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  *FM 3-97.61 (TC 90-6-1)
Field Manual
No. 3-97.61
Headquarters
Department of the Army
Washington, DC, 26 August 2002

 

FM 3-97.61

MILITARY MOUNTAINEERING

 

Table of Contents

COVER  
PREFACE  
CHAPTER 1. MOUNTAIN TERRAIN, WEATHER, AND HAZARDS
Section I. Mountain Terrain
1-1. Definition
1-2. Composition
1-3. Rock and Slope Types
1-4. Rock Classifications
1-5. Mountain Building
1-6. Route Classification
1-7. Cross-Country Movement
1-8. Cover and Concealment
1-9. Observation
1-10. Fields of Fire
Section II. Mountain Weather
1-11. Considerations for Planning
1-12. Mountain Air
1-13. Weather Characteristics
1-14. Wind
1-15. Humidity
1-16. Cloud Formation
1-17. Types of Clouds
1-18. Fronts
1-19. Temperature
1-20. Weather Forecasting
1-21. Recording Data
Section III. Mountain Hazards
1-22. Subjective Hazards
1-23. Objective Hazards
1-24. Weather Hazards
1-25. Avalanche Hazards
CHAPTER 2. MOUNTAIN LIVING
Section I. Survival
2-1. Water Supply
2-2. Nutrition
2-3. Personal Hygiene and Sanitation
Section II. Acclimatization and Conditioning
2-4. Symptoms and Adjustments
2-5. Physical and Psychological Conditioning
Section III. Medical Considerations
2-6. Illness and Injury
2-7. Treatment and Evacuation
2-8. Solar Injuries
2-9. Cold-Weather Injuries
2-10. Heat Injuries
2-11. Acute Mountain Sickness
2-12. Chronic Mountain Sickness
2-13. Understanding High-Altitude Illnesses
2-14. High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema
2-15. High-Altitude Cerebral Edema
2-16. Hydration in HAPE and HACE
CHAPTER 3. MOUNTAINEERING EQUIPMENT
Section I. Equipment Description and Maintenance
3-1. Footwear
3-2. Clothing
3-3. Climbing Software
3-4. Climbing Hardware
3-5. Snow and Ice Climbing Hardware
3-6. Sustainability Equipment
Section II. Equipment Packing
3-7. Choice of Equipment
3-8. Tips on Packing
CHAPTER 4. ROPE MANAGEMENT AND KNOTS
Section I. Preparation, Care and Maintenance, Inspection, Terminology
4-1. Preparation
4-2. Care and Maintenance
4-3. Inspection
4-4. Terminology
Section II. Coiling, Carrying, Throwing
4-5. Coiling and Carrying the Rope
4-6. Throwing the Rope
Section III. Knots
4-7. Square Knot
4-8. Fisherman's Knot
4-9. Double Fisherman's Knot
4-10. Figure-Eight Bend
4-11 Water Knot
4-12. Bowline
4-13. Round Turn and Two Half Hitches
4-14. Figure-Eight Retrace (Rerouted Figure-Eight)
4-15. Clove Hitch
4-16. Wireman's Knot
4-17. Directional Figure-Eight
4-18. Bowline-on-a-Bight (Two-Loop Bowline)
4-19. Two-Loop Figure-Eight
4-20. Figure-Eight Loop (Figure-Eight-on-a-Bight)
4-21. Prusik Knot
4-22. Bachman Knot
4-23. Bowline-on-a-Coil
4-24. Three-Loop Bowline
4-25. Figure-Eight Slip Knot
4-26. Transport Knot (Overhand Slip Knot/Mule Knot)
4-27. Kleimhiest Knot
4-28. Frost Knot
4-29. Girth Hitch
4-30. Munter Hitch
4-31. Rappel Seat
4-32. Guarde Knot
CHAPTER 5. ANCHORS
Section I. Natural Anchors
5-1. Trees
5-2. Boulders
5-3. Chockstones
5-4. Rock Projections
5-5. Tunnels and Arches
5-6. Bushes and Shrubs
5-7. Slinging Techniques
Section II. Anchoring With the Rope
5-8. Rope Anchor
5-9. Tensionless Anchor
Section III. Artificial Anchors
5-10. Deadman
5-11. Pitons
5-12. Chocks
5-13. Spring-Loaded Camming Device
5-14. Bolts
5-15. Equalizing Anchors
CHAPTER 6. CLIMBING
Section I. Climbing Fundamentals
6-1. Route Selection
6-2. Terrain Selection for Training
6-3. Preparation
6-4. Spotting
6-5. Climbing Technique
6-6. Safety Precautions
6-7. Margin of Safety
Section II. Use of Holds
6-8. Climbing With the Feet
6-9. Using the Hands
6-10. Combination Techniques
Section III. Roped Climbing
6-11. Tying-in to the Climbing Rope
6-12. Presewn Harnesses
6-13. Improvised Harnesses
Section IV. Belay Techniques
6-14. Procedure for Managing the Rope
6-15. Choosing a Belay Technique
6-16. Establishing a Belay
6-17. Setting Up a Belay
6-18. Top-Rope Belay
Section V. Climbing Commands
6-19. Verbal Commands
6-20. Rope Tug Commands
Section VI. Roped Climbing Methods
6-21. Top-Roped Climbing
6-22. Lead Climbing
6-23. Aid Climbing
6-24. Three-Man Climbing Team

