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Chapter 6

Electronic Security Systems

An overall site-security system is comprised of three major subelements— detection, delay, and response. The detection subelement includes intrusion detection, assessment, and entry control. An ESS is an integrated system that encompasses interior and exterior sensors; CCTV systems for assessing alarm conditions; electronic entry-control systems (EECSs); data-transmission media (DTM); and alarm reporting systems for monitoring, controlling, and displaying various alarm and system information. Interior and exterior sensors and their associated communication and display subsystems are collectively called IDSs.

Overview

6-1. Many Army and DOD regulations specify protective measures, policies, and operations related to security. Although the regulations specify minimum requirements, it is possible that more stringent requirements will be necessary at specific sites. A designer will use a previously performed site survey to determine which regulations apply and to determine whether circumstances require more stringent measures. Refer to TM 5-853-4 for additional detailed information.

6-2. AR 190-13 requires the use of a standardized ESS, if practical and available. The receiving element must determine whether a standardized system can meet the requirements and whether it is available. After coordinating with the product manager for physical-security equipment to verify that a standardized system is available, the associated MACOM can issue approval to procure a commercial system in lieu of a standardized system.

Use of ESS

6-3. An ESS is used to provide early warning of an intruder. This system consists of hardware and software elements operated by trained security personnel.

6-4. A system is configured to provide one or more layers of detection around an asset. Each layer is made up of a series of contiguous detection zones designed to isolate the asset and to control the entry and exit of authorized personnel and materials.

General ESS Description

6-5. An ESS consists of sensors interfaced with electronic entry-control devices, CCTV, alarm reporting displays (both visual and audible), and security lighting. The situation is assessed by sending guards to the alarm point or by using CCTV. Alarm reporting devices and video monitors are located in the security center. The asset's importance will determine whether multiple or redundant security centers are required and, ultimately, the required sophistication of all elements in the ESS. Digital and analog data are transmitted from local (field) interior and exterior locations to the security center for processing. Reliability and accuracy are important functional requirements of the data-transmission system.

ESS Implementation Process

6-6. The ESS implementation process is shown in Figure 6-1 below. Implementing an ESS is based on general requirements tailored to a site-specific mission and physical profile. The process begins with a site survey that includes a top-down view of basic needs and classic configurations that are tailored to such site-specific characteristics as terrain, site geography, climatic conditions, the type of asset, and priorities. This data is used to determine the hardware and software requirements, taking into account the additional capacity that should be factored into the design system for future expansion. Once the requirements for an ESS have been identified, the user must determine whether an existing standardized system is suitable for the application. (AR 190-13 outlines the process for gaining approval to use nonstandard equipment.) The user must also secure funding for the equipment (refer to Appendix J). Depending on the current funding regulations, operation-and-maintenance, procurement, or other funds may be required. For example, operations and procurement, Army (OPA) funds may be required for IDS devices; and operations and maintenance, Army (OMA) funds may be required for installation items. A contract is normally awarded to procure and install the equipment. The procurement or installation must be overseen. This may be accomplished by reviewing submittals, inspecting the contractor's work, or responding to the contractor's requests for information. Once the equipment is installed, the acceptance-testing activities must be witnessed and verified. Site conditions during acceptance testing affect the demonstrated detection capability of an exterior IDS. As feasible, acceptance testing should be designed to determine a sensor system's probability of detection (PD) under a range of conditions. For some types of sensor systems, this may be as straightforward as conducting both daytime and nighttime trials to experience differences in temperature and solar heating. After the ESS has been accepted, it must be operated and maintained throughout the remainder of its life cycle. Planning for manpower to operate the system and forecasting the funding and personnel to properly maintain the system is critical for success.

ESS Design Considerations

6-7. A facility may require interior and exterior ESS elements, depending on the level of protection required. The applicable regulations, threat, and design criteria will define the ESS's general requirements. For an existing ESS, hardware and software may need to be supplemented, upgraded, or completely replaced. A site layout (in which all assets are identified and located) is required. It is a useful design tool for such tasks as configuring the DTM.

