Enemy Prisoners of War and Civilian Internees
Part Two addresses handling, securing, and accounting for EPWs and CIs. The MP performing EPW/CI operations must follow specific ROE and ROI applicable to this category of I/R operations. The EPWs and CIs are not treated as DCs or US military prisoners. Leaders and soldiers must be knowledgeable of the Geneva and Hague Conventions, applicable protocols, ARs, and US laws. During war or military operations other than war (MOOTW) involving US forces, the accountability and safe, humane treatment of captives are essential. The US policy demands that all persons who are captured, detained, or held by US forces during conflict be treated humanely. This policy applies from the moment captives are taken until they are released, repatriated, or transferred. Chapter 3 describes division collecting points (CPs) and corps holding areas (CHAs) that may be established throughout the battlefield. Chapter 4 addresses procedures for EPWs, and Chapter 5 describes procedures for CIs. Chapter 6 addresses unique planning requirements to be considered when operating an I/R facility.
|Chapters 3 and 4 implement STANAG 2044.|
3-1. The MP units accept captives from capturing units as far forward as possible, and captives are held in CPs and CHAs until they are removed from the battlefield. Normally, CPs are operated in the division AO and CHAs are operated in the corps AO; but they can be operated anywhere they are needed. The CPs and CHAs sustain and safeguard captives and ensure a minimum level of field processing and accountability. Wounded and sick captives receive medical treatment, and captives who require lifesaving medical attention are evacuated to the nearest medical facility.
3-2. The MP establish listening posts (LPs), observation posts (OPs), guard posts, and fighting positions to protect captives and prevent their escape. Captured soldiers are trained to believe that escape from captivity is their duty; therefore, they must be closely guarded. Consider the morale and physical condition of captives when determining the number of guards needed. Guards must be prepared to use and maintain firm control and security.
3-3. The MP work closely with military intelligence (MI) interrogation teams at CPs and CHAs to determine if captives, their equipment, and their weapons have intelligence value. This process is accelerated when MI interrogation teams can observe captives during arrival and processing, and interrogators can also be used as interpreters during this phase. Before a captive is interviewed by MI personnel, he must have a Department of Defense (DD) Form 2745 (Figure 3-1) attached to him and be accounted for on DD Form 2708.
Figure 3-1. Sample DD Form 2745
3-4. If the CP or the CHA comes under a nuclear, biological, or chemical (NBC) attack, remove captives from the contaminated area and decontaminate them to the same level as US forces. Request assistance for decontaminating captives through command channels. The supply officer issues NBC protective equipment and clothing to captives, using captured materials (when available) or US materials (if necessary).
3-5. Processing begins when US forces capture or detain an individual. The processing is accomplished in the CZ for security, control, intelligence, and the welfare of captives in evacuation channels. This is referred to as field processing . The capturing unit begins field processing by using the Five Ss and T procedure (search, segregate, silence, speed, safeguard, and tag). At the CP or the CHA, MP continue processing with the principles of STRESS (search, tag, report, evacuate, segregate, and safeguard).
3-6. After receiving a captive from a capturing unit, MP are responsible for safeguarding and accounting for the captive at each stage of his removal from the battlefield. The processing procedure begins upon capture and continues until the captive reaches the I/R facility and is released. The process of identifying and tagging a captive helps US forces control and account for him as they move rearward from the battlefield. Before a captive is interned, repatriated, or released, MP at the I/R facility must provide full-scale processing.
3-7. The Five Ss and T procedure is performed by the capturing unit. The basic principles are search, segregate, silence, speed, safeguard, and tag (see Table 3-1).
|Search||Search captives for
weapons and ammunition, items of intelligence value, and
other inappropriate items.
NOTE: Conduct same-gender searches when possible. If mixed-gender searches are necessary for speed or security, conduct them in a respectful manner and avoid any action that could be interpreted as sexual molestation or assault. To prevent allegations of sexual misconduct, the on-site supervisor carefully controls soldiers who perform mixed-gender searches.
|Segregate||Segregate captives by rank, gender, nationality, and status.|
|Silence||Do not allow captives to speak or allow anyone to speak to them. Speak to captives only to give orders.|
|Speed||Remove captives from the battlefield as quickly as possible.|
|Safeguard||Safeguard captives according to the Geneva Conventions and the US policy. Provide medical care as needed.|
|Tag||Tag captives with a DD
Form 2745 or a field-expedient capture tag that includes
the following information:
3-8. When a captive arrives at a division CP or a CHA, he is processed by the STRESS method. The basic principles are search, tag, report, evacuate, segregate, and safeguard (see STANAG 2044).