CHAPTER 7. ROPE INSTALLATIONS
Section I. Fixed Rope
7-1. Installation
7-2. Utilization
7-3. Retrieval
7-4. Fixed Rope With Intermediate Anchors
Section II. Rappelling
7-5. Selection of a Rappel Point
7-6. Installation of the Rappel Point
7-7. Operation of the Rappel Point
7-8. Recovery of the Rappel Point
7-9. Types of Rappels
Section III. One-Rope Bridge
7-10. Site Selection
7-11. Installation Using Transport Tightening System
7-12. Installation Using Z-Pulley Tightening System
7-13. Utilization
7-14. Hauling Line
7-15. Retrieval
Section IV. Suspension Traverse
7-16. Site Selection
7-17. Installation
7-18. Retrieval
Section V. Vertical Hauling Line
7-19. Site Selection
7-20. Installation
7-21. Retrieval
Section VI. Simple Raising Systems
7-22. Z-Pulley System
7-23. U-Pulley System

CHAPTER 8. MOUNTAIN WALKING TECHNIQUES
  8-1. Basic Principles
8-2. Techniques
8-3. Safety Considerations
8-4. Navigation
8-5. Route Planning
8-6. Route Selection

CHAPTER 9 MOUNTAIN STREAM CROSSING
  9-1. Reconnaissance
9-2. Preparation of Troops and Equipment
9-3. Individual Crossings
9-4. Team Crossing
9-5. Rope Installations
9-6. Safety
9-7. Swimming

CHAPTER 10. MOVEMENT OVER SNOW AND ICE
  10-1. Movement Over Snow
10-2. Movement Over Ice
10-3. Use of Ice Ax and Crampons
10-4. Glissading
10-5. Snow and Ice Anchors
10-6. Roped Climbing on Ice and Snow
10-7. Movement on Glaciers
10-8. Glacier Bivouac Procedures

CHAPTER 11. MOUNTAIN RESCUE AND EVACUATION
  11-1. Considerations
11-2. Planning Rescue Operations
11-3. Mass Casualties
11-4. Special Training
11-5. Preparation for Evacuation
11-6. Manual Carries
11-7. Litters
11-8. Rescue Systems
11-9. Low-Angle Evacuation
11-10. High-Angle Evacuation

APPENDIX A. LEVELS OF MILITARY MOUNTAINEERING
APPENDIX B. MEASUREMENT CONVERSION FACTORS
APPENDIX C. AVALANCHE SEARCH AND RESCUE TECHNIQUES
GLOSSARY  
REFERENCES  
AUTHENTICATION

Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.


*This publication supersedes TC 90-6-1, 26 April 1989.



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