6-8. The exterior and interior IDSs should be configured as layers of unbroken rings concentrically surrounding the asset. These rings should correspond to defensive layers that constitute the delay system. The first detection layer is located at the outermost defensive layer necessary to provide the required delay. Detection layers can be on a defensive layer, in the area between two defensive layers, or on the asset itself, depending on the delay required. For example, if a wall of an interior room provides sufficient delay for effective response to aggression, detection layers could be between the facility exterior and interior-room wall or on the interior-room wall. These would detect the intruder before penetration of the interior wall is possible.

Response and Delay

6-9. When dealing with an ESS, the response time is defined as the time it takes the security force to arrive at the scene after an initial alarm is received at the security center. The total delay time is defined as the sum of all of the barriers' delay times, the time required to cross the areas between barriers after an intrusion alarm has been reported, and the time required to accomplish the mission and leave the protected area.

6-10. An ESS's basic function is to notify security personnel that an intruder is attempting to penetrate, or has penetrated, a protected area in sufficient time to allow the response force to intercept and apprehend him. To accomplish this, there must be sufficient physical delay between the point where the intruder is first detected and his objective. This provides delay time equal to or greater than the response time (refer to TM 5-853-1).

6-11. When dealing with interior sensors, boundary sensors that detect penetration (such as structural-vibration sensors or passive ultrasonic sensors) provide the earliest warning of an attempted intrusion. This alarm is usually generated before the barrier is penetrated. This gives the security force advance notification of an attempted penetration, thus allowing the barrier's delay time to be counted as part of the total delay time. Door-position sensors and glass-breakage sensors do not generate an alarm until the barrier has been breached; therefore, the delay time provided by the barrier cannot be counted as part of the total delay time.

6-12. Volumetric motion sensors do not generate an alarm until the intruder is already inside the area covered by the sensors. Therefore, if these sensors are to be used to provide additional response time, additional barriers must be placed between the volumetric motion sensors and the protected asset. Point sensors, such as capacitance sensors and pressure mats, provide warning of attempted penetration only if they detect the intruder before access is gained to the protected area.

Basic Guidance

6-13. An IDS is deployed in and around barriers (as detailed in TM 5-853-1). Voice communication links (radio, intercom, and telephone) with the response force are located in the security center. Security personnel will man the center and will alert and dispatch response forces in case of an alarm.

6-14. The barrier should always be deployed behind the IDS to ensure that integrity is maintained against intruders. An intruder will then activate the alarm sensor before penetrating or bypassing the barriers, thus providing delay for alarm assessment and response. The delay time is the determining factor in whether an assessment is conducted by dispatching a guard or by observing the CCTV. Normally, an intruder can climb a fence before a guard can be dispatched; therefore, a CCTV is usually required with an exterior IDS. Barriers can be located ahead of an alarm sensor as a boundary demarcation and can serve to keep people and animals from causing nuisance alarms by inadvertently straying into a controlled area. These barriers provide no additional response time because the barrier could be breached before the IDS sensors could be activated.

6-15. Data for monitoring and controlling an ESS are gathered and processed in the security center where the operator interacts with information from the ESS components located at remote facilities. The ESS's alarm-annunciation computer and its DTM line-termination equipment should be located in a controlled area and provided with tamper protection. Supervisory personnel should permit changes to software only, and these changes should be documented. If redundant DTM links connect the central computer to the local processor, diverse paths should be used to route these links.

6-16. The preferred medium for transmitting data in an ESS is a dedicated fiber-optics system. It provides for communications not susceptible to voltage transients, lightning, electromagnetic interference, and noise. Additionally, the fiber optics will provide a measure of communication-line security and wide bandwidth for video signals and increased data-transmission rates.

ESS Effectiveness

6-17. An ESS has a degree-of-protection effectiveness that is based on its probability of detecting intruders attempting to go over, under, around, or through the physical-security system. The intruder may use forced-entry, covert-entry, or insider-compromise tactics. A well-designed system will minimize the possibility of a successful penetration through covert entry or insider compromise. Interior and exterior alarm sensors have a PD based on the capability to detect an intruder passing through a sensing field. An intruder disturbs the steady-state quiescent condition of a sensor for a finite period. Sensors are designed to detect a person of minimum stature moving within a specific range of speeds and distances from the sensor, and any target outside of those parameters will probably not be detected. The PD for a specific sensor is usually specified at 0.9 or greater, but the designer must be aware that the PD is based on certain constraints and environmental conditions.