3-9. Search and inspect each captive and his possessions. Conduct same-gender searches when possible. If mixed-gender searches are necessary for speed or security, conduct them in a respectful manner and avoid any action that could be interpreted as sexual molestation or assault. To prevent allegations of sexual misconduct, the on-site supervisor carefully controls soldiers who perform mixed-gender searches. Some items can be retained during captivity, some items are impounded and eventually returned, and certain items are confiscated and never returned, even if the captive is released or repatriated.
3-10. Retained Items. A captive is allowed to keep certain items during his captivity. They are generally divided into two groups. The first group consists of items taken during the receiving portion of inprocessing and returned later in the process. The second group consists of items that the captive can keep at all times. NOTE: These lists are not all inclusive.
3-13. The MP coordinate with MI interrogation teams to determine which confiscated items have intelligence value. Personal items (diaries, letters from home, and family pictures) can be taken by MI teams for review and then returned to the proper owner via MP.
Prepare DA Form 4137 for confiscated and impounded property.
Prepare a receipt for currency and negotiable instruments to be signed by the captive and the receiver. Use cash collection vouchers so that the value can be credited to each captive's account. List currency and negotiable instruments on the captive's personal-property list, but treat them as impounded property.
3-15. Tag each captive with a DD Form 2745. The MP at CPs and CHAs check each tag for the
3-16. A DD Form 2745 is a perforated, three-part form that is individually serial-numbered. It is constructed of durable, waterproof, tear-resistant material with reinforced eyeholes on Parts A and C. Part A is attached to the captive with wire or string, Part B is maintained by the capturing unit for their records, and Part C is attached to confiscated property so that the owner can be identified later.
3-17. The MP at division CPs ensure that a DD Form 2745 is placed on each captive who arrives at the CP without one. They may direct the capturing unit to complete a capture tag before accepting the prisoner into the CP. The MP
3-19. Evacuate captives from the CZ through appropriate channels as humanely and quickly as possible. Do not delay movement to obtain names, ranks, service numbers, or dates of birth. When moving captives, give them clear, brief instructions in their own language when possible. Military necessity may require a delay in movement beyond a reasonable time. When this occurs, ensure that there is an adequate supply of food, potable water, appropriate clothing, shelter, and medical attention available.
3-20. The MP ensure that the proper paperwork (DA Form 4137, DD Form 515, and DD Form 2708) is complete before captives are evacuated. If necessary, a DD Form 2708 (annotated with the number of prisoners) and a manifest will suffice. Do not expose captives to unnecessary danger, and protect them while they are awaiting evacuation. For seriously wounded or sick captives, medical personnel determine if prompt evacuation is more dangerous than retaining them in the CZ.
3-21. The OIC or the noncommissioned officer in charge (NCOIC) is responsible for the custody of captives. He designates segregation procedures and levels to ensure their security, health, and welfare. Segregate captives into the following categories:
Officers, NCOs, and enlisted members (male and female). Deserters and those who gave up without a fight may be further segregated for their protection. Nationally recognized ideologies and ethnic groups can also be segregated.
US military prisoners. They are separated from all other prisoners/detainees (EPWs, CIs, ODs, and refugees). (See Chapter 8 for a complete discussion on the confinement of US military prisoners.)
3-22. Ultimately, all captives are classified as an EPW, a CI, or an OD. However, it may be impossible to readily classify all captives. If there is any doubt about a captive's status, protect him under the rules of the Geneva Conventions and the US policy until a competent tribunal can determine his status. (See AR 190-8 for further information.)
3-23. Do not use coercion to obtain information from captives. This includes basic information such as name, rank, service number, and date of birth that captives are required to provide under the Geneva Conventions. Coercion or inhumane treatment of captives is prohibited and is not justified by the stress of combat or deep provocation. Inhumane treatment is a serious violation of international law and the UCMJ.
