Military

FIELD MANUAL

HEADQUARTERS

No. 3-22.68

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
 

Washington, DC, 31 January 2003



CREW-SERVED MACHINE GUNS,
5.56-mm AND 7.62-mm


CONTENTS

COVER

PREFACE

CHAPTER 1.   M249 MACHINE GUN

Section

I.   Description and Components

 

1-1.   Description

 

1-2.   Components

 

1-3.   Ammunition

 

1-4.   Blank Firing Attachment

   

Section

II.   Maintenance

 

1-5.   Clearing Procedures

 

1-6.   General Disassembly

 

1-7.   Inspection

 

1-8.   Cleaning, Lubrication, and Preventive Maintenance

 

1-9.   General Assembly

 

1-10.   Function Check

 

1-11.   Maintenance Procedures

 

1-12.   Maintenance During Nuclear, Biological, Chemical Conditions

   

Section

III. Operation and Function

 

1-13.   Operation

 

1-14.   Loading

 

1-15.   Unloading

 

1-16.   Cycle of Functioning

 

1-17.   Sights

 

1-18.   M122 Tripod

 

1-19.   Bipod Operations

 

1-20.   Vehicular Mount

 

1-21.   Tripod Positioning

   

Section

IV.   Performance Problems and Destruction

 

1-22.   Malfunctions.

 

1-23.   Stoppages

 

1-24.   Immediate Action

 

1-25.   Remedial Action

 

1-26.   Destruction Procedures

CHAPTER 2.   M60 MACHINE GUN

Section

I.   Description and Components

 

2-1.   Description

 

2-2.   Components

 

2-3.   Ammunition

 

2-4.   Blank Firing Attachments, M13 and M13A

   

Section

II.   Maintenance

 

2-5.   Clearing Procedures

 

2-6.   General Disassembly

 

2-7.   Inspection

 

2-8.   Cleaning, Lubrication, and Preventive Maintenance

 

2-9.   General Assembly

 

2-10.   Function Check

 

2-11.   Maintenance Procedures

 

2-12.   Maintenance During Nuclear, Biological, Chemical Conditions

   

Section

III. Operation and Function

 

2-13.   Operation

 

2-14.   Loading

 

2-15.   Unloading....

 

2-16.   Cycle of Functioning

 

2-17.   Sights

 

2-18.   M122 Tripod

 

2-19.   Bipod Operations

 

2-20.   Vehicular Mount

 

2-21.   Tripod Position

   

Section

IV.   Performance Problems and Destruction

 

2-22.   Malfunctions.

 

2-23.   Stoppages

 

2-24.   Immediate Action

 

2-25.   Remedial Action

 

2-26.   Destruction Procedures

CHAPTER 3.   M240B MACHINE GUN

Section

I.   Description and Components

 

3-1.   Description

 

3-2.   Components

 

3-3.   Ammunition

 

3-4.   Ammunition Adapter

 

3-5.   Blank Firing Attachment

   

Section

II.   Maintenance

 

3-6.   Clearing Procedures

 

3-7.   General Disassembly

 

3-8.   Inspection

 

3-9.   Cleaning, Lubrication, and Preventive Maintenance

 

3-10.   General Assembly

 

3-11.   Function Check

 

3-12.   Maintenance Procedures

 

3-13.   Maintenance During Nuclear, Biological, Chemical Conditions

   

Section

III. Operation and Function

 

3-14.   Operation

 

3-15.   Loading

 

3-16.   Unloading

 

3-17.   Cycle of Functioning

 

3-18.   Sights

 

3-19.   M122A1 Tripod

 

3-20.   Bipod Operations

 

3-21.   Tripod Operations

   

Section

IV.   Performance Problems and Destruction

 

3-22.   Malfunctions

 

3-23.   Stoppages

 

3-24.   Immediate Action

 

3-25.   Remedial Action

 

3-26.   Stuck Barrel

 

3-27.   Destruction Procedures

CHAPTER 4.   MACHINE GUN MARKSMANSHIP TRAINING

Section

I   Introduction

 

4-1.   Objectives

 

4-2.   Training Phases

 

4-3.   Training Strategy

 

4-4.   Training for Combat Conditions

   

Section

II.   Preliminary Gunnery

 