6-18. Manufacturer specifications usually do not discuss environmental or nuisance alarms that can be caused by climatic conditions (such as wind or rain) or by the intrusion of animals (including birds). The alarm annunciation is valid because the sensor's thresholds have been exceeded; however, the alarm does not represent a valid penetration attempt. If the assessment system is slow, the operator may not be able to determine the cause of the alarm and must, therefore, treat an environmental or nuisance alarm as real.

6-19. Another type of false alarm is caused by electronic-circuit tolerances being exceeded, resulting in the sensor's actuation. False alarms may also result from improper installation of the sensor or from effects of other equipment in the immediate area.

6-20. After an alarm is sensed and information is displayed in the security center, the console operator must determine the cause of the alarm (intrusion, nuisance, environmental, or false). Timely assessment is required when determining its cause. For example, if an intruder scales a fence in 10 seconds and runs 20 feet per second, the intruder will have overcome the barrier and be 2,200 feet from the point of penetration in 2 minutes. To conduct an accurate assessment of the alarm after 2 minutes, guards will have to search an area of about 200 acres. A fixed-television camera properly located and integrated with the alarm processor can assess the situation while the intruder is still in the controlled area.

6-21. For a CCTV camera to be effective, the area it views must be adequately lighted. To correlate the alarms and cameras in a large system (more than 10 cameras) in a timely manner, a computer-based processing system must be used to select and display alarms and camera scenes for the operator. A complex ESS has the following basic components:

  • Intrusion-detection sensors.
  • Electronic entry-control devices.
  • CCTV.
  • Alarm-annunciation system.
  • DTM.

6-22. The intrusion-detection sensors are normally deployed in a series of concentric layers. The overall PD improves with each added layer of sensors. The layers (interior and exterior) should be functionally uniform; however, their overall effectiveness and cost are different. The exterior zones significantly differ from the interior zones due to the following considerations:

  • The consistency of the PD.
  • The PD.
  • The cost per detection zone.
  • The number of zones.
  • The overall sensor coverage.

6-23. Exterior IDSs usually have PDs equal to those of interior IDSs. However, exterior sensors are more likely to experience weather-related situations that cause the system's PD to vary. Sensor phenomenology (passive infrared [PIR], microwave radar, and so forth) determines which environmental factors may alter the system's PD. The frequency of occurrence, severity, and duration of a weather event jointly determine whether it represents security vulnerability with the IDS in use. Typically, sophisticated intruders will attempt their penetration and challenge an ESS under conditions most favorable to themselves. Inclement weather (fog, snow, and rain) affects the usefulness of CCTVs and security lighting such that the capability for remote assessment of alarm events may be lost. Exterior IDSs are not necessarily less likely to detect a penetration attempt during fog, rain and snow; the effect of such site conditions on the IDS depends on sensor phenomenology. For example, fence motion caused by rain impact may drive the response of a fence-mounted sensor closer to satisfying the system's alarm criteria, with the result that the margin of disturbance available to the intruder is less. Also, certain buried sensors are more likely to detect an intruder when the ground is wet because of rain or melting snow. Since interior sensor systems are less influenced by environmental conditions, their PD is typically more consistent than that of some types of exterior sensor systems. Other considerations in comparing an interior and exterior ESS are the cost, the number and size of detection zones required, and the detection height.

  • Because of environmental conditions, the exterior electronics must be designed and packaged for extremes of temperature, moisture, and wind. The result is that exterior electronic packages are more costly than equivalent packages for interior applications.
  • State-of-the-art exterior sensors do not detect penetration attempts above the height of a fence (typically 8 feet). Fence-mounted sensors are usually limited to this height because the fence fabric or poles are used to support the sensor. For aboveground sensors in the controlled area between the fences, the sensor's mounting brackets and posts limit the detection height. In some applications of field sensors (especially buried sensors), the detection height is no more than 3 feet. For a facility, interior sensors can be deployed on walls, floors, or ceilings, thus permitting complete protection of the asset.

6-24. An interior ESS may be far less costly than that of a comparable exterior ESS. This comparison indicates to the designer the value of selecting and deploying a well-planned, well-designed, layered system. The basic rule in overall design of an ESS is to design from the inside out; that is, layered from the asset to the site boundary.