3-24. Do not speak to captives except to give orders or directions. Do not let captives talk to or signal each other. This prevents them from plotting ways to counter security and plan escapes. An uncooperative captive can be gagged in certain tactical situations; however, only use a gag for as long as needed and ensure that it does not harm the captive.
Report acts and allegations of inhumane treatment through MP channels (see AR 190-40).
3-26. Remove captives from the CZ as quickly as possible. The intent is to move them from division CPs to an I/R facility. The goal is for higher echelons to go forward to lower echelons and evacuate captives to the rear as follows:
3-28. Medical personnel decide which captives must be medically evacuated or moved within MP channels, while MP or other command-directed nonmedical personnel provide prisoner security. Generally, walking wounded are moved through MP channels and litter patients are moved through medical channels. The US provides the same medical care for wounded and sick captives as it does for its own forces and allied soldiers. The degree of medical care, not status (such as EPW or CI), determines the disposition of wounded soldiers.
3-30. The MRO coordinates transportation and identifies the treatment facility where wounded and sick captives are taken. Accountability for captives within medical channels is the responsibility of the MRO and the hospital commander. They coordinate their efforts with the IRIC.
3-31. The MP determine if there is a security risk during medical evacuation of wounded and sick captives. Ordinarily, captives who require medical evacuation are less likely to be a security risk. However, captives well enough to be a security risk are treated and returned to MP control.
3-32. If medical personnel request MP to guard captives at a medical facility in the corps area and the corps commander chooses to delegate that responsibility to the MP, the PM allocates support on a case-by-case basis. The MP structure is not designed to provide MP to guard hospitalized captives on a continuous, uninterrupted basis.
3-33. The MP guard able-bodied captives during movement to prevent escape, liberation, or injury. A general planning consideration when determining the number of MP necessary is one for every five to ten captives. An MP unit tasked to escort captives considers the following information when determining the number of guards needed:
The threat level along the route. As the threat level increases, so does the need to increase security. Consider the anticipated presence of suspected sympathizers and hostile, local nationals along the route.
3-34. When moving forward to escort captives to the rear area, MP responsibilities begin at the CP or the CHA where custody is accepted. Verify the method of moving captives, the location and time of pickup, and the number of captives contained in orders from higher headquarters. The MP units cannot transport captives with organic assets.
3-35. The preferred method for moving captives through a battlefield is the backhaul system. This transportation system relies on assets that have delivered their primary cargo and are available to move personnel and materials to another location. The availability of vehicles will vary, depending on the cargo delivered to the area. The command and control (C 2 ) element of the MP unit tasked with evacuation arranges transportation through the local MCO.
3-36. If the backhaul system cannot be employed, the MP unit guarding the captives requests an alternate means of transportation. Captives are moved on foot only as a last resort and upon approval of the MP unit commander.
3-37. A division operates two types of CPsforward and central. A division MP company operates forward CPs in each maneuver brigade AO and a central CP in the division rear area. Both CPs are temporary areas designed to hold captives until they are removed from the battlefield. Forward CPs are positioned as far forward as possible to accept captives from maneuver elements. Central CPs accept captives from forward CPs and local units.
3-38. Forward CPs (Figure 3-2) are needed when a brigade conducts an offensive operation and is likely to take captives. When a maneuver brigade has an MP platoon in direct support (DS), MP teams set up and operate forward CPs. A brigade without an MP platoon in DS sets up and operates its own forward CPs.
Figure 3-2. Forward CP
3-39. The number of MP teams needed to operate a forward CP is based on the number of captives expected and METT-TC. The projected number of captives is based on mission analysis and intelligence estimates conducted by the brigade Intelligence Officer (US Army) (S2). Division forward CPs are mobile; they can be set up, expanded, and relocated quickly as the tactical situation warrants.
3-40. The brigade operation plan (OPLAN) or operation order (OPORD) provides the general location of forward CPs. They are located near or in the brigade support area (BSA), in an area that prevents captives from observing activities within the BSA. They are also located near main supply routes (MSRs) to make delivery, evacuation, and resupply easier.
