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CHAPTER 10

COMBAT SUPPORT

The commander of an SBCT infantry battalion uses combat support elements as combat multipliers to enhance the combat power of his maneuver companies. The addition of enablers to command and control information systems enhances the commander's ability to integrate these assets into the battalion's scheme of maneuver. CS elements use enhanced information systems that provide increased situational understanding to stay abreast of the tactical situation and assist the commander in applying superior combat power at the decisive point on the battlefield.

This chapter describes the capabilities and limitations of CS elements that support the SBCT infantry battalion. The battalion commander is responsible for the integration and synchronization of all available CS with available combat assets to accomplish his assigned mission. Digitization of maneuver and CS units affects the way in which the commander decides to employ his CS assets. These considerations ultimately dictate the relationships and responsibilities of attached CS assets.

Section I. FIRES AND EFFECTS

The fires and effects system coordinates and provides full-spectrum fires and effects in time, space, and purpose in support of the SBCT. It enables the SBCT infantry battalion to conduct decisive operations during full-spectrum operations. The fires and effects system acquires and tracks targets, delivers timely and accurate lethal fires, provides counterfire, and plans, coordinates, and orchestrates full-spectrum fires and effects. Infantry battalions rely heavily on the fire support element to plan, coordinate, and integrate effects-based fires into the battalion's combined arms operation. The battalion commander expects fires and effects to be delivered at the right place and time on the battlefield to accomplish his desired effects against targets and achieve the intended purpose. The implication for the fires and effects community is that maneuver commanders must have support from field artillery and other fire platforms that are not necessarily organic to the battalion but are positioned to best deliver the required effects. The FSE receives guidance from the commander and from the higher HQ fires and effects plan regarding the effects desired in time, space, and purpose. It then plans, coordinates, and achieves the desired effects using organic and nonorganic means in a rapid and responsive manner.

10-1.     ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT

In the SBCT, a fire support element is organic to each infantry battalion and the RSTA squadron.

    a.     Fire Support Element. The FSEs provide each maneuver battalion with a resident fires and effects coordination capability within its headquarters (Figure 10-1). The Air Force tactical air control party, consisting of an air liaison officer and enlisted tactical air controller, plugs into each maneuver battalion headquarters alongside the FSE, providing the ability to request, coordinate, and control CAS. Each FSE has a voice and digital link to the fires and effects coordination center (FECC).

Figure 10-1. Battalion FES

Figure 10-1. Battalion FES.

    b.     Battalion Mortars. Mortars are organic to SBCT infantry battalions and companies. (Refer to Chapter One for battalion mortar platoon organization.) The battalion mortar platoon has four 120-mm and four 81-mm mortars. Though it has eight systems, there are only four crews available to operate these systems. Each infantry company has two 120-mm and two 60-mm mortars. Though it has four systems, there are only two crews available to operate these systems. These assets provide the commander with close and immediate responsive fires in support of the maneuver companies. These fires harass, suppress, neutralize, or destroy enemy attack formations and defenses; obscure the enemy's vision; or otherwise inhibit his ability to acquire friendly targets. The three primary types of mortar fires are high explosive, obscuration, and illumination. Mortars also can be used for final protective fires and smoke.

10-2.     PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS

Within the SBCT there is only one "fires and effects organization" and that is the fires and effects coordination cell at SBCT headquarters. Traditional fire support organizations (battalion/squadron fire support elements, company/troop fire support teams, and infantry platoon forward observer teams) are subordinate to the FECC. The SBCT plays a vital role in the battalion's fires and effects planning and execution. With the exception of battalion mortars, the SBCT is the provider of indirect fires and effects combat multipliers as the battalion has no effects cell. Therefore, any discussion of fires and effects planning and execution at the battalion level must first start with the role of the SBCT. The SBCT develops a synchronized scheme of maneuver and concept of fires and effects, translating that concept into a scheme of fires and effects. It assigns fires and effects tasks and allocates assets and effects to subordinates. As part of that concept, it is the SBCT's responsibility to set conditions for and provide fires and effects to the battalions for the close, direct firefight. Fires and effects in support of the battalion close fight are for a specific period of time or a specific purpose. In terms of an SBCT versus battalion fight, there is only one fire plan. The top-down plan developed and refined during the MDMP and preparation phase should incorporate essential fires and effects tasks supporting SBCT and battalion (and company) schemes of maneuver. As fires shift from deeper to closer targets, execution responsibility tends to shift from brigade to battalion. In executing the fire plan, the SBCT does not hand fires off to subordinate headquarters; rather, it hands off the responsibility for executing certain EFETs to subordinate headquarters. In this manner, SBCT fires remain synchronized with brigade maneuver while still supporting subordinate maneuver units. The SBCT must clearly specify when fires and effects will transition to the battalions and when the battalions will lose them. Refinements to the SBCT scheme of fires from subordinate units must also be integrated. Finally, the SBCT integrates the movement of artillery units with the scheme of maneuver.

    a.     SBCT's Role in Fires and Effects Planning. The battalion is the executor of its portion of the SBCT scheme of fires and effects plan. With the exception of the battalion mortars, the SBCT commander controls all indirect fire assets supporting the SBCT. The artillery is normally in direct support of the SBCT. Therefore, the battalion must clearly understand the concept of fires, how it is synchronized to support the scheme of maneuver, and the battalion's role in the execution of its portion of the SBCT scheme of fires. Understanding these things, the battalion must develop its own concept of fires. This concept normally involves assigned tasks from the scheme of fires and targets to support the battalion close fight. This may require only the refinement of an SBCT target or may require the battalion to submit new targets or a new EFET to support the battalion commander's scheme of maneuver. The SBCT must—

    • Synchronize the SBCT concept of fires and effects with the SBCT scheme of maneuver.
    • Set conditions for the battalion close fight.
    • Provide force protection to the battalion through both a proactive and reactive counterfire fight.
    • Develop an SBCT scheme of fires and assign tasks to subordinates.
    • Provide fires for the battalion close fight.
    • Integrate refinements from subordinates.

    • Integrate and synchronize the movement of artillery units with the scheme of maneuver.

    b.     Battalion's Role in Fires and Effects Planning. Key to the battalion successful fire support is the synchronization of mortar fires with the scheme of maneuver, integration of the mortars into the scheme of fires, and synchronization of their movement with the scheme of maneuver. The battalion then develops a scheme of fires to support both those tasks assigned by the SBCT and those targets developed by the battalion. It then issues the fires and effects plan to its subordinates and incorporates bottom-up refinement to support the commander's scheme of maneuver. Finally, the battalion forwards its effects-based fires and target refinements to SBCT and ensures the plan is clearly understood through rehearsals.The battalion must—

    • Understand the integration of the SBCT scheme of maneuver and fires.
    • Understand the battalion's role in the SBCT scheme of fires and maneuver.
    • Understand the SBCT commander's intent for fires.
    • Execute the battalion's portion of the scheme of fires.
    • Develop a battalion concept and scheme of fires and effects.
    • Integrate and refine SBCT targets for the close fight.
    • Plan for the synchronization of the battalion mortars with the scheme of fires and effects and their movement with the scheme of maneuver.
    • Incorporate bottom-up refinement from the companies.
    • Forward the battalion concept of fires and effects and target refinements to SBCT.
    • Conduct combined rehearsals.

    c.     Battalion Commander's Role in Fires and Effects Planning. The key role of the battalion commander in fires and effects planning is the synchronization of fires with maneuver. Fires and maneuver must be thought of concurrently. The commander must—

    • First decide precisely what he wants his fires and effects to accomplish.
    • Take an active role in the development of the battalion's essential fires and effects tasks.
    • Clearly articulate to his staff, not just his fire support officer, the sequenced EFETs in terms of desired effects for each target and the purpose of each target as it relates to the scheme of maneuver.
    • Ensure the FSO understands his fire support guidance. The guidance does not have to be any different from the guidance he gives to his subordinate maneuver commanders.
    • Give doctrinally stated effects and purposes. An effect for fire support describes a targeting effect against a specific enemy formation's function or capability. The purpose describes how this effect contributes to accomplishing the mission within the intent. The FSO and FSE develop the method to achieve the desired effects and the purpose for each target.
    • Ensure that mortar fires are clearly synchronized with the scheme of maneuver and that the concept of fires and effects and their movement are synchronized with maneuver.

    • Clearly articulate to the SBCT commander and the SBCT staff the importance of those fires to the battalion scheme of maneuver and the effect on mission success if those fires are not received. In most cases, if the battalion EFET is not included as an SBCT EFET, the likelihood of getting the target fired by artillery or CAS is greatly diminished.

    d.     Fire Support Officer's (FSO) Role in Fires and Effects Planning. The battalion fire support officer plans, coordinates, and executes fire support for the maneuver commander's concept of operation. He is the fire support coordinator (FSCOORD) for the maneuver battalion. His responsibilities include—

    • Advising the commander and his staff on fire support matters to include making recommendations for integrating battalion mortars into the scheme of maneuver.
    • Supervising all functions of the battalion FSE.

    • Ensuring all fire support personnel are properly trained to support SBCT operations.
    • Preparing and disseminating the fire support execution matrix or the fire support plan.
    • Coordinating with the tactical air control party on CAS missions and for terminal control personnel.

    • Planning, directing, and monitoring the employment of the ground/vehicular laser, locator, designator where it will best support the commander's concept of operation.
    • Establishing and maintaining voice and digital connectivity with the SBCT FECC. When directed by the FECC, establish and maintain voice and digital connectivity with the FA battalion.
    • Establishing voice and digital communications with battalion and squadron mortars as required. Monitor battalion and SBCT fire support nets and mortar employment in the close fight.
    • Participating in fires and effects rehearsals.
    • Processing requests for additional fire support with the FECC and CAS with the TACP.
    • Helping the battalion S2 write the target acquisition and surveillance plan by providing information regarding the vulnerability of targets and advising on specific requirements for accuracy of target location assurance, level of detail for target descriptions, and minimum dwell time for viable attack.
    • Providing staff supervision of the TACP assets attached, organic, and under OPCON of the battalion.
    • Developing a central target list and recommending the attack/effects guidance matrix (A/EGM) to the commander.
    • Disseminating the approved target list and matrix to subordinate elements.
    • Recommending appropriate changes in the target list and attack guidance when required.
    • Determining, recommending, and processing time-sensitive high payoff targets to the FECC.
    • Coordinating with the battalion S2 for target acquisition coverage and processing of battalion HPT and producing the target selection standards (TSS) matrix for tactical air assets working for the battalion.

10-3.     FIRES AND EFFECTS PLANNING

SBCT elements conduct fires and effects planning concurrently with maneuver planning at all levels. SBCTs and SBCT infantry battalions typically use top-down fire support planning with bottom-up refinement of the plans. The commander develops guidance for fires and effects in terms of task (effect) and purpose. In turn, the fire support planner determines the method to be used to achieve the desired effect. Individual units then incorporate assigned tasks into their fires and effects plans. In addition, units tasked to initiate fires must refine and rehearse their assigned tasks. This means that the commander refines his unit's assigned portion of the fires and effects plan, ensuring that the designated targets will achieve the intended purpose.

    a.     EFET Planning. The SBCT employs effects-based fires to set the conditions for its operations. The objective of effects-based fires is to apply a desired effect to achieve a specified purpose (shaping, protective, or decisive) in time and space by servicing targets as acquired. This approach develops EFETs to focus full-spectrum effects against a high-payoff target within the battlespace. An EFET is defined as an application of fires and effects required to support a combined arms course of action. Failure to achieve an EFET may require the battalion commander to alter his scheme of maneuver. A complete EFET consists of the task (effect), purpose, method, and assessment (Figure 10-2). The task is the effect (what) desired to apply against the target (for example, suppress and obscure the enemy on hill 197). The purpose (why) is the combined arms outcome desired as a result of applying the effect (for example, enable the breach force to reduce the obstacle and establish far side security). The method (how) consists of acquisition and tracking, delivery of effects, and restrictions. Assessment is essential to determine if the desired effect was created and the purpose achieved. In order for the FSO to meet the challenges of achieving the battalion's EFETs, he must ensure that full-spectrum effects are produced. As the SBCT is the lowest level with an FEEC incorporating a nonlethal cell, the FSO must rely on the SBCT for nonlethal planning and understand the battalion's role in executing the SBCT plan. To assist him in doing this, the FSO employs the fires and effects coordination process. This method is the continuous process of planning, integrating, and orchestrating full spectrum fires and effects in support of the combined arms operation to enable the achievement of the commander's desired end state. Currently the only nonlethal system organic to indirect fires is the use of smoke and illumination. The application of fires and effects must be fully nested within the battalion's concept of the operation.

Figure 10-2. Essential fires and effects tasks

Figure 10-2. Essential fires and effects tasks.

    b.     Linking Tasks and Maneuver Purpose. A clearly defined maneuver purpose enables the maneuver commander to articulate precisely how he wants fires and effects to affect the enemy during different phases of the battle. In turn, this allows fires and effects planners to develop a fires and effects plan that effectively supports the intended purpose. They can determine each required task (in terms of effects on target), the best method for accomplishing each task (in terms of a fires and effects asset and its fire capabilities), and a means of quantifying accomplishment. A carefully developed method of fire is equally valuable during execution of the fires and effects mission; it assists not only the firing elements but also the observers who are responsible for monitoring the effects of the indirect fires. With a clear understanding of the intended target effects, fires and effects assets and observers can work together effectively, planning and adjusting the fires as necessary to achieve the desired effects on the enemy. The following paragraphs describe several types of targeting objectives associated with fires and effects tasks and provide examples of how the battalion commander might link a target task to a specific maneuver purpose in his order.