Interior ESS Considerations

6-25. An interior ESS is typically deployed within a boundary in the immediate vicinity of the asset being protected. If the interior ESS operates in a controlled environment, its PD will be independent of any weather-induced variation in exterior conditions. Also, the physical-security system's effectiveness is enhanced by the interior barriers (walls, ceiling, and floor) that inherently impose a longer delay than exterior barriers (fences and gates).

6-26. Functionally, an interior asset should be viewed as being contained within a cube with sensors protecting all six faces. Interior sensors can be deployed at the cube's perimeter, in its interior space, or in the space immediately outside of the cube.

6-27. If an increased level of protection is dictated by the threat, and if the building is large enough, multiple layers of interior sensors may be deployed for a given asset. A multilayered interior IDS will improve the overall PD. Tamper protection and access-/secure-mode capabilities must be considered when planning and laying out interior sensors.

Tamper protection

6-28. To minimize the possibility of someone tampering with circuitry and associated wiring, all sensor-related enclosures must be equipped with tamper switches. These switches must be positioned so that an alarm is generated before the cover has been moved enough to permit access to the circuitry of adjustment controls. In addition, several types of sensors should be equipped with tamper switches to protect against being repositioned or removed. Security screens containing grid-wire sensors and vibration sensors that can be easily removed from a wall are examples of sensors that require tamper switches.

Access/secure mode

6-29. During regular working hours, many of the interior sensors must be deactivated by placing the area in the access mode. For example, door-position sensors and volumetric sensors in occupied areas must be deactivated to prevent multiple nuisance alarms caused by the normal movement of people. This can be done locally or remotely. With local control, a switch is used to bypass or shunt alarm contacts when the sensor is placed in the access mode. When done remotely, the security-center operator usually enters a command that causes the processor software to ignore incoming alarms from those sensors placed in the access mode. However, when a sensor is placed in the access mode, its tamper-protection circuitry must remain in the activated or secure mode. During nonworking hours when the facility is unoccupied, all sensors must be placed in the secure mode. Certain devices (such as duress-alarm switches, tamper switches, grid-wire sensors covering vent openings, and glass-breakage sensors) should never be placed in the access mode. The designer must ensure that selected sensors can be placed in an access mode (if required) and that certain types of sensors (such as duress and tamper switches) are configured so that they cannot be put in the access mode under any condition.

Exterior ESS Considerations

6-30. An exterior ESS is typically deployed at a site's boundary or some other significant boundary such as the demarcation fence for a group of bunkers. An exterior ESS has the advantage that it remains in the secure mode at all times.

6-31. The ideal configuration for an exterior ESS is a rectangle or a polygon, with all sides being straight. The ESS is located in and around barriers that typically include a dual fence. The outside fence is used for demarcation, and the interior fence is used to aid in detection and provide some delay. If dual fences are not used, the sensors should be deployed on the fence or inside it.

Design Guidelines

6-32. The general-design criteria of a perimeter IDS involves primarily the selection and layout of exterior sensors that are compatible with the physical and operational characteristics of a specific site. Important factors to consider during the selection process include physical and environmental conditions at the site, the sensor's performance, and the overall cost of the system. Refer to TMs 5-853-1 and 5-853-2 for additional guidance on the requirements for and placement of exterior sensor systems. Since exterior barriers provide very little delay, exterior sensor systems generally do not provide a significant increase in the available response time.

Physical and Environmental Considerations

6-33. Physical and environmental considerations are often the determining factors for selecting exterior sensors. The site's characteristics can significantly affect a sensor's operational performance, both in terms of PD and the susceptibility to nuisance alarms. Exterior sensor systems should be selected on the basis of the frequency and duration of weather-related periods of poor detection capability. An exterior IDS may have an unacceptably low PD during a particular weather event or site condition, yet otherwise be superior to other IDSs in terms of good detection capability and a low nuisance-alarm rate. It may be appropriate to select that IDS in spite of its known vulnerability, precisely because the circumstances of its vulnerability are known and precautionary measures can be taken at those times. The overall performance of that IDS, together with its cost, may justify its selection.

6-34. Weather and climatic conditions at a specific site can significantly influence sensor selection. For example, IR detectors are not very effective in heavy rain, fog, dust, or snow. Deep snow can affect detection patterns and performance of both IR and microwave sensors. High winds can cause numerous false alarms in fence-mounted sensors. Electrical storms can cause alarms in many types of sensors and may also damage the equipment.