3-41. Medical support is provided by the MP company medical section. Additional medical support can be requested through the forward support battalion (FSB) to the brigade medical officer. The brigade OPORD includes specific actions and support (operational requirements) needed from non-MP units.
Notifies the BSA tactical operations center (TOC) and the PM operations section of the selected location (grid coordinates). The BSA TOC reports the location to the brigade TOC, and the brigade TOC notifies subordinate units.
3-43. A forward CP is seldom located near the indigenous population to prevent problems caused by the presence of captives in the area. A forward CP is usually a guarded, roped-off area (concertina or razor tape) or a secure, fixed facility. The capture rate and the captive categories determine the size of the forward CP. If possible, use existing structures (vacant schools, apartments, and warehouses) to conserve resources and provide protection for captives. When selecting a location, consider
3-46. A central CP (Figure 3-3) is larger than a forward CP, but it has a similar setup and operation. The larger holding capacity of a central CP requires additional MP. If sufficient MP are unavailable, it is augmented by a division, corps, or EAC band to assist with perimeter security. Captives are provided food, water, first aid, and medical attention as required.
Figure 3-3. Central CP
3-47. As stated in the division OPLAN or OPORD, a central CP is located near the division support area (DSA) in an area that prevents captives from observing activities within the DSA. It is also located near MSRs to make delivery, evacuation, and resupply easier.
3-48. Prevent captives from incurring disease and nonbattle injuries (DNBI) (heat and cold injuries or communicable diseases) while in captivity. Isolate captives who exhibit obvious signs of disease (diarrhea, vomiting, or fever) until medical personnel make an evaluation. If a large number of captives appear ill, notify medical and command channels for immediate action/treatment.
3-51. Like a forward CP, a central CP is seldom located near the indigenous population. Use existing structures, when available, to conserve resources. If structures are unavailable, construct the central CP from similar material as forward CPs. However, a central CP is larger and must contain some type of tentage or shelter to protect captives from the elements. A bunker in each compound or free access to a bunker is needed to protect captives from direct and indirect fire. Enlisted captives can be tasked to help construct a central CP (especially bunkers); however, officer captives cannot be used.
3-52. A central CP is as mobile as a forward CP. It must also be set up, expanded, and relocated quickly as the tactical situation dictates. Units within the DSA provide support as stated in the division OPORD. The MP company medical section provides medical support to personnel in the central CP, and additional medical support can be requested from the command surgeon.
3-53. Account for each captive and his equipment when they arrive at the central CP. Use the STRESS method to process captives who are brought directly to the central CP by a capturing unit (see paragraph 3-8).
3-54. Captives should not remain at the central CP more than 24 hours before being evacuated to the CHA. When all captives are accounted for, processed, and ready for evacuation to the CHA, MP leaders
Ensure that property is tagged with Part C of DD Form 2745 and given to the escort guards.
3-55. A CHA (Figure 3-4) can hold more captives for longer periods of times than a central CP. Depending on the availability of MP units to establish I/R facilities, corps MP units must be prepared to hold captives at the CHA more than 72 hours. If the CHA keeps captives more than 72 hours, MP must plan and coordinate for the increased logistics and personnel required to operate a long-term facility. The decision to hold captives longer is based on METT-TC and the availability of forces. Captives remain in the CHA until they are evacuated to an I/R facility or until hostilities end.
Figure 3-4. Corps Holding Area
3-56. A CHA receives captives from CPs and units that capture them in the rear area. Usually, one CHA is established to support each division conducting operations. However, additional CHAs may be required based on the
Report the exact location (grid coordinates) through MP channels to the unit responsible for the area. The MI coordinates with MP on collocating an MI interrogation team at the CP. However, MP may have to contact MI to initiate the action.
3-58. A CHA is more permanent than CPs. Existing structures may be used and are preferred. The capture rate and the captive categories determine the size of the CHA. A multistory building has a smaller perimeter to guard; however, it requires using guards on each floor and may present a security risk for the guards. Depending on the tactical situation, perimeter lighting can be used.
3-59. When constructing a CHA, divide it into two or more compounds for segregation, security, and ease of control. Consider providing more than one entrance into the CHA. Include a reception area for further processing, searching, and examining of selected captives by MI. Include sanitary facilities (showers and latrines) and shelter (tentage and existing buildings) from the elements and direct and indirect fire.