    (1)     Delay. The friendly force uses indirect fires to cause a particular function or action to occur later than the enemy desires. For example, the commander might direct delaying fires this way: "Delay the repositioning of the enemy's antitank reserve, allowing Company B to consolidate on Objective Bob."

    (2)     Disrupt. Disrupting fires are employed to break apart the enemy's formation, to interrupt or delay his tempo and operational timetable, to cause premature commitment of his forces, or otherwise to force him to stage his attack piecemeal; for example, "Disrupt the easternmost first-echelon infantry battalion to prevent the enemy from massing two infantry battalions against Company C and Company A."

    (3)     Limit. Indirect fires are used to prevent an action or function from being executed where the enemy wants it to occur; for example, "Limit the ability of the enemy's advance guard to establish a firing line on the ridge line to the flank of the battalion axis of advance to prevent the enemy from fixing the battalion main body."

    (4)     Divert. Diverting fires are employed to cause the enemy to modify his course or route of attack; for example, "Divert the enemy's combined arms reserve counterattack to EA Dog to facilitate its destruction by Company B."

    (5)     Screen. Screening fires entail the use of smoke to mask friendly installations, positions, or maneuver. They are normally conducted for a specified event or a specified period of time; for example, "Screen the movement of the counterattack force (Company B) along Route Red to attack by fire (ABF) position 21 to prevent the remnants of the enemy infantry battalion from engaging the team."

    (6)     Obscure. Smoke is placed between enemy forces and friendly forces or directly on enemy positions, with the purpose of confusing and disorienting the enemy's direct fire gunners and artillery FOs. Obscuration fires are normally conducted for a specified event or a specified period of time; for example, "Obscure the northernmost infantry company to protect our breach force until the breach site is secured."

NOTE:     The supported commander may also designate purposes for special munitions such as area denial artillery munition, remote antiarmor mine, Copperhead, or illumination rounds.

10-4.     FIRES AND EFFECTS AND THE MDMP

The MDMP is an adaptation of the Army's analytical approach to problem-solving and is a tool that assists the commander and staff in developing a plan. FM 101-5 details the steps of the MDMP. As a member of the battalion staff, the FSO plays a crucial role in the MDMP both as the staff fires and effects expert and as a member of the targeting team. The process outlined in Table 10-1 describes the sequence of inputs, actions, and outputs of fires and effects planning. At the battalion level, there is seldom time to conduct a formal MDMP process. In most cases, the battalion commander and his staff use an abbreviated or accelerated decision-making process.

MDMP STEP

INPUTS

ACTIONS

OUTPUTS

Receipt of Mission and Mission Analysis

  • Higher HQ WARNO or OPORD.
  • Facts from higher, lower, and adjacent FSE's.
  • IPB products.
  • Enemy COA from S2.
  • High-value targets (HVTs) by phase or critical event.
  • Facts from FS assets.
  • Understand higher maneuver and FS plan.
  • Organize and analyze facts.
  • Identify specified and implied tasks.
  • Translate status of FS assets into capabilities.
  • Analyze effects of IPB on FS.
    • Identify FS related CCIR.
    • Identify FS constraints/ restrictions.
    • Obtain Cdr's initial targeting guidance.
    • Develop draft EFETs.
  • Initial WARNO upon mission receipt.
  • FSCOORD portion of mission analysis brief.
  • Recommend EFETs.
  • Commander: Approve initial EFETs or modify.
  • Give other FS guidance.
  • WARNO after mission analysis brief.
  • COA Development

    • See outputs from previous step.
  • Determine EFETs for each COA
  • Determine where to find and attack EFET formations.
  • Identify HPTs in those formations.
  • Quantify the effects for EFETs.
  • Plan methods for EFETs.
  • Allocate assets to acquire.
  • Allocate assets to attack.
  • Integrate triggers with maneuver COA.
  • Use battle calculus.
  • Assist S2 in R&S development to support FS
  • Prepare F&E portion of COA/ sketch.
  • For each COA developed:
  • (1) Concept of fires.

    (2) Draft FSEM.

    (3) Draft target list/overlay.

    (4) Draft targeting synchronization matrix (TSM) or modified TSM.

    (5) R&S plan.

    COA Analysis and COA Comparison

    • See outputs from previous step.
  • Targeting decisions: finalize HPTL.
  • War-game FS plan(s) versus enemy COAs.
  • Modify or refine inputs as required.
  • Refine and test FS plan.
  • Final Drafts:

    • Fires and effects paragraph.
    • FS Annex:

    (1) FSEM.

    (2) TGT list.

    (3) TGT overlay.

    (4) TSM or modified TSM (HPTL, AGM, TSS).

    COA Approval and Orders Production

    Staff Supervision

    • See outputs from previous step.
  • Approval briefing.
  • FS plan briefed as part of each COA.
  • FSCOORD presents analysis as part of staff.
  • Commander selects, modifies, or approves COA.
  • FSCOORD issues WARNO as required.
  • Finalize FS products.
  • Issue OPORD as part of staff.
  • FS backbrief.
  • Manage refinement.
  • Rehearsal.
  • Table 10-1. Fires and effects planning process.

    10-5.     MORTARS IN THE BATTALION CLOSE FIGHT

    Suppressing the enemy inhibits his fire and movement while allowing friendly forces to gain a tactical mobility advantage. At the company- and battalion-level battle, mortar fires and effects act both as a killer of enemy forces and as an enhancer of friendly mobility.

        a.     Mortars provide the commander with responsive fires to support the reconnaissance platoon's infiltration and exfiltration and the counterreconnaissance force during security operations.

        b.     Field artillery assets are limited at all levels. For SBCT and division commanders to concentrate offensive combat power at the critical point, they must decentralize elsewhere. Mortars compensate for FA limitations and reduce combat risks.

        c.     Due to the maneuver battalions' mortar capabilities, the SBCT commander can divert field artillery fires and effects away from them for limited periods to win the critical fight elsewhere.

        d.     Mortars contribute to the battalion's direct fire fight by forcing the enemy to button up, by obscuring his ability to employ supporting fires, and by separating his dismounted infantry from its armored personnel carriers (APCs) and accompanying tanks. The battalion's direct fires become more effective when used against buttoned-up enemy armor.

        e.     Heavy mortars can penetrate buildings and destroy enemy field fortifications, preparing the way for the dismounted assault force.

        f.     Mortars provide battalion and company commanders with the ability to cover friendly obstacles with indirect fire, regardless of the increasing calls for artillery fire against deep targets or elsewhere on the battlefield. Mortar fire combines with the FPF of a company's machine guns to repulse the enemy's dismounted assault. It also frees artillery to attack and destroy follow-on echelons, which are forced to slow down and deploy as the ground assault is committed. Mortars can use the protection of defilade to continue indirect fires and effects even when subjected to intense counterfire.

        g.     Mortars can provide obscuration and suppression to protect the battalion during the attack or to support it while breaking contact with the enemy in the defense or in a movement to contact. Mortars can fire directly overhead of friendly troops from close behind the forward elements. This allows combat power to be concentrated and synchronized on close terrain.

    Section II. CLOSE AIR SUPPORT

    The SBCT is generally allocated CAS sorties only. CAS is defined as air strikes on hostile surface forces that are in close proximity to friendly forces. CAS can be employed to blunt an enemy attack; to support the momentum of the ground attack; to help set conditions for battalion operations as part of the SBCT's overall counterfire fight; to disrupt, delay and destroy enemy second echelon forces and reserves; and to provide cover for friendly movements. For best results while avoiding mutual interference or fratricide, aircraft are kept under "detailed integration" (part of the Air Force's combat air system). The effectiveness of CAS is directly related to the degree of local air superiority attained. Until air superiority is achieved, competing demands between CAS and counterair operations may limit sorties apportioned for the CAS role. CAS is the primary support given to committed SBCTs and battalions by Air Force, Navy, and Marine aircraft. SBCTs can request air reconnaissance and battlefield air interdiction missions through the division, but these missions are normally planned and executed at division level, with the results provided to the SBCT commander and his staff.

    10-6.     MISSIONS

    CAS is most often planned and controlled at the SBCT level. However, this does not preclude the battalion from requesting CAS, receiving immediate CAS during an operation, or being assigned execution responsibility for an SBCT-planned CAS mission. CAS is another means of indirect fire support available to the SBCT and battalion. In planning CAS missions, the commander must understand the capabilities and limitations of close air support and synchronize CAS missions with both the battalion fire plan and scheme of maneuver. CAS capabilities and limitations (windows for use, targets, observers, airspace coordination, and so on) present some unique challenges, but the commander and staff must plan CAS with maneuver the same way they do other indirect fires. When executing a CAS mission, the battalion must have a plan that synchronizes CAS with maneuver and the scheme of fires. The battalion must also consider having the ETAC operate as a forward air controller in the observation plan.

        a.     Preplanned Close Air Support. Battalion planners must forward CAS requests as soon as they can be forecast. These requests for CAS normally do not include detailed timing information because of the lead-time involved. Preplanned CAS requests involve any information about planned schemes of maneuver, even general information, that can be used in the apportionment, allocation, and distribution cycle. Estimates of weapons effects needed by percentage (for example, 60 percent antiarmor and 40 percent antipersonnel), sortie time flows, peak need times, and anticipated distribution patterns are vital to preparing the air tasking order. ALOs and S3s at all planning echelons must ensure that this information is forwarded through higher echelons in accordance with the air tasking order (ATO) cycle.

        (1)     Categories. Preplanned CAS may be categorized as either scheduled or alert missions.

        (a)     A scheduled mission is a CAS strike on a planned target at a planned time.

        (b)     An alert mission is a CAS strike on a planned target or target area executed when requested by the supported unit. Usually, this mission is launched from a ground alert (scramble), but it may be flown from an airborne alert status. Alert (on-call) CAS allows the ground commander to designate a general target area within which targets may need to be attacked. The ground commander designates a conditional period within which he later determines specific times for attacking the targets.

        (2)     Request Channels. There are specific request channels for preplanned CAS. Requests for preplanned tactical air support missions are submitted to the FSE. The commander, ALO, and S3 at each echelon evaluate the request; coordinate requirements such as airspace, fires, and intelligence; consolidate; and, if approved, assign a priority or precedence to the request. The S3 Air then forwards approved requests to the next higher echelon. To plan CAS, the S3 Air must work closely with the S3, FSO, and ALO.

        (3)     Engagement Alternatives. CAS aircraft assigned to attack preplanned targets may be diverted to higher priority targets; therefore, the FSO should plan options for the engagement of CAS targets by other FS assets.

        b.     Immediate Close Air Support. Immediate requests are used for air support mission requirements identified too late to be included in the current air tasking order. Those requests initiated below battalion level are forwarded to the battalion command post by the most rapid means available.

        (1)     At battalion level, the commander, FSO, ALO, and S3 consider each request. Approved immediate CAS requests are transmitted by the TACP over the Air Force air request net (Figure 10-3) directly to the air support operations center (ASOC) collocated with the corps or separate division TOC.

        (2)     The TACP at each intermediate headquarters monitors and acknowledges receipt of the request. Silence by an intermediate TACP indicates approval by the associated headquarters unless disapproval is transmitted.

        (3)     The ASOC coordinates with the corps G3 Air for all air support requests initiated by the corps. Meanwhile, intermediate TACPs pass the request to the associated headquarters G3 or S3 for action and coordination.

        (4)     All echelons coordinate simultaneously. If any Army echelon above the initiating level disapproves a request or substitutes another support means (for example, Army aviation or field artillery), the TACP at that headquarters notifies the ASOC at corps and the originating TACP, which notifies the requester.

        (5)     When the corps commander or his representative approves the request, the ASOC initiates the necessary action to satisfy the request. If all distributed sorties are committed, the corps commander can request additional sorties from the next higher echelon, when appropriate. If the ASOC has no CAS missions available, it can, with Army concurrence, divert sorties from lower priority targets or request support from lateral or higher commands.

    Figure 10-3. Immediate close air request channels

    Figure 10-3. Immediate close air request channels.

    10-7.     PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS

    CAS mission success directly relates to thorough mission planning based on the following factors and considerations. The S3 Air is responsible for working with the battalion ALO prior to and during tactical air (TACAIR) operations. Since there are no digital links with supporting aircraft, he must consistently keep the ALO apprised of the ground tactical situation through digital and conventional means.

        a.     When operating in the battalion's AO, CAS aircraft are under the positive control of one of the battalion's TACP forward air controllers (FACs). FACs monitor the ground tactical situation, review the COP, and monitor conventional voice radio nets of the supported ground or maneuver commander to prevent fratricidal air-to-ground or ground-to-air engagements.

        b.     Other planning factors include time available for planning, C2 procedures, communications, and terrain.

    10-8.     AIR FORCE SUPPORT

    Air Force units are attached to the battalion to plan, control, and direct close air support. The ALO and the TACP are the typical air force assets attached to the battalion.

        a.     Air Liaison Officer. ALOs are provided to Army maneuver units from corps to battalion. The ALO is responsible for supervising the tactical air control party and coordinating close air support with the FSE and S3 Air. The ALO is the senior USAF representative for the TACP supporting the battalion. The ALO is normally located with the command group during tactical operations.

        b.     Tactical Air Control Party. TACPs are provided to Army maneuver unit headquarters at corps through battalion. TACPs provide direct interaction with the supported maneuver units and should be highly visible to Army commanders and readily available to assist in the integration and synchronization of air power with land-force fire and maneuver.

        (1)     The supported unit's ALO is the commander of the TACP. TACPs at corps through SBCT level function primarily in an advisory role. These sections provide Air Force operational expertise for the support of conventional Army planning and operations. They are the point of contact to coordinate local air defense and airspace management activities. Their function is specifically to assist Army planners in the preparation of the Army's plan to integrate CAS into the overall scheme of fires and maneuver. They coordinate preplanned and immediate air requests and assist in coordinating air support missions with appropriate Army airspace command and control elements. Battalion TACPs have the added responsibility of terminal attack control.