4-5.   Marksmanship Fundamentals

 

4-6.   Firing Positions

 

4-7.   Night Fire

 

4-8.   Nuclear, Biological, Chemical Fire

 

4-9.   Engagement of Moving Targets

 

4-10.   Traverse and Search

 

4-11.   Direct Lay

 

4-12.   Application of Fire

 

4-13.   Fire Adjustment

 

4-14.   Effects of Wind

 

4-15.   Fire Commands

 

4-16.   Dry-Fire Exercise

 

4-17.   Multipurpose Machine Gun Range Layout

 

4-18.   Basic Machine Gun Target

 

4-19.   Target Analysis

   

Section

III. Crew Drill

 

4-20.   Preparation

 

4-21.   Crew Equipment

 

4-22.   Formation (Bipod or Tripod Mounted)

 

4-23.   Cross-Training Procedures

 

4-24.   Inspection for Bipod Fire

 

4-25.   Placement into Action (Bipod)

 

4-26.   Procedures for Changing the Barrel (Bipod)

 

4-27.   Removal from Action (Bipod)

 

4-28.   Inspection for Tripod Fire

 

4-29.   Placement into Action (Tripod)

 

4-30.   Procedures for Changing the Barrel (Tripod)

 

4-31.   Removal from Action (Tripod)

 

4-32.   Prone Position

   

Section

IV.   Basic Gunnery for the M249, M60, and M240B Machine Guns

 

4-33.   Zero

 

4-34.   Field Zero

 

4-35.   10-Meter Firing

 

4-36.   10-Meter Conduct of Fire

 

4-37.   10-Meter Firing, Qualification

 

4-38.   Transition Fire

 

4-39.   Transition Conduct of Fire, Bipod

 

4-40.   Transition Fire, Limited Visibility

 

4-41.   AN/PVS-4 Zero

 

4-42.   Qualification Standards

CHAPTER 5.   COMBAT TECHNIQUES OF FIRE

Section

I.   Characteristics of Fire

 

5-1.   Trajectory

 

5-2.   Maximum Ordinate

 

5-3.   Cone of Fire

 

5-4.   Beaten Zone

 

5-5.   Danger Space

   

Section

II.   Classes of Fire

 

5-6.   Respect to the Ground

 

5-7.   Respect to the Target

 

5-8.   Respect to the Machine Gun

   

Section

III. Application of Fire

 

5-9.   Types of Targets

 

5-10.   Distribution, Concentration, and Rate of Fire

 

5-11.   Target Engagement

 

5-12.   Target Engagement during Limited Visibility

 

5-13.   Overhead Fire

 

5-14.   Defilade Positions

   

Section

IV.   Predetermined Fires

 

5-15.   Terminology

 

5-16.   Range Card

   

Section

V.   Fire Control

 

5-17.   Methods of Fire Control

 

5-18.   Fire Commands

   

Section

VI.   Range Determination

 

5-19.   Range Estimation

 

5-20.   Lateral Distance Measurement

   

Section

VII. Advanced Gunnery

 

5-21.   Objectives

 

5-22.   Organization

 

5-23.   Ammunition

 

5-24.   Firing Sequence

 

5-25.   Alternate Firing Positions

 

5-26.   Movement, Speed, and Alignment

 

5-27.   Reloading

CHAPTER 6.   TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM

 

6-1.   Mission-Essential Task List

 

6-2.   Trainer Assessment

 

6-3.   Assistant Trainers and Cadre Coaches

 

6-4.   Program Phases

 

6-5.   Training Tasks

 

6-6.   Trainer Certification Program


APPENDIX A. UNIT TRAINING PROGRAM

APPENDIX B.

PROFICIENCY (PERFORMANCE) EXAMINATION
APPENDIX C. AERIAL DEFENSE

APPENDIX D.

RANGE SAFETY
APPENDIX E. EMPLOYMENT
APPENDIX F. TRAINING AIDS AND DEVICES
APPENDIX G. ADVANCED OPTICS AND LASERS
APPENDIX H. 10-METER BORE LIGHT/25-METER TARGET OFFSETS
   
  GLOSSARY
  REFERENCES
  AUTHENTICATION

DISITRIBUTION RESTRICTION:   Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

*This publication supersedes FM 23-67, 29 February 1984.



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