3-60. The exact CHA setup and design depend on many factors, including construction materials, terrain, and forces. An MP platoon or company from a corps MP battalion usually operates a CHA. A platoon can guard 500 captives, while a company can guard 2,000. During mass captures, a guard force augmentation may be required to handle unexpected workload. The corps band can augment MP guards to aid in security. As the population of the CHA increases, evacuations to the I/R facility also increase.
3-61. Request supplies through logistic channels for construction, maintenance, and day-to-day operations of a CHA. Support agreements can be arranged between MP headquarters and a base or base cluster where the CHA is located. Plan ahead to provide food and water.
3-62. The CHA guards isolate wounded captives and captives suspected of having a communicable disease until medical personnel can examine them (see Chapter 2). Take necessary sanitary measures to ensure a clean, healthy CHA and to prevent epidemics. Request PVNTMED units to assist and advise unit field sanitation teams on
3-64. To facilitate collecting enemy tactical information, MI may collocate interrogation teams at CPs and CHAs. This provides MI with direct access to captives and their equipment and documents. Coordination is made between MP and MI to establish operating procedures that include accountability. An interrogation area is established away from the receiving/processing line so that MI personnel can interrogate captives and examine their equipment and documents. If a captive or his equipment or documents are removed from the receiving/processing line, account for them on DD Form 2708 and DA Form 4137.
3-65. The MI interrogation teams screen captives at CPs and CHAs, looking for anyone who is a potential source of information. Screeners observe captives from an area close to the dismount point or processing area. As each captive passes, MI personnel examine the capture tag and look for branch insignias that indicate a captive with information to support command priority intelligence requirements (PIR) and information requirements (IR). They also look for captives who are willing or attempting to talk to guards; joining the wrong group intentionally; or displaying signs of nervousness, anxiety, or fear.
3-66. The MP assist MI screeners by identifying captives who may have answers that support PIR and IR. Because MP are in constant contact with captives, they see how certain captives respond to orders and see the type of requests they make. The MP ensure that searches requested by MI are conducted out of sight of other captives and that guards conduct same-gender searches.
3-67. The MI screeners examine captured documents, equipment and, in some cases, personal papers (journals, diaries, and letters from home). They are looking for information that identifies a captive and his organization, mission, and personal background (family, knowledge, and experience). Knowledge of a captive's physical and emotional status or other information helps screeners determine his willingness to cooperate.
The site is located where screeners can observe captives as they are segregated and processed. It is shielded from the direct view of captives and is far enough away that captives cannot overhear screeners' conversations.
The site has an operation, administrative, and interrogation area. The interrogation area accommodates an interrogator, a captive, a guard, and an interpreter as well as furniture. Lights are available for night operations.
River crossing operations. Establish temporary CPs on entry and exit sides of the river (corps MP often take control of CPs). Return from the exit bank and evacuate captives to the rear, preventing interference with tactical operations and protecting captives from hostile fire. Coordinate with traffic control personnel at the crossing site to prevent interference with assault forces who are moving forward. Use a secondary crossing site if available.
Amphibious operations. The assault force initially operates CPs in the beachhead and then escorts captives to designated ships. The MP coordinate with the support force for handling captives after they are escorted from the beachhead. When facilities, supplies, and personnel permit, retain captives in the objective area if they can be protected from enemy fire.
Airborne operations. The METT-TC considerations for collecting captives include the geographical location of the airhead, the tactical plan, the availability of transportation, and plans for linking up with ground forces. Captives are primarily moved by air during the early stages of the operation, which requires CPs to be established near landing zones (LZs). Consider attaching additional MP elements from area EAC to guard captives during evacuation.
Armored operations. Armored units can penetrate deep into hostile territory, bypassing pockets of enemy resistance on their way to the objective. This leaves isolated enemy units on the battlefield, which may hinder the normal evacuation of captives to the rear area. Hold captives at the CP until they can be safely evacuated from the battlefield.
Air assault operations. Organic MP elements accompany assault elements to the objective. Establish CPs near LZs and airfields where the evacuation process begins. If necessary, attach nondivisional MP elements to guard captives during evacuation.
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