        (2)     TACPs coordinate activities through an Air Force air request net and the advanced airlift notification net. The TACP performs the following functions:

      • Serves as the Air Force commander's representative, providing advice to the battalion commander and staff on the capabilities, limitations, and employment of air support, airlift, and reconnaissance.
      • Provides a coordination interface with respective FSE and Army airspace command and control (A2C2) cells; assists in the synchronization of air and surface fires and preparation of the air support plan; and provides direct liaison for local air defense and airspace management activities.
      • Integrates into the staff for air support planning for future operations and advises on the joint suppression of enemy air defense (J-SEAD) programs.
      • Provides appropriate final attack control for CAS and operates the Air Force air request net.

        (3)     TACPs are manned at the following levels:

      • Corps: One ALO, four fighter liaison officers (FLOs), two theater airlift liaison officers (TALOs), and six tactical air command and control specialists (TACCSs).
      • Division: One ALO, three FLOs, three TALOs, and six TACCSs.
      • SBCT: One ALO, one FLO, and four TACCSs.
      • Battalion: One ALO and two TACCSs.

    10-9.     CAS PLANNING DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

    The ALO and members of the battalion TACP provide the necessary expertise for the control and application of tactical air power. The ALO serves as the primary tactical air power advisor for the battalion while TACP FACs provide final control for CAS missions executed in the battalion's area of operations. Their collaborative working relationship established with the SBCT and maneuver battalion provides a working knowledge of ground operations and enhances their ability to integrate TACAIR operations with ground schemes of maneuver effectively.

        a.     Forward Air Controller. The primary responsibility of TACP FACs includes the positive control of CAS aircraft flying missions in support of SBCT operations. Using their knowledge of ground operations, they are also better able to provide the troop safety necessary to avoid fratricidal engagements. The following paragraphs discuss FAC procedures and responsibilities.

        (1)     Troop Safety. The safety of ground forces is a major concern during day and night CAS operations. Fratricidal engagements are normally caused by the incorrect identification of friendly troops operating in an AO or a failure to mark the boundaries of the friendly unit adequately. The use of proper authentication and ground marking procedures assures that a safe separation exists between the friendly forces and the impact area of aerial delivered munitions. Proper radio procedures and markings assist the FACs and the strike aircraft in the positive identification of ground forces and their operational boundaries.

        (2)     Identification of Friendly Forces. FBCB2 and the data it provides related to the disposition and location of friendly units enhances safety margins and reduces the potential of fratricidal engagements during joint air attack team (JAAT) or TACAIR operations. Friendly unit locations and boundaries can be marked using flash mirrors, marker panels, and direction and distance from prominent land features or target marks. Strobe lights are very good markers at night and in overcast conditions. They can be used with blue or infrared filters and made directional using any opaque tube. Any light that can be filtered or covered and uncovered can be used for signaling aircraft or marking friendly locations.

        (3)     Target Acquisition. Targets that are well camouflaged, small and stationary, or masked by hills or other natural terrain are difficult for fast-moving aircraft to detect. Marking rounds (rockets) fired from aerial platforms or artillery can enhance target acquisition and help ensure first-pass success.

        (4)     Target Identification. Strike aircraft must have a precise description of the target and know the location of friendly forces in relation to terrain features that are easily visible from the air. Airborne FACs are generally assigned an AO and become intimately familiar with its geographical features as well as the unit operating within the AO.

        (5)     Final Attack Heading. Choice of the final attack heading depends upon considerations of troop safety, aircraft survivability, enemy air defense locations, and optimum weapons effects. Missiles or bombs are effective from any angle. Cannons, however, are more effective against the sides and rears of armored vehicles.

        b.     S3 Air. The S3 Air plans for and requests the use of CAS and attack helicopters to support the commander's concept of the operation.

        c.     S2. The S2 provides information on the avenues of approach, target array, terrain, and weather as it applies to the time and location of the JAAT operation.

        d.     Attack Helicopter Liaison Officer. The Army aviation liaison officer (when attached) performs the following tasks:

      • Provides status of Army aviation assets available.
      • Begins planning the air corridors and air battle positions to support the operation.
      • Coordinates with the FSO and the ADO to deconflict air corridors.
      • Coordinates for the planned airspace coordination areas (ACAs).

        e.     Fire Support Officer. The FSO—

      • Determines the need, availability, and positioning of artillery and battalion mortars, commensurate with the enemy update, to support the JAAT.
      • Coordinates with the aviation representative to provide call signs and frequencies to the supporting FDC.
      • Helps the TACP deconflict the initial points from artillery positions and develop ACAs to support the mission.
      • Determines the need for suppression of enemy air defense (SEAD).
      • Plans and coordinates, in conjunction with the battalion staff, the use of nonlethal attack assets to complement the JAAT.
      • Determines when and how priorities of fires shift.
      • Recommends FSCMs to enhance the success of the mission.
      • Establishes a quick fire channel if necessary.

        f.     Air Defense Officer. The ADO—

      • Coordinates to ensure that the ADA assets know the location of air corridors, friendly locations, initial points, and ACAs.
      • Ensures these assets are informed of friendly air operations and their integration into the battle.

        g.     Tactical Air Control Party. The TACP—

      • Develops contact points, initial points, and ACAs in coordination with the FSO and the ADO.
      • Disseminates contact points, initial points, and ACAs to the ASOC for dissemination to the ground liaison officer and wing operations center for preflight briefing.
      • Helps coordinate aircraft forward to the appropriate contact point or initial point (IP) and then hands them off to the aviation commander conducting the JAAT operation.

    10-10.     SUPPRESSION OF ENEMY AIR DEFENSE

    SEAD operations target all known or suspected enemy ADA sites that cannot be avoided and that are capable of engaging friendly air assets and systems, including suppressive fires. The FSE integrates SEAD fires into an overall fire plan that focuses fires according to the commander's guidance. Synchronization of SEAD fires with the maneuver plan is accomplished using procedural control (an H-hour sequence), positive control (initiating fires on each target as the lead aircraft passes a predetermined reference point or trigger), or a combination of the two. Regardless of the technique, the FSO planning the SEAD must conduct detailed planning and close coordination with the ALO, Army aviation liaison officer (LNO), S3 Air, S2, ADO, FA battalion S3/FDO, and FSE. Plans for SEAD operations are coordinated and synchronized over the TI using the AFATDS, ASAS-Light, FBCB2, MCS-Light, and aviation mission planning system (AMPS).

    10-11.     WEATHER

    Weather is one of the most important considerations when visually employing aerial-delivered weapons. Weather can hinder target acquisition and identification, degrade weapon accuracy and effectiveness, or negate employment of specific aerial munition types. The S3 Air can request IMETS data from the division G2 to gain highly predictive and descriptive weather information for specific time periods and locations within the battalion's AO. This data improves his ability to determine when close air support can be used. IMETS provides weather data based on inputs from the air weather services and meteorological sensors. This system is currently located at the division, but it interfaces with the ABCS systems and disseminates weather information down to maneuver battalions via the warfighter associate. It predicts weather effects on a specific mission, desired AO, or particular system. IMETS also provides weather hazards for different elevations, surface temperatures in a specific AO, and wind conditions. Meteorological satellite (METSAT) data may also be obtained to show regional cloud cover with high and low pressure systems annotated.

    10-12.     NAVAL SURFACE FIRE AND EFFECTS

    Naval surface fire support (NSFS) can provide large volumes of immediate fires close to coastal waters. Normally, naval fires are controlled by a naval surface fire support liaison officer attached to the fires and effects coordination cell at the SBCT headquarters for a specific operation.

        a.     Mission. The mission of NSFS is to assist the ground force by destroying, neutralizing, or suppressing targets that oppose that force. Most cruisers, destroyers, and some frigates carry 5-inch, 54-caliber guns. These guns have an approximate range of 23 km.

        b.     Employment and Planning Considerations.

        (1)     The NSFS ships are assigned the missions of DS or GS in the same way artillery is organized for combat.

        (a)     Direct Support. A ship in DS usually supports a battalion. This ship can deliver both planned and on-call fires and effects. The NSFS team of the supported unit or an air spotter normally requests and adjusts on-call fires.

        (b)     General Support. A ship is usually placed in GS of an SBCT or division. The NSFS liaison officer of the supported unit directs how the fires for the GS ship are conducted.

        (2)     The primary purpose of a DS ship is to allow the supported commander to add depth to the fires and effects of his artillery. The SBCT NSFS team communicates on the division NSFS net (high frequency [HF]). This net provides the communication between the SBCT NSFS liaison officer, the division NSFS liaison officer, and the ship(s) in support of these units. This net is used for day-to-day planning between units. The fires and effects coordination cell nets must be used to communicate to the naval surface fire support teams. Requests for fires and effects are transmitted to the air and NSFS team (at SBCT or division), which forwards it to the ship. The NSFS liaison officer at division monitors and coordinates as necessary.

    10-13.     ARMY AVIATION

    Army aviation (rotary-wing) units perform the full spectrum of combat, CS, and CSS missions. Aviation units destroy enemy forces by fire and maneuver, perform target acquisition and reconnaissance, enhance C2, and move personnel, supplies, and equipment in compliance with the overall scheme of maneuver. In support of the fire support mission, aviation functions in the following roles:

      • Aerial observation and calls for fire.
      • Insertion of COLTs.
      • Air movement of weapons systems and ammunition.
      • Air reconnaissance.
      • Intelligence and electronic warfare.
      • Attack helicopter operations.
      • Aerial mine delivery.
      • Medical evacuation.
      • Search and rescue.
      • C2 for JAAT operations.

    Aviation has the capability to reach the battlefield quickly and move throughout the depth and breadth of the battlefield. This mobility and flexibility aid the combined arms commander in seizing or retaining the initiative. (See Appendix H, Aviation Support of Ground Operations.)

    Section III. MANEUVER SUPPORT

    Maneuver support enables the movement and maneuver of combat forces to achieve a position of advantage with respect to enemy forces. Mobility operations maintain freedom of movement for personnel and equipment within the area of operations without delay due to terrain, barriers, obstacles, or mines. Engineers and chemical and military police units are task-organized to provide maneuver support to battalions during offensive, defensive, stability, and support operations.

    10-14.     THE SBCT MANEUVER SUPPORT CELL

    The MANSPT cell is organic to the SBCT headquarters and is responsible for planning, integrating, and synchronizing maneuver support for all SBCT operations. At the maneuver battalion level there is no dedicated engineer planner. When engineers are task-organized to the maneuver battalion, the senior engineer will act as the maneuver battalion staff engineer and assist the staff in planning and integrating engineers. For more specific information on engineer staff integration refer to FM 3-34.221.

    10-15.     MANEUVER BATTALION PLANNING FOR MANEUVER SUPPORT

    The maneuver battalion staff plans, integrates, and synchronizes mobility, countermobility, and survivability operations throughout the maneuver battalion's battlespace. If task-organized with engineers, the maneuver battalion engineer coordinates all military and civilian engineer efforts within the maneuver battalion's area of operation. Details on staff engineer responsibilities can be found in FM 3-34.221.

        a.     Mobility, Countermobility, and Survivability Synchronization. The maneuver battalion staff is responsible for ensuring that the BOS are integrated and synchronized within the maneuver battalion's plan. The staff synchronizes the plan and assists the commander in synchronizing the execution. The staff promotes synchronization by maintaining a COP of all friendly and enemy engineer efforts in the area of operations.

        (1)     Mobility operations preserve friendly force freedom of maneuver. Mobility missions include breaching and clearing obstacles, maintaining battlefield circulation, providing assault or dry gap crossing, and identifying routes around contaminated areas.

        (2)     Countermobility denies mobility to enemy forces. It limits the maneuver of enemy forces and enhances the effectiveness of fires. Countermobility missions include obstacle building and smoke generation.

        (3)     Survivability operations protect friendly forces from the effects of enemy weapons systems and from natural occurrences. Hardening of facilities and fortification of battle positions are active survivability measures. Military deception, OPSEC, and dispersion can also increase survivability.

    NOTE:     For specifics on combat engineer functions refer to FM 5-100.

        b.     Essential Mobility/Survivability Tasks. An essential mobility/survivability task (EMST) is a specified or implied BOS-specific task that is critical to mission success. Identification of the essential tasks helps to focus the development of plans, staff coordination, and allocation of resources. The staff, typically the maneuver support elements (engineer, chemical, and military police staff officers) identify the EMSTs. Failure to achieve an EMST may require the commander to alter his tactical or operational plan.

        (1)     A fully developed EMST has a task, purpose, method, and effects. The task describes what objective (number of lanes, MSR capability, bridging capability, block, turn, fix, and disrupt, protection levels, and minimum number of survivability positions) must be achieved to support friendly formations or what it will do to an enemy formation's function or capability. The purpose describes why the task contributes to maneuver. The method describes how the task will be accomplished by assigning responsibility to maneuver units, supporting units, or delivery assets and providing amplifying information or restrictions.

        (2)     The approved EMSTs are described in the concept of operations in the base order. The concept of operations includes the logical sequence of EMSTs that, when integrated with the scheme of maneuver, will accomplish the mission and achieve the commander's intent. The scheme of engineer operations, also in the base order, describes the detailed, logical sequence of mobility, countermobility, and survivability operations, general engineer tasks, decon, smoke, and force protection tasks and their impact on friendly and enemy units. It details how engineers expect to execute the mobility, countermobility, survivability plan in accordance with the time and space of the battlefield to accomplish the commander's essential mobility, countermobility, and survivability tasks.

        c.     Task Organization of Engineers. Engineer units serve two roles in the maneuver battalion. The first and most important role is as a force enabler. In this role, the engineer unit resources maneuver units with engineer assets to enable them to accomplish their assigned tasks. The second role is that of a force provider. In this role the engineer unit executes assigned tasks within the framework of the scheme of operations. Clearly identifying the EMSTs across the width and depth of the battlefield will drive the logical task organization of mobility/survivability assets. Engineers execute essential unit tasks to support the accomplishment of essential mobility, countermobility, and survivability tasks. Engineer elements should be task-organized because an EMST dictates an essential unit task. If a maneuver unit does not have a specified EMST that requires engineer support, then the engineer element should be under the control of their higher headquarters or massed to accomplish EMSTs elsewhere in the brigade's AO.

