIONAL-LEVEL ENGINEER UNITS
ENGINEER COMMAND
ENGINEER BRIGADE, TA
ENGINEER GROUP, CONSTRUCTION
ENGINEER PRIME-POWER BATTALION
HHC, ENGINEER TOPOGRAPHIC BATTALION
SEPARATE OPERATIONAL-LEVEL COMPANIES
ENGINEER COMPANY, TOPOGRAPHIC BATTALION
ENGINEER CONSTRUCTION-SUPPORT COMPANY
ENGINEER DUMP-TRUCK COMPANY
ENGINEER PIPELINE-CONSTRUCTION- SUPPORT COMPANY
ENGINEER PORT-CONSTRUCTION COMPANY
SEPARATE ENGINEER TEAMS (OPERATIONAL LEVEL)
ENGINEER TEAM, BATTALION HQ
ENGINEER TEAM, FIRE-FIGHTING HQ
ENGINEER TEAM, FIRE-FIGHTING TEAMS
ENGINEER TEAM, QUARRY, 75 TPH
ENGINEER TEAM, WELL DRILLING
ENGINEER TEAM, CONTROL-AND-SUPPORT DETACHMENT DIVING
ENGINEER TEAM, LIGHTWEIGHT DIVING
ENGINEER TEAM, REAL ESTATE
ENGINEER TEAM, UTILITIES (4,000)
ENGINEER TEAM, TOPOGRAPHIC PLANNING AND CONTROL
US ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS' OPERATIONS
USACE DIVISION
USACE DISTRICT
USACE (FWD) ELEMENT
USACE AREA OFFICE

APPENDIX B

Engineer Estimate

THE PROCESS
RECEIVING THE MISSION
CONDUCTING THE EBA
TERRAIN ANALYSIS
ENEMY MISSION AND M/S CAPABILITIES
FRIENDLY MISSION AND M/S CAPABILITIES
ANALYZING THE MISSION
SPECIFIED TASKS
IMPLIED TASKS
ASSETS AVAILABLE
LIMITATIONS (CONSTRAINTS AND RESTRICTIONS)
RISK
TIME ANALYSIS
ESSENTIAL TASKS
RESTATED MISSION
DEVELOPING A SCHEME OF ENGINEER OPERATIONS
ANALYZING THE RELATIVE COMBAT POWER
IDENTIFYING THE ENGINEER MISSIONS AND ALLOCATING FORCES
DEVELOPING A SCHEME OF ENGINEER OPERATIONS
BALANCING AVAILABLE ASSETS AGAINST SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS
INTEGRATING INTO THE MANEUVER COA
WAR GAMING AND REFINING THE ENGINEER PLAN
RECOMMENDING A COA
FINALIZING THE ENGINEER PLAN AND ISSUING THE ORDER

APPENDIX C

Orders and Annexes

SUPPORTED-UNIT'S ORDERS AND ENGINEER ANNEX
SUPPORTED-UNIT'S OPORD
ENGINEER ANNEX
ENGINEER-UNIT ORDERS
ENGINEER-UNIT WO
Heading
Situation
Attachments and Detachments
Earliest Time of Move
Nature and Time of the Operation
Time and Place of Orders Group
Administrative and Logistical Information
Acknowledgment
ENGINEER-UNIT OPORD
ENGINEER-UNIT FRAGO
Changes to Task Organization
Situation
Concept
Coordinating Instructions

AUTHORIZATION PAGE




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