6-35. Vegetation can be a significant cause of nuisance alarms. Tall grass or weeds can disturb the energy pattern of microwave and both thermal IR and near-IR beam-break sensors. Vegetation growing near electric-field sensors and capacitance sensors can cause nuisance alarms. Large weeds or bushes rubbing against a fence can produce nuisance alarms from fence-mounted sensors. Large trees and bushes moving within the field of view of video motion sensors can cause nuisance or environmental alarms. A clear area must be established for exterior sensors. This area must be void of vegetation or contain vegetation of carefully controlled growth.

6-36. Topographic features are extremely important. Ideally, perimeter terrain should be flat, although gently sloping terrain is acceptable. Irregular terrain with steep slopes may preclude the use of LOS sensors and make CCTV assessment difficult. Gullies and ditches crossing the perimeter represent a vulnerability to LOS sensors and may be a source of false alarms (from flowing water) for buried line sensors. Large culverts can provide an intruder with an entry or exit route across the perimeter without causing an alarm. Likewise, overhead power and communication lines may permit an intruder to bridge the perimeter without causing an alarm.

6-37. Large animals (such as cows, horses, and deer) can cause nuisance alarms in both aboveground and buried sensors. Sensors sensitive enough to detect a crawling or rolling intruder are susceptible to nuisance alarms from small animals such as rabbits, squirrels, cats, and dogs. To minimize the interference from animals, a dual chain-link-fence configuration may be established around the site perimeter with the sensors installed between the fences.

Sensor Performance

6-38. Exterior sensors must have a high PD for all types of intrusion and have a low unwanted-alarm rate for all expected environmental and site conditions. Unfortunately, no single exterior sensor that is presently available meets both these criteria. All are limited in their detection capability, and all have high susceptibility to nuisance and environmental conditions. Table 6-1 provides estimates of PDs for various types of intrusions. Table 6-2 lists the relative susceptibility of various types of sensors to nuisance and environmental alarms.

    Table 6-1. Estimate of PD by Exterior Sensors

Intruder Technique

Type of Sensor

Slow walk

 

Walking

 

Running

 

Crawling

 

Rolling

 

Jumping

 

Tunnelling

 

Trenching

 

Bridging

 

Cutting

 

Climbing

 

Lifting

 

Fence mounted

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

VH

VL

L

VL

M/H

H

M/H

Taut wire

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

VH

VL

VL

VL

H

H

H

Electric field

VH

VH

VH

H

VH

VH

VL

L

L

N/A

N/A

N/A

Capacitance

VH

VH

VH

H

H

VH

VL

L

L

N/A

N/A

N/A

Ported cable

H

VH

VH

VH

VH

H

M

VH

L

N/A

N/A

N/A

Seismic

H

VH

H

M

M

M

L

M

L

N/A

N/A

N/A

Seismic/magnetic

H

VH

H

M

M

M

L

M

L

N/A

N/A

N/A

Microwave

H

VH

H

M/H

M/H

M/H

VL

L/M

L

N/A

N/A

N/A

IR

VH

VH

VH

M/H

M/H

H

VL

L

VL

N/A

N/A

N/A

Video motion

H

VH

VH

H

H

H

VL

L/M

M

N/A

N/A

N/A

VL = very low, L = low, M = medium, H = high, VH = very high, N/A = not applicable

 
 

    Table 6-2. Relative Susceptibility of Exterior Sensors to False Alarms

Intruder Technique

Type of Sensor

Wind

 

Rain

 

Standing water/runoff

 

Snow

 

Fog

 

Small animals

 

Large animals

 

Small birds

 

Large birds

 

Lightning

 

Overhead power lines

 

Buried power lines

 