    10-16.     MOBILITY

    At the tactical level, superior mobility is critical to the success of the force. Mobility facilitates the momentum and freedom of movement and maneuver of forces by reducing or negating the effects of existing or reinforcing obstacles. Within this context, the emphasis of engineer integration is on mobility operations. Due to the full-spectrum capability of the SBCT and the nonlinear, asymmetric nature of the enemy, the potential exists for the force to encounter a wide variety of existing and reinforcing obstacles. To counter this potential, the commander, staff, and task-organized engineers plan, organize, and prepare to perform mobility tasks using the full range of organic and augmentation mobility assets. These mobility tasks include combined arms route clearance, combined arms breaching, and maintaining area mobility.

        a.     Route Clearance. Route clearance is a combined-arms operation typically executed by a maneuver company or maneuver battalion. Engineers reduce or clear obstacles as part of a route-clearance mission. Units must clear lines of communication of obstacles and enemy activity that disrupt AO circulation. Units must conduct route clearance to ensure that LOC enable safe passage of combat, combat support, and CSS organizations. Clearance operations are normally conducted in a low-threat environment. The significant difference between breaching and clearing operations is that breaching usually occurs during an attack (while under enemy fire) to project combat power to the far side of an obstacle. Route clearance focuses on opening LOCs to ensure the safe passage of combat and support organizations within an AO. Details on route clearance are covered in FM 3-34.2.

        b.     Combined Arms Breaching. Engineers reduce lanes in obstacles as part of a combined arms breaching operation. Because of the potentially asymmetrical, nonlinear nature of operations, engineers must be prepared to perform mounted and dismounted reduction tasks using manual, mechanical, and explosive reduction means. Through reverse breach planning, the staff identifies critical mobility tasks, allocates reduction assets, and determines the breach organization (support, assault, and breach force). Keys to allocating reduction assets include identifying all reduction tasks within the zone or axis, matching specific reduction assets to each task, and planning 50-percent redundancy in reduction assets for each task. For more specific information on combined arms breaching, refer to FM 3-34.2.

        c.     Area Mobility. Generating and sustaining combat power requires the maneuver battalion to maintain area mobility. Area mobility operations include clearing unexploded ordinance, clearing residual minefields, tracking dirty battlefield effects, and MSR repair and maintenance. Limited organic assets necessitate augmentation to preserve area mobility. The maneuver battalion staff identifies shortfalls in capability and coordinates with the brigade to request additional assets.

    10-17.     COUNTERMOBILITY

    Countermobility is the augmentation of natural or manmade terrain (urban) with obstacle systems integrated with direct and or indirect fire systems to disrupt, fix, turn, or block the enemy while the maneuver commander destroys the enemy's combat capabilities with increased time for target acquisition. The commander and staff integrate obstacles within the maneuver plan, enforcing adherence to obstacle emplacement authority and obstacle control measures. Task-organized engineers construct limited conventional minefields, ground emplaced scatterable minefields, special munitions, and explosive and non-explosive obstacles in support of the scheme of maneuver. (FM 5-100 is the primary reference for countermobility planning.)

    10-18.     SURVIVABILITY

    Survivability encompasses the development and construction of protective positions such as earth berms, dug-in positions, and overhead protection as a means to mitigate the effectiveness of enemy weapon systems. Significant survivability efforts will require engineer augmentation. The staff must plan and prioritize survivability efforts. The plan should specify the level of survivability for each battle position and the sequence in which they receive support (if available). Additional considerations for survivability planning include command and control of digging assets, site security (including air defense coverage), CSS (fuel, maintenance, and Class I), and movement times between BPs. (FM 5-103 is the primary reference for survivability planning.)

    10-19.     GENERAL ENGINEERING

    General engineering encompasses those tasks that establish and maintain infrastructure that is required to conduct and sustain military operations. Such tasks include construction and repair of lines of communication, main supply routes, airfields, utilities and logistical facilities. Due to the austere organization of the Stryker brigade engineer company, general engineering tasks will require augmentation from outside the brigade. (FM 5-104 is the primary reference for general engineering planning.)

    10-20.     GEOSPATIAL ENGINEERING

    Geospatial engineering is the collection, development, dissemination, and analysis of positionally accurate terrain information that is tied to some earth reference, to provide mission-tailored data, tactical decision aids, and visualization products that define the character of the zone for the maneuver commander. The staff should identify required tactical decision aids and coordinate with the MANSPT cell at brigade for the necessary products. Products commonly provided include common map backgrounds, line of sight analysis, cross-country mobility overlays, artillery slope overlays, and specialized imagery products. (FM 3-34.230 is the primary reference for geospatial engineering planning.)

    10-21.     STRYKER BRIGADE ENGINEER COMPANY

    The Stryker brigade engineer company has three combat mobility platoons, one mobility support platoon, and a company headquarters section (Figure 10-4). The engineer company is the lowest engineer echelon organic to the SBCT that can plan and execute continuous 24-hour operations in support of SBCT operations. The engineer company can task-organize its platoons and squads to subordinate maneuver units to provide mission- or task-specific engineer packages, but it may perform as an engineer pure element as dictated by the situation.

     

    Figure 10-4. SBCT medium engineer company organization

    Figure 10-4. SBCT medium engineer company organization.

        a.     Combat Mobility Platoon. The combat mobility platoon is normally the lowest-level engineer unit that can effectively accomplish independent mounted engineer missions and tasks. It is the basic building block of engineer force allocation and task organization, and it can fight as part of the company or as part of a maneuver battalion. The engineer platoon consists of a platoon headquarters section and three combat engineer squads. It is capable of fighting both mounted and dismounted. The combat mobility platoon may receive augmentation in the form of special equipment from the engineer company's mobility support platoon (Figure 10-5). Organic combat mobility platoon equipment includes engineer squad vehicles (ESVs) with mountable rollers and blades, mine-clearing line charges, and multiple-delivery mine systems (Volcano). They may receive a rapidly emplaced bridge system, deployable engineer universal combat earthmover (DEUCE) and or improved high mobility engineer excavator (IHMEE) from the mobility support platoon. The platoon or its squads may be task-organized to infantry companies based on the mission, situation, and identified mobility tasks. Engineer squads and individual engineer soldiers may be task-organized with maneuver battalion reconnaissance platoons to perform specific missions such as reconnaissance, breaching, and reserve demolition target preparation. Engineer squads normally carry a variety of explosives, demolitions, and common SBCT weapons. The eight-man mobility squad is the minimum force required to provide effective dismounted maneuver support.

    Figure 10-5. Three combat mobility platoons

    Figure 10-5. Three combat mobility platoons.

        b.     Mobility Support Platoon. The mobility support platoon consists of a platoon headquarters section and three equipment-based mobility sections (Figure 10-6). Unlike the combat mobility platoon, the mobility support platoon is not organized to operate independently during offensive operations. Each section is structured to provide reduction equipment augmentation (focused on reducing enemy obstacles and fortifications) to each of the three combat mobility platoons. The platoon provides the commander with specialized equipment capabilities to weight the main effort. Each section has gap crossing, obstacle reduction, special tool, and light blade capabilities. The same task organization and equipment required for mobility operations provide a limited capability for countermobility, survivability, and sustainment operations.

    Figure 10-6. Mobility support platoon

    Figure 10-6. Mobility support platoon.

    10-22.     MISSION

    The engineer company's primary mission is to provide focused mobility to the SBCT. Specifically, the company provides combat engineering support (mobility, countermobility, and survivability), force support (general engineering and force protection), and terrain visualization (topographic) to support a combination of offensive, defensive, stability, and support operations to achieve full-spectrum dominance. Limited countermobility, survivability, and sustainment engineering capability is possible using the same force structure required for the mobility mission.

        a.     Capabilities. The engineer company is equipped with reduction assets for existing, natural, and reinforcing obstacles in open, rolling terrain and in challenging, complex, and urban terrain. Medium-weight bridging assets provide the SBCT with enhanced mobility for limited dry and wet gap crossing. The company's force protection capability reduces the SBCT's exposure to direct and indirect fires. Topographic capabilities assist the SBCT in assessing the enemy's probable avenue of approach or defensive positions. Limited countermobility assets enhance the SBCT's ability to preserve and protect friendly forces; to shape enemy maneuver; and to gain, retain, or secure the positional advantage. The engineer company's limited survivability capability preserves the SBCT's combat power during assembly area and base camp operations and while in a transition to the defense. Limited sustainment capabilities provide the SBCT with enhanced movement, maneuver, and force protection throughout the SBCT area of responsibility (AOR). The engineer company has no dedicated reconnaissance assets; however, with measured risk to organic mobility and force protection support, it has the capability to provide engineer reconnaissance teams to augment the infantry maneuver battalions and RSTA squadron.

        b.     Planning. The engineer company commander may be the maneuver battalion engineer for the maneuver battalion that is the mobility main effort or has a majority of the engineer company task-organized to it. The company executive officer or a platoon leader may serve as the maneuver battalion engineer for the mobility supporting effort. If a platoon leader performs the duty as the maneuver battalion engineer, he then has a dual role as a primary special staff officer and a platoon leader.

    10-23.     SCATTERABLE MINES

    Scatterable mines are remotely delivered or dispensed by aircraft, artillery, missile, or ground dispensers and laid without pattern. All US SCATMINEs have a limited active life and self-destruct (SD) after that life has expired. The duration of the active life varies with the type of delivery system and mine.

        a.     SCATMINEs provide the commander with a means to respond to a changing enemy situation with their flexibility and rapid emplacement capabilities. They enable the commander to emplace minefields rapidly in enemy-held territories, contaminated territories, and other areas where it is impossible for engineers to emplace conventional minefields. Some systems allow for rapid emplacement of minefields in friendly areas.

        b.     During the war gaming process, the engineer—in conjunction with S3, S2, and FSO—identifies the requirement to respond to an enemy action with SCATMINEs. He then determines the minefield location, size, density, emplacement and SD times, delivery method, and the trigger (decision point) for execution.

    10-24.     SCATMINE CAPABILITIES

    SCATMINEs can be emplaced more rapidly than conventional mines, so they provide a commander with greater flexibility and more time to react to changes in situations. The commander can use SCATMINEs to maintain or regain the initiative by acting faster than the enemy. Using SCATMINEs also helps preserve countermobility resources that can be used to conduct other operations on the battlefield. With the reduction in the size of divisional engineer units, SCATMINEs are increasingly important.

        a.     SCATMINE Placement. All SCATMINEs are rapidly emplaced. This enhances battlefield agility and allows the maneuver commander to emplace mines to best exploit enemy weaknesses. SCATMINEs can be used as situational obstacles or to attack enemy formations directly through disrupt, fix, turn, and block obstacles. Modern fusing, sensing, and antihandling devices (AHDs) improve the ability SCATMINEs to defeat enemy attempts to reduce the minefield.

        b.     Increased Tactical Flexibility. Upon expiration of the SD time, the minefield is cleared by self-detonation and the commander can move through an area that was previously denied to enemy or friendly forces. In many cases, the SD period may be set at only a few hours. This feature allows for effective counterattacks to the enemy's flank and rear areas. Table 10-2 defines when certain mines begin self-destruction and when destruction is complete.

    SD Time

    SD Window Begins

    4 hours

    3 hours 12 minutes

    48 hours

    38 hours 24 minutes

    5 days

    4 days

    15 days

    12 days

    Table 10-2. SD windows.

        c.     Efficiency. SCATMINEs can be emplaced by a variety of delivery methods. Fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, artillery, manpack, or ground vehicles can deploy them. They satisfy the high mobility requirements of modern warfare and reduce manpower, equipment, and tonnage requirements with their emplacement.

        d.     Increased Lethality. SCATMINEs use an explosive technique that produces a full-width kill. The effect produces a mobility kill against a vehicle's engine, track, or drive-train, or it produces a catastrophic kill by setting off the onboard ammunition, killing or incapacitating the crew, or destroying the vehicle's weapons systems. SCATMINEs are designed to destroy any tank currently available.

    10-25.     SCATMINE LIMITATIONS

    The following are limitations of SCATMINEs:

        a.     Extensive Coordination. Because SCATMINEs are a very dynamic weapon system, proper coordination with higher, adjacent, and subordinate units is extremely important. To prevent friendly casualties, all affected units must be notified of the location and the duration of scatterable minefields.

        b.     Proliferation of Targets. SCATMINEs are regarded by some commanders as easy solutions to tactical problems. Target requests must be carefully evaluated, and a priority system must be established because indiscriminate use of weapons systems results in rapid depletion of a unit's basic load. Controlled supply rates (CSRs) are likely to be a constraint in all theaters.

        c.     Visibility. SCATMINEs are highly effective, especially when fires and obscurants strain the enemy's C2. SCATMINEs lay on the surface of the ground, but they are relatively small and have natural coloring.

        d.     Accuracy. SCATMINEs cannot be laid with the same accuracy as conventionally emplaced mines. Remotely delivered SCATMINE systems are as accurate as conventional artillery-delivered or tactical aircraft-delivered munitions.

        e.     Orientation. Between 5 and 15 percent of SCATMINEs come to rest on their edges. Mines with spring fingers are in the lower percentile, and mines landing in mud or snow more than 10 centimeters deep are in the higher percentile. When employing ADAMs or RAAMs in more than 10 centimeters of snow or mud, use high-angle fire and increase the number of mines. Melting of the snow may also cause the mines to change positions and activate AHDs.

        f.     Lethality and Density. Scatterable minefields are employed to reduce the enemy's ability to maneuver, mass, and reinforce against friendly forces. By producing specific obstacle effects (disrupt, fix, turn, or block [Table 10-3]), they increase the enemy's vulnerability to fires as he maneuvers. To achieve this effect, individual minefields must be emplaced with varying degrees of lethality. Changing the minefield density is a primary way to vary lethality and the effect. If the obstacle is not resourced or insufficient density is achieved, the planned leathality will not be achieved.

    Table 10-3. Lethality and density

    Table 10-3. Lethality and density.

    10-26.     SCATTERABLE MINE DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    SCATMINE delivery systems include howitzers, the Volcano, and the modular pack mine system.

        a.     Howitzer. A 155-mm howitzer delivers ADAMs and RAAMs. There are no special modifications or adaptations necessary to the firing system. Mines are contained within a projectile and are dispensed while the projectile is in the air. The effective range for the M109A6 is 17,740 meters. The wedge-shaped ADAM is a bounding-fragmentation mine that deploys up to seven tension-activated tripwires six meters away from the mine. After ground impact, tripwires are released and the mine is fully armed. The lethal casualty radius is between 6 and 10 meters. The RAAM mine uses a self-forging fragmentation (SFF) warhead, has a magnetic-influence fuze, weighs 1.7 kg, and has a small (12-cm diameter by 6-cm height) cylindrical shape.

        b.     Multiple-Delivery Mine System. The multiple-delivery mine system (Volcano) can be dispensed from the air or on the ground. It can be mounted on any 5-ton truck, an M548 tracked cargo carrier, a heavy expanded mobility tactical truck (HEMTT), a palletized load system (PLS) flat-rack, or a UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter. The mixture of mines is fixed and cannot be altered. All canisters are capable of dispensing mines with 4-hour, 48-hour, and 15-day SD times. The SD times are field-selectable prior to dispensing and do not require a change or modification to the mine canister. Reload time (not including movement time to the reload site) for an experienced four-man crew is about 20 minutes. The average time to emplace one ground Volcano load (160 canisters) is 10 minutes. The organic Volcanos of the SBCT are trailer mounted and contain two racks of canisters versus the four racks of the mechanized combat engineer's vehicle mounted Volcano systems.

        c.     Modular Pack Mine System. The MOPMS is a man-portable, 162-pound, suitcase-shaped mine dispenser. The dispenser contains 21 mines (17 AT and 4 antipersonnel AP) in seven tubes with three mines located in each tube. When dispensed, an explosive propelling charge at the bottom of each tube expels mines through the container roof. Mines are propelled 35 meters from the container in a 180-degree semicircle. The safety zone around one container is 55 meters to the front and sides and 20 meters to the rear.

        (1)     Mines are dispensed on command using an M71 remote-control unit (RCU) or an electronic initiating device. Once mines are dispensed, they cannot be recovered or reused. If mines are not dispensed, the container may be disarmed and recovered for later use. The RCU can recycle the 4-hour SD time of the mines three times, for a total duration of approximately 13 hours. Mines with a 4-hour SD time will begin to self-destruct at 3 hours and 12 minutes. All active mines must be recycled within 3 hours of the initial launch or last recycle. This feature makes it possible to keep the minefield emplaced for longer periods if necessary. The RCU can also self-destruct mines on command, allowing a unit to counterattack or withdraw through the minefield, as necessary, rather than waiting for the SD time to expire. The RCU can control up to 15 MOPMS containers or groups of MOPMS containers from a distance of 300 to 1,000 meters by way of separate pulse-coded frequencies. Coded frequencies defeat enemy electronic countermeasures directed against the system.

        (2)     If the M71 RCU is unavailable, a direct wire link is used in conjunction with an M32, M34, or M57 blasting machine. By using the M32 10-cap blasting machine, one MOPMS dispenser can be detonated at a maximum range of 1,000 meters. The M34 50-cap blasting machine can detonate one MOPMS at a maximum range of 3,000 meters. (Due to internal resistance, the maximum range is decreased by 400 meters for each additional MOPMS connected in series.) The M57 Claymore-type firing device (FD) can fire only one MOPMS at a maximum range of 100 meters. When controlled by direct wire, MOPMS dispensers cannot be command-detonated, and the SD time cannot be recycled.

        (3)     The MOPMS provides a self-contained, on-call minefield emplacement capability for all forces. It can be command-detonated, reused (if mines are not dispensed), and directly emplaced to provide complete and certain coverage of small or critical targets. The ability to command-detonate mines or extend their SD time provides an added flexibility not currently available with other SCATMINE systems. With its unique characteristics, the MOPMS is ideally suited for the following minefield missions:

      • Emplacing hasty and deliberate protective minefields.
      • Emplacing nuisance minefields (on trails, crossing sites, landing zones, drop zones, and road junctions).
      • Emplacing tactical disrupt and fix minefields.
      • Closing gaps and lanes in existing minefields.
      • Temporarily closing counterattack routes.
      • Supporting ambushes.
      • Supporting military operations in urban terrain.

        d.     The Raptor Intelligent Combat Outpost. The Raptor introduces an entirely new concept to the combined arms team. The Raptor is a suite of munitions, sensors, communications systems, and a control station that enables the commander to shape his battlespace. The Raptor is comprised of advanced overwatch sensors, command and control nodes or gateways, a control station, and munitions. The Raptor system type-categorizes enemy vehicles, reports, and engages vehicles (Figure 10-7).

    Figure 10-7. Raptor concept

    Figure 10-7. Raptor concept.

        (1)     The Raptor can be ordered or programmed to develop coordinated attacks with other minefields and direct and indirect fire weapons. It has standoff detection and engagement capabilities. The Raptor can be inactivated, allowing freedom of maneuver while still providing near-real-time intelligence. It attacks from the side or top at ranges up to 100 meters. The Raptor—

      • Can be used as a stand-alone tactical obstacle or as reinforcement to other conventional obstacles (Figure 10-8).

      • Disrupts and delays the enemy, allowing long-range precision weapons to engage more effectively. This feature is particularly effective in non-line of sight (LOS) engagements.

      • Can communicate with its employing unit for remote ON/OFF/ON or can be programmed for battlespace intelligence reporting. The battlespace intelligence data may include target descriptions, numbers, and the direction and rate of movement. It can also provide an early warning of the enemy's activity.

      • Can communicate with other munitions for conducting coordinated attacks.

    (2)     The Hornet PIP munition is a subset of the Raptor. Raptor is the first of several systems fielded to Force XXI units. The Raptor provides an effective situational obstacle. Some examples of situational employment include early disruption of moving enemy forces, coverage of counterattack routes, and provision of flank security. When employed in these capacities, the ON/OFF/ON or programmed capability maintains the obstacle effect but does not hamper the maneuver commander's flexibility.

    Figure 10-8. Raptor integrated with other obstacle types

    Figure 10-8. Raptor integrated with other obstacle types.

    10-27.     COMMAND AND CONTROL OF SCATMINES

    Due to the delivery means, C2 of SCATMINEs is more complex than with conventional mines. SCATMINEs are very dynamic weapons systems because they can be rapidly emplaced and then cleared by way of their SD capability. In addition, the physical boundary of a scatterable minefield is not clearly defined. These characteristics require impeccable communications and coordination to ensure that all friendly units know where mines are located, when they will be effective, and when they will self-destruct.

        a.     Emplacement Authority. The corps commander has emplacement authority for all scatterable minefields within the corps AO. He may delegate this authority to lower echelons according to the guidelines in Table 10-4.

    Table 10-4. Emplacement authority

    Table 10-4. Emplacement authority.

        (1)     Based on how the commander wants to shape the battlefield, he must specifically delegate or withhold the authority to employ SCATMINE systems. The commander's guidance concerning SCATMINEs is found in the unit's OPORD or OPLAN. Additional information is included in engineer and fire-support annexes, if used.

        (2)     Due to the complete control a commander has over the MOPMS, emplacement authority guidelines do not apply to the MOPMS. It is impractical for the corps or SBCT commander to authorize every MOPMS protective minefield. Therefore, authority to emplace MOPMS minefields is specifically delegated. In general, units can emplace MOPMS protective minefields as required for their own self-defense and report them as they do any protective obstacle. Any MOPMS minefield used as part of an obstacle plan must be reported as a scatterable minefield.

        b.     Coordination. Table 10-5 outlines basic responsibilities of key commands, staff elements, and units. The fire support officer is involved in planning artillery-delivered (ADAM and RAAM) SCATMINEs, and the air liaison officer is involved in planning air-delivered (Gator) SCATMINEs. The engineer has primary responsibility for planning and employing SCATMINE systems. It is vital that coordination be conducted with all units and subunits that will be affected by the employment of SCATMINEs. A scatterable minefield warning (SCATMINWARN) is sent to all affected units before the emplacement of the minefield.

    ELEMENT

    RESPONSIBILITY

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    G3/S3 with Engineer

    FSCOORD/ALO

    Plan and coordinate the minefield location, size, composition, density, SD time, safety zone, and emplacement time.

    Plan and coordinate SEAD for air-delvered SCATMINEs.

    Designate and brief the emplacing unit.

    Incorporate the minefield and safety zone into the obstacle plan.

    Receive and forward the scatterable minefield report and record.

    Disseminate information concerning the minefield in the SCATMINWARN to adjacent and subordinate units prior to laying.

    Post operations maps with the minefield location, safety zone, and DTG of the SD time; disseminate the SCATMINWARN 1 hour prior to initiation of the SD sequence.

     

     

     

     

     

    Emplacing Unit

    Calculate the logistical requirements.

    Calculate the safety zone.

    Emplace the minefield.

    Report the amount of ammunition expended.

    Prepare and forward the scatterable minefield report and record to the authorizing commander via appropriate channels.

     

    Maneuver Units

    Be aware of the calculated safety-zone boundary and advise subunits of its location.

    Table 10-5. Coordination responsibilities.

    10-28.     SCATMINE MARKING

    The maneuver unit that is responsible for the area of ground in which the minefield is emplaced is also responsible for marking the minefield. This procedure normally requires direct coordination between elements of the maneuver command (usually the engineer) and the delivering or emplacing unit. However, it is unrealistic to expect units to mark artillery-delivered ADAM and RAAM, air-delivered Volcano, or Gator minefields. For this reason, units operating in the vicinity of these minefields must know calculated safety zones and use extreme caution.

        a.     Safety Zones. A safety zone is an area where a stray or outlying mine has a chance of landing and laying at rest. The commander must prevent friendly forces from maneuvering into the safety zone during the minefield's life cycle. Depending on its specific location on the battlefield, the safety zone may be marked with a fence. The safety zones around Volcano minefields are shown in Figure 10-9.

    Figure 10-9. Ground Volcano minefield

    Figure 10-9. Ground Volcano minefield.

        b.     Fragment Hazard Zones. If an AT mine that is oriented on its side self-destructs, the explosive-formed penetration (EFP) can theoretically travel 640 meters. This is called the maximum fragment hazard zone (Figure 10-9); however, the chances of being struck are negligible at this distance. Tests indicate that the acceptable risk distance is 235 meters from the outer edges of the minefield's safety zone. This fragment hazard zone is also associated with Gator and MOPMS AT mines. Commanders must be aware of the fragment hazard zone when the MOPMS is used for protective minefield missions. Use Table 10-6 to determine the safety and fragment hazard zones.

    SYSTEM

    SAFETY ZONE

    FRAGMENT HAZARD ZONE

    ADAM/RAAM

    500 to 1,500 meters from aim point(s) (depends on delivery method)

    235 meters from the outside dimensions of the safety zone

    Gator

    925 x 475 meters from aim point(s)

    1,395 x 945 meters from aim point(s)

    Ground Volcano

    1,150 x 160 meters

    235 meters from start and stop point and the center line

    Air Volcano

    1,315 x 200 meters

    235 meters from start and stop points and the center line

    MOPMS

    See FM 20-32 for specific placement

    235 meters from the outside dimensions of the safety zone.

    Table 10-6. Safety and fragment hazard zones.

        c.     ADAMs and RAAMs Safety Zones. The FSO is responsible for obtaining safety zones. Safety zones may be computed by the DS battalion FDC or by the FSO using the safety zone table below (Table 10-7). An alternative method is to use the mine safety template (discussed below). The engineer is responsible for disseminating the safety zones to appropriate units.

    PROJECTILE AND TRAJECTORY

    RANGE (KM)

    MET + VE/TRANSFER TECHNIQUE

    OBSERVER ADJUST TECHNIQUE

    RAAM

    Low-Angle

    4

    500 x 500

    500 x 500

    7

    550 x 550

    500 x 500

    10

    700 x 700

    550 x 550

    12

    850 x 850

    550 x 550

    14

    1000 x 1000

    650 x 650

    16

    1050 x 1050

    650 x 650

    17.5

    1200 x 1200

    650 x 650

    ADAM

    Low-Angle

    4

    700 x 700

    700 x 700

    7

    750 x 750

    700 x 700

    10

    900 x 900

    750 x 750

    12

    1050 x 1050

    750 x 750

    14

    1200 x 1200

    850 x 850

    16

    1250 x 1250

    850 x 850

    17.5

    1400 x 1400

    850 x 850

    RAAM or ADAM

    High-Angle

    4

    750 x 750

    700 x 700

    7

    900 x 900

    700 x 700

    10

    1050 x 1050

    750 x 750

    12

    1200 x 1200

    750 x 750

    14

    1400 x 1400

    850 x 850

    16

    1500 x 1500

    850 x 850

    17.5

    1400 x 1400

    850 x 850

    Table 10-7. ADAMs and RAAMs minefield safety zones.

        d.     Use of the Mine Safety Template. Enter the template (Figure 10-10) with the fired minefield data:

      • Technique (meteorological [MET] + velocity [VE]/transfer or observer adjust).
      • Trajectory (high or low angle).
      • Type of projectile fired (RAAM or ADAM).
      • Range (to minefield center).
      • Aim point coordinates (center or left and right).

    Center the selected template safety zone square over the aim point(s). Draw a square to establish the minefield safety zone.

    Figure 10-10. ADAMs and RAAMs minefield safety template

    Figure 10-10. ADAMs and RAAMs minefield safety template.

    10-29.     NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL, AND CHEMICAL

    The battalion chemical section advises the commander on all NBC matters. The chemical section is responsible for collecting, consolidating, and distributing all NBC reports from subordinate, adjacent, and higher units. The chemical section inspects chemical equipment and trains subordinate units on NBC defensive tasks prior to deployment and in garrison. As a member of the S-3 plans and operations cell, the battalion chemical officer is normally found in the main CP. The chemical officer acts as the liaison with any attached chemical elements. He is required to coordinate closely with the S-2 on the current and updated NBC threat. Together they develop NBC named areas of interest. The chemical officer coordinates with the fire support and aviation personnel on planned smoke operations and advises them of hazard areas. He also coordinates with the S-4 on NBC logistics matters (such as mission-oriented protective posture, protective mask filters, and fog oil) and to identify "clean" and "dirty" routes and contaminated casualty collection points. A subset of the survivability mission is NBC defensive measures. Chemical staff personnel adhere to three principles.

        a.     Avoidance. Avoiding NBC attacks and hazards is the key to NBC defense. Avoidance involves both active and passive measures. Passive measures include training, camouflage, concealment, hardening positions, and dispersion. Active measures include detection, reconnaissance, alarms and signals, warning and reporting, marking, and contamination control.

        b.     Protection. NBC protection is an integral part of operations. Techniques that work for avoidance also work for protection, such as shielding soldiers and units and shaping the battlefield. Activities that comprise protection involve sealing or hardening positions, protecting soldiers, assuming MOPP, reacting to attack, and using collective protection.

        c.     Decontamination. NBC decontamination prevents the erosion of combat power and reduces possible casualties resulting from inadvertent exposure or failure of protection. Decontamination allows commanders to sustain combat operations. Decontamination principles involve conducting decontamination as quickly as possible, decontaminating only what is necessary, decontaminating as far forward as possible, and decontaminating by priority. (See FM 3-4.)

        d.     Reconnaissance. The NBC reconnaissance platoon, organic to the RSTA squadron, is equipped with nuclear, biological, chemical reconnaissance vehicles (NBCRVs). The reconnaissance platoon provides warning and enhanced protection against the NBC threat to include accidental or deliberate release of industrial hazards and terrorism.

    10-30.     MILITARY POLICE SUPPORT

    MP units, provided from division or corps assets, support the SBCT through their five primary battlefield functions.

        a.     Maneuver and Mobility Operations. MPs, when augmenting the SBCT, can support the maneuver and mobility functions by expediting forward and lateral movement of combat resources. MPs used in the circulation control role can perform the following functions.

        (1)     Route Reconnaissance. MPs continually monitor the condition of main supply routes; identify restricting terrain, effects of weather on routes, damage to routes, NBC contamination, and the presence of the enemy; and identify alternate MSRs, when required.

        (2)     MSR Regulation and Enforcement. MP units enforce the command's highway regulation and traffic circulation plans to keep MSRs free for resupply operations. MPs use traffic control points, roadblocks, checkpoints, holding areas, defiles, and temporary route signs to expedite traffic on MSRs.

        (3)     Area Damage Control (ADC). MP units support ADC before, during, and after hostile actions or natural and man-made disasters. ADC operations help reduce the level of damage or lessen its effect. MP support includes, but is not limited to, circulation control, dislocated civilian control, straggler control, NBC detecting and reporting, and some physical security when required.

        (4)     Straggler and Dislocated Civilian Control. MP units rejoin stragglers with their parent units, thereby preserving combat power. In conjunction with host nation forces, MP units divert dislocated civilians from MSRs and other locations needed to support maneuver units. These actions enhance unit mobility and prevent the incidence of fratricide and collateral damage.

        b.     Area Security. MPs assist the SBCT commander in addressing security and force protection to enhance the maneuver unit's freedom to conduct missions. Area security actions include zone and area reconnaissance; counterreconnaissance activities; and security of designated personnel, equipment, facilities, and critical points. These actions also include convoy and route security. Specific actions include—

        (1)     Combating Terrorism. MP units (as well as joint multinational and interagency efforts) act to oppose terrorism throughout the entire threat spectrum. These actions include antiterrorism and counterterrorism activities.

        (2)     Physical Security. MPs perform physical security and provide physical security guidance focused on physical measures designed to safeguard personnel; prevent unauthorized access to equipment, installations, material, and documents; and safeguard against espionage, sabotage, damage, and theft. Physical security is an integral part of OPSEC.

        (3)     Counterreconnaissance. Counterreconnaissance is the cumulative result of security operations. MP units contribute to counterreconnaissance by conducting area security, screen, supporting, and guard operations, as well as OPSEC, deception, and physical security.

        (4)     Personal Security. Personal security is one of the five pillars of force protection. MP activities support force protection by providing very important person (VIP) security and security of designated personnel.

        c.     Internment and Resettlement Operations. MPs support tactical commanders by undertaking control of populations (EPW and dislocated civilians) and US military prisoners.

        d.     Law and Order Operations. MPs conduct these operations when necessary to extend the combat commander's discipline and control. These operations consist of those measures necessary to enforce laws, directives, and punitive regulations; conduct military police investigations (MPIs); and to control populations and resources to ensure the existence of a lawful and orderly environment for the commander. An evolving criminal threat will impact military operations and will require the commander to minimize the threat to forces, resources, and operations. Close coordination with host-nation civilian police can enhance MP efforts at combating terrorism, maintaining law and order, and controlling civilian populations.

        e.     Police Intelligence Operations. Police intelligence operations (PIO) consist of those measures to collect, analyze, and disseminate information and intelligence resulting from criminal activities, law enforcement, security operations, and other MP and CID operations. The collection of this information needs to be integrated into the overall ISR plan.

    10-31.     MILITARY POLICE COMPANY ORGANIZATION

    The MP company from a heavy division, that may be tasked to provide support to the SBCT, consists of a company headquarters, provost marshal section, three DS MP platoons, and three GS MP platoons.

        a.     The provost marshal has OPCON of the MP assets provided to the brigade. The MP platoon leader directs the execution of his platoon's missions.

        b.     The corps MP brigade will normally provide an additional MP company to augment each division. Dependent upon METT-TC, this support may or may not be provided down to brigade level. Likewise, dependent upon METT-TC, the brigade could receive support ranging from platoon- to company-size units from the corps.

    10-32.     EMPLOYMENT AND PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS

    Any one of the five MP battlefield functions (see Paragraph 10-31 above) could easily require an entire MP platoon and more. It is important that the factors of METT-TC be considered when using MP support. During offensive operations, MPs best support the brigade's maneuver and mobility by facilitating route movement and refugee, straggler, and or enemy prisoner of war evacuation and control and by controlling road traffic. In the defense, MPs are best employed in the area security role to enhance the brigade's maneuver and mobility. It is important that MP resources be synchronized and weighted in support of the brigade's main effort just as any other asset. This will help maximize MP resources allocated to the brigade. MP support may not be available and or adequate to perform all necessary MP battlefield functions simultaneously. Commanders must prioritize those missions and designate other soldiers within the brigade to assist in their execution.

    Section IV. AIR DEFENSE SUPPORT

    Early engagement of enemy aircraft is one of the most important short-range air defense (SHORAD) employment guidelines. Air attack information is received and processed by the forward-located Sentinel elements and air battle management operations center (ABMOC). External and internal air track information is correlated by the Sentinel and FAADC3I and subsequently transmitted to the simplified handheld terminal unit (SHTU) of the firing units (FUs) and the SBCT's FAADC3I. The FAADC3I manages engagement operations, which involves taking sensing data from organic, high- to medium-altitude air defense (HIMAD) and joint sensors and passing this information to the SHORAD weapons for engagement. The air and missile defense workstation (AMDWS) manages force operations, which involves managing SHORAD assets by knowing the status, location, and posture of all assets in relation to the SBCT maneuver plan. This ensures that they can be properly supported and sustained and can provide the best coverage for the supported SBCT. This information is subsequently transmitted to subordinate units via FBCB2 (Figure 10-11).

    Figure 10-11. ADA architecture

    Figure 10-11. ADA architecture.

    10-33.     MISSION

    Air defense artillery protects the force and selected assets from aerial attack and surveillance. The primary aerial threats that must be countered by SHORAD systems are UAVs, rotary-wing aircraft, cruise missiles, and fixed-wing aircraft. The deconfliction of airspace and positive identification of friendly UAVs used by the RSTA squadron is the greatest near-term concern for the battalion commander.

    10-34.     ORGANIZATIONS

    The SBCT does not contain organic ADA assets and is typically supported by an ADA battery from corps or division units (Figure 10-12). The battalion is typically supported by an Avenger or Linebacker platoon consisting of four firing units and a C2 vehicle. The platoon is organized into a headquarters section and two maneuver sections. Air defense commanders may modify platoon organizations to fit specific mission requirements. The platoon may operate in a DS role to the battalion but is more commonly in a GS role under control of the ADA battery commander.

     

    Figure 10-12. ADA battery

    Figure 10-12. ADA battery.

    10-35.     AIR DEFENSE PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS

    The battalion commander and his ADO integrate the firepower of all available fire systems to defeat the enemy air threat.

        a.     ADA employment guidelines are used as aids for positioning individual ADA firing units. The six ADA employment guidelines are—

        (1)     Early Engagement. Firing units must be positioned where they can engage enemy air platforms before the enemy can release his ordnance on or gain intelligence about friendly forces. With the mobility provided by the Linebacker, firing units should be located well forward and integrated into the supported battalion's scheme of maneuver. In less likely missions of defending a static asset, firing units should be positioned forward of the supported force along likely enemy air avenues of approach.

        (2)     Weighted Coverage. Once the supported force commander designates his main effort, Linebacker firing units should be positioned along the most likely air avenues of approach to support the commander's main effort. This massing of firepower increases the Linebacker platoon's probability of killing enemy air targets. It is extremely important that detailed, in-depth air IPB is developed prior to deciding where to weight coverage of air defense assets. Air defense focuses its efforts on the most likely avenues of approach along the supported force commander's designated main effort.

        (3)     Depth. Depth is achieved by positioning firing units so enemy air platforms encounter a continuous volume of fire as they approach the protected force or asset. The Linebacker platoon leader achieves depth by positioning his assets so that they can provide continuous fires along enemy air avenues, destroying the enemy as it advances toward the protected force or asset. Depth is maximized through the integration of all air defense weapons. Additional air defense assets on the battlefield (such as Stinger teams, Avenger firing units, HIMAD assets, and combined arms air defense efforts from ground forces) contribute to the creation of depth on the battlefield.

        (4)     Balanced Fires. Positioning air defense weapons to distribute fire equally in all directions creates balanced fires. Except for the mission of defense of a static asset, where no clear avenues of approach are identified, this guidance is seldom employed. As an example, on a flat, open battlefield characteristic of some desert environments, no specific air corridor exists. In this situation, planning for balanced fires may be viable.

        (5)     Mutual Support. Mutual support is achieved by positioning weapons to complement fires from adjacent firing units, thus preventing the enemy from attacking one position without being subjected to fire from one or more adjacent positions. Mutual support enhances volume of fire and covers the dead space of adjacent units. The planning range for mutual support for Stinger systems is approximately 2,000 meters.

        (6)     Overlapping Fires. Because of the battalion's extended battlespace and a scarcity of available Stinger systems, the air defense planner should attempt to enhance air defense protection by positioning firing units so that engagement envelopes overlap. The planning range for overlapping fires for Stinger systems is approximately 4,000 meters.

        b.     The FAADC3I system greatly enhances the ADO's ability to use these guidelines. The greatest impact is on early engagement. Air defense firing units must be positioned so that they are capable of engaging enemy aircraft prior to the ordnance release line (ORL). The determination of enemy air avenues of approach and ordnance loads comes from the air IPB. The SHTU enhances early warning and engagement and is issued to all ADA firing units including the ADA platoon leaders. It enables the firing units to receive early warning (40 kilometers out) air tracks (data) from the sensor, which in turn receives external air tracks (data) from the ABMOC. The sensor correlates external (ABMOC) track data with its own local data and broadcasts that data to its air defense battery, platoons, sections, firing units, and SBCT air defense LNOs. The battalion and direct support air defense firing units still broadcast flash precedence "FM voice" early warning to maneuver elements.

        c.     The additional feature of early warning distance (from enemy aircraft to the air defense firing unit) is enhanced by the fact that the SHTU enables the air defense firing unit to see 360 degrees out under ideal situations (20 kilometers light and special divisions interim sensor [LSDIS] and 40 kilometers ground-bases sensor [GBS]). ADA must still be attentive and suspect those areas where a pop-up or masked area (blind spot between the SHTU at the firing unit or platoon CP and the sensor) might exist and allow the enemy to reach those locations undetected.

        d.     Linebackers normally accompany the main body or the battalion reserve. Ultimately, Linebacker positioning is determined by the factors of METT-TC, the IPB, and the battalion commander's priorities. The Linebacker platoon may be task-organized to provide direct support to the battalion, or be task-organized into sections to support individual companies. In either case, the battalion ADO must retain the flexibility to mass ADA assets at the critical time and place them on the battlefield to defeat the air threat. FAADC3I allows the ADO to push assets out to a broader area of coverage to provide more firepower forward, facilitate earlier engagement, and cover the flanks.

    10-36.     AIR DEFENSE OFFICER DUTIES

    When augmented with ADA assets, the unit commander or leader will serve as the battalion's air defense officer. The ADO has dual responsibility as the ADO and ADA unit commander and or platoon leader. The ADO must participate in the MDMP as an integral member of the battalion staff. The ADO should work closely with the S2 during the IPB process and is best suited to prepare and brief the air IPB. Airspace or the aerial dimension of the battlefield is the most dynamic and fast-paced of the three dimensions. The most significant threats that must be evaluated at the battalion level for aerial IPB are UAVs, fixed-wing aircraft, and rotary-wing aircraft.

        a.     The ADO's mission analysis should cover the following areas.

      • Air Threat Overview: Air avenues of approach, type of air threat, probable threat objective, and potential to support the maneuver forces.

      • Specified, Implied, and Essential Tasks: From the air defense perspective (for example, early warning).

      • Constraints and Restrictions: Initial air defense warning status, weapons control status, and systems limitations.

      • Forces Available: SHORAD, HIMAD, and sensor coverage.

      • Platoon Status: Personnel, maintenance posture, weapons status, and missile supply.

      • Issues: Coordination with SBCT (for example, missile supply).

    b.     The ADO also—

      • Assists the S3 in planning and executing the air defense portion of the operation.

      • Advises the commander and S3 on the employment of air defense assets.

      • Coordinates with the S3 air, FSO, and FAC for the appropriate air defense posture and A2C2.

      • Controls integration of air defense elements and early warning systems.

      • Recommends priorities to the commander:

      • Threat: Reverse target value analysis.
      • Criticality: Force or asset that is essential to mission accomplishment.
      • Vulnerability: Susceptibility to surveillance and attack.
      • Recuperability: In terms of time and equipment.

        c.     The ADO is also responsible for the execution of the air defense plan. He must monitor the positioning and coverage provided by his platoon and other ADA assets, recommending changes to the plan based on the enemy threat and changes in the scheme of maneuver. FBCB2 allows the ADO to track his platoon assets visually to ensure proper position and coverage for the protected force. In most situations, the information provided by FBCB2 allows the supporting ADA platoon to perform a general support mission to the battalion rather than task-organizing the platoon to the maneuver companies. This allows the ADO to command and control the supporting ADA assets and frees subordinate company commanders of this requirement.

    10-37.     OFFENSIVE CONSIDERATIONS

    In offensive operations, air defense units move so they are best positioned to protect the supported force. The commander should consider weighting the main effort. The air defense plan must support the supported commander's scheme of maneuver. Air defense priorities are established to ensure effective and continuous support for the offensive operation. Air defense systems normally accompany the main body or battalion reserve, but ultimately system positioning is determined by the factors of METT-TC. The Avenger or Linebacker platoon normally provides direct support coverage to the battalion. Priorities for protection may include maneuver elements, fire support, engineer elements, command and control nodes, and logistics assets. Unit SOP and mission-specific IPB developed during the planning process determine priorities for air defense for each mission.

    10-38.     DEFENSIVE CONSIDERATIONS

    The air defense plan must address air defense coverage during all phases of the defense. The number one challenge to the Avenger or Linebacker platoon is to deny the enemy's use of air assets. SHORAD assets focus on the main air avenues of approach. Lateral coordination with adjacent units is required to preclude gaps in the defense. Avengers and Linebackers travel with the counterattack force or operate from overwatch positions to protect the counterattack force from enemy aerial platforms.

    10-39.     AIR DEFENSE TYPES

    The battalion adopts its air defense posture based on the type of supporting ADA assets it has attached. The battalion always uses a combination of active and passive measures to protect itself against air attack.

        a.     Passive Air Defense. There are two types of passive air defense measures: attack avoidance and damage-limiting measures. Attack avoidance measures are used to avoid being detected by the enemy. Damage-limiting measures are those taken to avoid damage from air attack, such as vehicle dispersion, camouflage, and dug-in fighting positions with overhead protection.

        (1)     Attack Avoidance. Attack avoidance involves taking the actions necessary to avoid being seen by the enemy to include concealment (the protection from observation or surveillance) and, more specifically, camouflage (the use of natural or artificial material on personnel, objects, or tactical positions with the aim of confusing, misleading, or evading the enemy). The techniques, procedures, and materials used for concealment from aerial observation are the same as those used for concealment from ground observation.

        (a)     Concealment Principles. There are three concealment principles employed to eliminate the factors of recognition.

      • Siting. Siting means selecting the most advantageous position in which to hide a soldier, an object, or an activity.
      • Discipline. Success in any concealment effort depends on strict maintenance of concealment discipline by both the unit and individual soldiers.
      • Construction. Adding natural materials to blend with the surrounding terrain augments this type of concealment.

    Examples of concealment include using overhead cover to the maximum extent possible and selecting natural cover.

        (b)     Fundamental Methods of Concealing. There are three fundamental methods of concealing installations and activities.

      • Hiding. Hiding is the complete concealment of an object by some form of physical screen.
      • Blending. Blending is the arrangement or application of camouflage materials on, over, and around the object so that it appears to be part of the background.
      • Disguising. Clever disguises can often mislead the enemy concerning identity, strength, and intention,and may draw his fire from real assets.

        (2)     Damage-Limiting Measures. Damage-limiting measures are an attempt to limit any damages if the enemy detects friendly forces. These measures are used when the troop or its platoons are located in a static position such as an assembly area or when they are maneuvering. If caught in the open, vehicles should immediately execute battle drills and move to positions of cover and concealment that reduce the enemy's ability to acquire or engage them. The same measures taken to limit damage from artillery attack are used for dispersion, protective construction, and cover.

        (a)     Dispersion. Dispersed troops, vehicles, and equipment force the attacker to concentrate on a single small target that will likely be missed. While maneuvering, maintain safe distances between vehicles to reduce the effects of enemy actions.

        (b)     Protective Construction. Protective construction is the use of natural or manmade cover to reduce damage and casualties. Digging in or sandbagging of natural or manmade cover can offer additional protection from attack.

        (c)     Cover. Cover is shelter or protection from enemy observation that reduces the effects of enemy direct or indirect fires. While stationary or maneuvering, select the cover available that will mitigate the effects of attack. Folds in the earth, natural depressions, trees, buildings, and walls all offer damage-limiting cover.

        b.     Active Air Defense. Although passive measures are the first line of defense against air attack, troops must be prepared to engage attacking enemy aircraft. The decision to fight an air threat is based on the immediate situation and weapons system capabilities. Based on the mission, companies do not typically engage aircraft except for self-preservation or as directed by the battalion or company commander.

        c.     Right of Self-Defense. The right of self-defense is never denied. A unit can defend itself from direct attack but should not engage aerial platforms that are not attacking it except on the command of the next higher authority.

        d.     Crew-Served and Vehicle Weapons Systems. Crew-served weapons and vehicle weapons systems provide a large volume and lethal means of engaging threat aircraft. When different munitions are available, use the currently loaded munitions, then reload with the appropriate munitions to engage the aircraft.

        e.     Small Arms Used for Air Defense. Small arms used for air defense incorporate the use of volume fire and proper aiming points according to the target. The key to success in engaging enemy air is to put out a high volume of fire. The commander must decide whether to engage and must provide the engagement command for the entire troop to fire upon the attacking aircraft rather than having soldiers fire at the aircraft individually.

    f.     Football Field Technique. The football field technique is a simple method of estimating lead distance. This technique is used to lead the target by a common distance (the length of a football field as the base) (Table 10-8). The aircraft then flies into the volume of fire. UAVs should be engaged using helicopter aiming points. Aiming points for both fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft are described below (Figure 10-13).

    g.     Heliborne Infantry and Paratroopers. Infantry rapelling from a hovering helicopter should be engaged by destroying the helicopter using volume fire. Airborne troops are more difficult to engage because of their rapid descent. When engaging paratroopers, use machine guns leading two body lengths below their feet. The Geneva Convention of 1949 and the rules of war prohibit engaging crewmen parachuting from a disabled aircraft.

    Table 10-8. Football field technique

    Table 10-8. Football field technique.

    Figure 10-13. Aiming points for fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft

    Figure 10-13. Aiming points for fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft.

    10-40.     AIR DEFENSE WARNINGS AND WEAPONS CONTROL STATUS

    Battalion leaders should ensure their subordinates understand the air threat and air threat warning conditions.

        a.     Air defense conditions are stated in the OPORD:

      • Red indicates the attack is imminent.
      • Yellow indicates that an attack is probable.
      • White indicates that an attack is not likely.

        b.     A local air defense warning (LADW) describes the air threat in the immediate area (Figure 10-14). LADWs are designed to alert a particular unit, several units, or an area of the battlefield of an impending air attack. ADA units use LADWs to alert Army units about the state of the air threat in terms of "right here and right now." They can be used in conjunction with air defense warnings (ADWs). Examples of LADWs are described below:

      • Dynamite indicates an attack is imminent or in progress.
      • Look-out indicates an attack is likely.
      • Snowman indicates an attack is not likely.

    Figure 10-14. Local air defense early warning

    Figure 10-14. Local air defense early warning.

        c.     Weapons control status determines the conditions for using weapons against enemy aircraft:

      • Weapons Free: Enemy air is probable, and soldiers may fire at aircraft not positively identified as friendly.
      • Weapons Tight: Enemy air is possible, and soldiers may fire only at aircraft positively identified as hostile according to announced hostile criteria.
      • Weapons Hold: Enemy air is not likely, and soldiers may not fire except in self-defense.

    10-41.     AIR DEFENSE ASSETS

    The ADA assets supporting the battalion as part of an attached ADA platoon are the Avenger, Bradley Linebacker, Stinger missile, man-portable system, and the Bradley Stinger fighting vehicle (BSFV).

        a.     Avenger. The Avenger weapon system is a lightweight, day or night, limited adverse weather firing unit employed to counter low-altitude aerial threats. The FU consists of two turret-mounted standard vehicle-mounted launchers (SVMLs), a machine gun, a forward-looking infrared (FLIR) sight, a laser range finder (LRF), and an identification, friend or foe (IFF). The gyrostabilized turret is mounted on the HMMWV. The FU can launch a missile or fire the machine gun on the move or from a stationary position with the gunner in the turret. It can also be remotely operated from a location up to 50 meters away. Onboard communications equipment provides for radio and intercom operations.

        b.     Bradley Linebacker. The Bradley Linebacker replaces the BSFV's TOW system with four ready-to-fire Stinger missiles housed in the SVML. With its ability to shoot on the move, the Bradley Linebacker eliminates the need for the Stinger team to dismount from the vehicle, providing a significantly increased capability over the BSFV.

        c.     Stinger Missile. The Stinger missile is the battalion's primary air defense weapon system. The Stinger is a short-range, heat-seeking guided missile that can be either shoulder-fired or fired from the SVML on the Bradley Linebacker. It is designed to counter the threat of advance helicopters, UAVs, remotely piloted vehicles (RPVs), high-speed maneuvering aircraft, and cruise missiles. The Stinger has a range in excess of 5 kilometers.

        d.     Man-Portable System. The Stinger can be employed as a man-portable air defense system (MANPADS). The two-man Stinger team, consisting of a gunner and a crew chief, is transported in an HMMWV or BSFV.

        e.     Bradley Stinger Fighting Vehicle. The BSFV provides the air defender with armor protection and gives him the ability to maneuver with the supported force and position the Stinger system forward on the battlefield. The Stinger team must dismount to fire its missiles. The BSFV carries a basic load of six Stinger missiles as its primary air defense weapon. The BSFV's 25-mm chain gun can be used to augment the Stinger and cover dead space to a range of 2,000 meters. The vehicle also carries five TOW missiles.

    Section V. SIGNAL

    The communications section provides the battalion with communications experts capable of supporting battalion and company.

    10-42.     BATTALION S6 SECTION

    The section's signal officer is the primary planner for battalion communication operations. The S6 advises the battalion commander, staff, and the maneuver companies on all signal and communication matters. The section provides trained communications personnel to each maneuver company, and they coordinate closely with the S3 section to ensure and maintain clear lines of communication during tactical operations. The communications section is responsible for the transfer of information, the networking of automated systems, and the development of communications policies, procedures, and training for the battalion commander. The communications section is equipped with two Strykers for retransmission and two HMMWVs for retransmission and transportation).

    10-43.     COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS

    Doctrinally, communications are established from higher to lower, left to right, and supporting to supported. Table 10-9 shows the location of each SBCT C2 node information network subscriber by subnetwork.

    Battalion Element

    TI

    CNR

    TOC to TOC

    GBS

    Infantry Battalion

    X

    X

    X

    X

    Infantry Company

    X

    X

       

    Table 10-9. Information network.

        a.     Tactical Internet. The TI integrates EPLRS, FBCB2, and supporting communications equipment into a mobile data network. The TI provides FBCB2 data and C2 data exchange capabilities to SBCT maneuver, CSS, and C2 elements. It also enables users to access the network with the FBCB2 at any location as long as the system is within line of sight of other TI assets. FBCB2 uses the TI to exchange information among users automatically as the tactical situation changes.

        b.     Combat Net Radio. The combat net radio (CNR) provides the SBCT with very-high-frequency (VHF) FM, high frequency, and single-channel tactical satellite (TACSAT) capabilities to execute C2 of forces throughout the SBCT battlespace. The CNR network's primary role is voice communications using the SINCGARS, HF, or single-channel TACSAT for C2. SINCGARS provides low-data-rate transmission for the AFATDS and Prophet.

        c.     TOC-to-TOC Data Network. The TOC-to-TOC data network enables users to exchange C2 information between TOCs and key C2 platforms. The near-term digital radio (NTDR) is a joint tactical radio system (JTRS) surrogate and provides the TOC-to-TOC data network connectivity within the SBCT. The TOC-to-TOC data network uses each NTDR within the network as a relay.

    d.     Global Broadcast Service. The global broadcast service enables the SBCT staff to receive high bandwidth products such as imagery, logistics data, and digital map information. It allows tactical commanders to receive, access, retrieve, and archive this data. Examples of information that may be sent over the global broadcast service include the following:

      • Video broadcasts.
      • UAV video feed.
      • Common ground station sensor data.
      • MCS overlays (friendly operational picture).
      • ASAS overlays (enemy operational picture).
      • Friendly operational picture overlaid with enemy picture from ASAS.
      • Other large volume data.

    10-44.     COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT

    The following paragraphs describe the communications equipment that supports the SBCT information network.

        a.     JTRS. The NTDR is a surrogate for the JTRS and will be used until the JTRS is fielded. The NTDR radio supports local area network (LAN) (ethernet) and serial interfaces inside the TOCs and selected C2 vehicles. The NTDR has a range of 10-20 kilometers (6-12 miles) and incorporates a global positioning system (GPS)-receive capability that provides the military grid reference system (MGRS) position for the radio.

        b.     EPLRS. EPLRS provides the backbone for the SBCT's TI used for distribution of data and C2 information across the battlespace. The net control station-electronic (NCS-E) is used to establish and control the EPLRS network. EPLRS can also provide interfaces for numerous Army tactical computers, providing these computers access to the EPLRS network. Additionally, EPLRS provides a gateway function to adjacent networks and a relay capability with the EPLRS grid reference unit (EGRU).

        c.     SINCGARS. SINCGARS is a family of VHF-FM CNRs that provides the primary means of C2 communications for SBCT units. A common receiver-transmitter (RT) is used for manpack and vehicular configurations. SINCGARS radios can transmit and receive voice and data and can record traffic consistent with NATO interoperability requirements.

        d.     HF. The SBCT uses a commercial-off-the-shelf HF radio system. The AN/PRC-150(C) manpack is automatic-link-establishment (ALE) capable and has embedded COMSEC. The primary component of the HF system is the receiver-transmitter RT-1694D (P)(C)/U. This RT is common to all configurations of the SBCT's HF radios. The vehicular and base station nomenclatures are currently under development.

        e.     Single-Channel TACSAT Terminals. The AN/PSC-5 Spitfire is a lightweight, ultra high frequency (UHF), demand-assigned multiple access (DAMA) capable satellite terminal that supports single-channel communications at all echelons. The terminal includes embedded COMSEC, narrow-band voice capability, and LOS communications for voice and data. The Spitfire data capability is limited to non-DAMA (satellite) mode. The terminal can support command and control on the move (C2OTM) (when equipped with the appropriate amplifier and antenna) and extends SINCGARS communications when paired with SINCGARS as a retransmission unit.

        f.     GBS Receive Suite. The GBS receive suite operates in the Department of Defense GBS information distribution system. It receives the products programmed for the users serviced by each receive terminal at SBCT and battalion levels. The GBS can handle secret and unclassified products.

        g.     Commercial Mobile Satellite Service. Commercial mobile satellite service provides mobile communications across the battlefield and will replace the mobile subscriber radiotelephone (MSRT) used at corps and division echelons. The system is similar to a commercial cellular phone service and provides voice, data, paging, facsimile, and messaging services. The pocketsize, handheld phone has a dual-mode capability that allows it to work as a mobile satellite terminal and a terrestrial wireless system.

        h.     Network Management Systems. The BSN has organic network management capabilities and provides the SBCT with open system, integrated, planning, and engineering capabilities. These brigade subscriber node (BSN) organic network management capabilities provide management tools for the SBCT wide area network (WAN), the radio frequency (RF) spectrum, and COMSEC. The TI and LAN manager provide TI and LAN management tools for the TOC. The EPLRS network is managed using the NCS-E.

        i.     Defense Message System Extension into a Tactical Environment. The tactical defense message system (DMS) provides a record traffic messaging system in the SBCT. Tactical DMS software components are installed on pre-existing platforms within each TOC at SBCT and battalion levels. The SBCT and battalion S6 sections are responsible for the message transfer agent (MTA) located on each TOC server supported by tactical DMS. Tactical DMS is supported by the tactical messaging system (TMS) at the ARFOR which provides backbone connectivity and management services to the SBCT.

        j.     Tactical Range Extension. The tactical communications section employs a retransmission/relay capability for range extension of the TI, CNR, and TOC-to-TOC data networks. Retransmission capabilities in the SBCT's subordinate units remain under the control of the respective unit commander. This authority provides the commander with the flexibility to employ tactical range extension as the situation dictates.

        k.     Communications Relay Package (CRP). The airborne CRP is the preferred option to provide range extension. The CRP reduces the need to deploy isolated ground retransmission teams and overcomes ground LOS restrictions. The BSC and other SBCT units maintain retransmission assets in support of range extension in the absence of airborne CRP assets, but operations in a noncontiguous battlespace demand coverage beyond the capabilities of the SBCT terrestrial retransmission systems. The aerial CRP, in addition to terrestrial retransmission systems, significantly enhances information network coverage throughout the SBCT battlespace. The TI, CNR, and TOC-to-TOC data networks must be able to use some aerial CRP assets to ensure full coverage of the SBCT battlespace. Network infrastructure and ISR missions should be prioritized IAW the commander's intent.

    10-45.     PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS

    Because of the information- and intelligence-dependent nature of the battalion, commanders must identify known good areas of communication coverage by conducting network assessment early in the planning process. This assessment is required for each subnetwork that is used during a given operation. The commander plans communications networks to cover the greatest area of the battalion battlespace. The commander should identify critical communication requirements in order to reposition network infrastructure or request augmentation from higher. The CP locations should be templated IAW coverage available for the communication networks or else the commander must accept the risk of degraded or negated network support. During movement, points of known good communications are identified as communication coordination points. These points are used for intelligence synchronization between echelons.

        a.     The S6 must conduct an electronic preparation of the battlefield (EPB) early enough for the commander to make informed decisions on assigning missions to ISR assets and subsequently to maneuver forces. Critical to the EPB is a risk analysis based on the recommended network architecture. The EPB should include analysis of the following:

        (1)     Terrain. Identify the general effect of the terrain upon communications and key terrain that the commander must control to facilitate IO.

        (2)     Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3). Identify electromagnetic pulse threat, electromagnetic interference sources and effects, electronic warfare threat impact, and environmental conditions that will degrade or enhance communications.

        (3)     Enemy. Identify enemy C2 information systems capabilities and likely courses of action that will influence enemy operations.

        (4)     Network Architecture. Recommend initial network architecture.

        (5)     Bandwidth Assessment. Recommend which standardized information packages can be moved by which network during each phase of the operation.

        (6)     Single Points of Failure. Identify the communications points on the battlefield that will cause the network to fail.

        b.     The commander must incorporate the EPB into his decision-making process early enough to understand the limitations in communications when planning maneuver for his unit. The commander must also indicate what he thinks are his critical information requirements in order for the S6 to ensure infrastructure support for that requirement.

        c.     The initial EPB must be refined as the commander decides what risks he will take in the C2 INFOSYS arena. The S6 plans to cover as much of the battlefield as possible with the available networks. Refinement of coverage is determined by the commander's estimate of critical information requirements. Adapting the command, control, communications, and computers (C4) plan to the priorities set by the commander requires close coordination between the S6 and the other staff members, particularly with the information officer. The information officer determines the priority of information being passed, and the S6 provides the transport path for that information. The S6 must ensure that the information officer is aware of system limits and capabilities at all times, and the information officer must ensure the S6 is aware of the information officer's priorities at all times. Critical to successful C4 planning are the following tasks:

      • Develop primary, alternate, contingency, and emergency (PACE) planning for all networks.
      • Identify C4 requirements by phase.
      • Ensure the C4 requirements are synchronized and integrated with the scheme of maneuver. Embed C4 information on the synchronization matrix.
      • In conjunction with the information officer, determine priority of use for networks by phase.
      • Develop the signal annex.
      • Plan and conduct communications exercises.
      • Integrate C4 by BOS in all rehearsals.

        d.     The signal annex must provide a clear understanding of the unit's communications architecture and how it will operate on the battlefield. A number of styles of information presentation are effective: text, preformatted templates, and matrices. The annex must incorporate all communications resources. Providing a signal concept sketch to the commander works best because it provides the commander with a clear and concise understanding of the communications plan. Critical elements include concept of communications, CP locations, and tactical range extension (T-REX) locations. The S6 must capture information for the complete task organization in order to portray an accurate picture.

    Section VI. INTELLIGENCE

    In the SBCT infantry battalion, the primary means to obtain information is through subordinate maneuver companies, patrols, reconnaissance troops, OPs, and FISTs. The battalion S2 is the primary staff officer responsible for coordination of information collection and dissemination by planning use of battalion reconnaissance and surveillance assets. Individually, the SBCT S2 performs all steps of the collection management process. The end result is an ISR plan integrated into the SBCT's ISR plan. Although SBCT ISR assets are limited, the S2 requests electronic and HUMINT intelligence support through the SBCT's direct support intelligence system. If requested and placed in an SBCT's AO, these assets operate DS or GS to the SBCT. If ISR assets are GS, they are integrated into the SBCT ISR plan and report through the operations and intelligence net.

    10-46.     ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT

    The MI company is the SBCT's primary source of intelligence products and manager of ISR operations. The company consists of an analysis platoon, ISR integration platoon, and human intelligence platoon. The analysis platoon provides analytic support to the development of the SBCT COP, targeting and effects, and refinement of the IPB. The integration platoon serves as an extension of the SBCT S2 staff for the internal and external management of ISR assets. The human intelligence platoon conducts the SBCT's tactical HUMINT collection operations by providing technical guidance and control to the tactical HUMINT teams operating DS to the SBCT's maneuver battalions and reconnaissance squadron. The company has the organic systems necessary to interface with ISR systems resident at the ARFOR, joint, theater, and national levels.

    10-47.     SURVEILLANCE TROOP

    The surveillance troop conducts imagery intelligence (IMINT), measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT), SIGINT, and NBC surveillance operations to support the SBCT's planning, preparation, and execution of multiple simultaneous decisive actions across distributed AOs. The troop contains all the SBCT's organic electronic ISR assets. Successful planning, preparation, and execution of these operations requires the troop's leadership and soldiers to have a clear understanding of the SBCT commander's ISR requirements as well as the squadron commander's intent and concept of operations.

    10-48.     AIR RECONNAISSANCE PLATOON

    The air reconnaissance platoon operates four UAVs to provide the SBCT with 12 hours of continuous coverage in a 24-hour period and a surge capability of 24 out of 24-hours' coverage for a period of 3 days. The platoon consists of a headquarters element, two ground control teams, a launch and recovery section, and a maintenance team.

    10-49.     MULTISENSOR PLATOON

    The multisensor platoon consists of a headquarters element and four multisensor sections. Each section consists of one SIGINT team and one MASINT team. The platoon depends on the ISR integration section located at the squadron CP for SIGINT mission management, technical support, and direction-finding analysis. Each multisensor section consists of one SIGINT team and one MASINT team. Both teams always move as a two-vehicle multisensor section within the AOs. Movement by section allows the platoon to use bounding overwatch techniques to maintain MASINT coverage and to move the direction-finding baseline while maintaining continuous SIGINT support.

        a.     Signal Intelligence Team. Each SIGINT team is equipped with the AN/PRD-13(V)2 improved SIGINT manpack system (ISMS). The AN/PRD-13(V)2 operator can search, intercept, and locate signals from high-frequency to super-high-frequency bands.

        b.     Measurement and Signature Intelligence Team. Each MASINT team is equipped with the AN/PPS-5D GSR and the remotely monitored battlefield surveillance system (REMBASS). The MASINT team emplaces its GSR and REMBASS in areas of expected enemy activity as directed in the squadron S2's ISR plan. The team's REMBASS monitoring site is located within the team vehicle at the multisensor section position. The MASINT team uses its systems to—

      • Provide indications and warning of enemy movement, reinforcement, or withdrawal.
      • Provide near-real-time combat information and targeting data.
      • Confirm or deny movement along major supply routes, along avenues of approach, or through specific named areas of interest.
      • Support flank and rear security.
      • Vector friendly forces to objectives during periods of limited visibility by monitoring their movement.
      • Provide tip-off and cross cueing of other sensors to support the SBCT's targeting effort.

        (1)     Ground Surveillance Radar. The MASINT team's AN/PPS-5D detects, locates, identifies, and tracks moving ground targets in an area under surveillance. The GSR detects moving ground targets only and cannot distinguish between enemy and friendly targets.

        (2)     Remote Battlefield Surveillance System. The team's REMBASS can detect and classify moving targets by responding to seismic acoustic disturbances, changes to infrared energy, and magnetic field changes produced by the targets. The MASINT team hand-emplaces a string of three or more REMBASS sensors along likely avenues of approach, choke points, and obstacles. (The number of sensor strings depends on the area being covered.) The first sensor is normally a seismic acoustic sensor for early warning and classification. The second sensor is normally a count indicator of the expected type of target—a magnetic sensor for vehicles and an infrared-passive sensor for personnel. The count indicator sensor provides the number of targets and direction of travel. The third sensor is also a count indicator and provides rate of speed and length of column. Once the sensors are activated, they send a burst of digital message to the monitoring station. The system requires radio LOS to transmit activations from the sensors to the monitor station. With the collected information, the operator prepares and submits a sensor activation spot report to the ISR integration section at the squadron or to the supported unit.

     



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