Fence mounted

H

M

L

L

VL

L

M

L

L

L

VL

VL

Taut wire

VL

VL

VL

VL

VL

VL

L

VL

VL

VL

VL

VL

Electric field

M

L/H

VL

M

VL

M

VH

L

M

M

L

VL

Capacitance

M

M

VL

M

VL

M

VH

L

M

M

L

VL

Ported cable

VL

M

H

L

VL

VL

M

VL

VL

M

VL

L

Seismic

M

L

L

L

VL

L

VH

VL

VL

L

L

M

Seismic/magnetic

M

L

L

L

VL

L

VH

VL

VL

H

M

H

Microwave

L

L

M/H

L/M

L

M/H

VH

VL

M

L/M

L

VL

IR

L

L

L

M

M

M

VH

L

M

L

VL

VL

Video motion

M

L

L

L

M/H

L

VH

VL

M

L

L

VL

VL = very low, L = low, M = medium, H = high, VH = very high

Economic Considerations

6-39. Exterior sensor costs are usually given in cost per linear foot per detection zone (typically 300 feet). These costs include both equipment and installation. Fence-mounted sensors (such as strain-sensitive cable, electromechanical, and mechanical) are generally less costly than stand-alone and buried line sensors. Installation costs can vary significantly, depending on the type of sensor. Table 6-3 provides a comparison of relative costs for procuring and installing various types of exterior sensor systems. It should be remembered that the sensor system's cost is only a portion of the total cost for employing a perimeter IDS. Additional costs include fencing, site preparation, CCTV assessment, and perimeter lighting.

 

    Table 6-3. Exterior IDS Sensor Cost Comparison

Type of Sensor

Equipment

Installation

Maintenance

Fence mounted

L

L

L

Taut wire

H

H

M

Electric field

H

M

M

Capacitance

M

L

M

Ported cable

H

M

M

Seismic

M

M

L

Seismic/magnetic

H

M

L

Microwave

M

M

L

IR

M

L

M

Video motion

M

L

M

L = low, M = medium, H = high

Perimeter Layout and Zoning

6-40. A protected area's perimeter is usually defined by an enclosing wall or fence or a natural barrier such as water. For exterior sensors to be effective, the perimeter around which they are to be deployed must be precisely defined. In most applications, a dual chain-link-fence configuration will be established around the perimeter. Typically, fences should be between 30 and 50 feet apart; as the distance increases, it is harder for an intruder to bridge the fences. If fence separation is less than 30 feet, some microwave and ported-coax sensors cannot be used. The area between fences (called the controlled area or isolation zone) may need to be cleared of vegetation and graded, depending on the type of sensor used. Proper drainage is required to preclude standing water and to prevent the formation of gullies caused by running water after a heavy rain or melting snow. Cleared areas are required inside and outside of the controlled area. These areas enhance routine observation, as well as sensor-alarm assessment, and minimize the protective cover available to a would-be intruder.

6-41. After the perimeter has been defined, the next step is to divide it into specific detection zones. The length of each detection zone is determined by evaluating the contour, the existing terrain, and the operational activities along the perimeter. Detection zones should be long and straight to minimize the number of sensors or cameras necessary and to aid guard assessment if cameras are not used. It may be more economical to straighten an existing fence line than to create numerous detection zones in accommodating a crooked fence line. If the perimeter is hilly and LOS sensors or CCTV assessment are used, the length of individual detection zones will be commensurate with sensor limitations. Entry points for personnel and vehicles must be configured as independent zones. This enables deactivation of the sensors in these zones; that is, placing them in the access mode during customary working hours (assuming the entry points are manned) without having to deactivate adjacent areas.

6-42. The specific length of individual zones can vary around the perimeter. Although specific manufacturers may advertise maximum zone lengths exceeding 1,000 feet, it is not practical to exceed a zone length of 300 feet. If the zone is longer, it will be difficult for an operator using CCTV assessment or for the response force to identify the location of an intrusion or the cause of a false alarm.

6-43. When establishing zones using multiple sensors, the designer should establish coincident zones where the length and location of each individual sensor will be identical for all sensors within a given zone. If an alarm occurs in a specific zone, the operator can readily determine its approximate location by referring to a map of the perimeter. This also minimizes the number of CCTV cameras required for assessment and simplifies the interface between the alarm-annunciation system and the CCTV switching system.

ESS Alarm-Annunciation System

6-44. Status information from the various intrusion-detection sensors and entry-control terminal devices must be collected from the field and transmitted to the alarm-annunciation system in the security center, where it is processed, annunciated, and acted on by security personnel. The alarm-annunciation system may also interface with a CCTV system. There are typically two types of alarm-annunciation configurations available. The simplest configuration, which is suitable for small installations, is the point-to-point configuration. With this configuration, a separate transmission line is routed from the protected area to the security center (see Figure 6-2). The Joint-Service Interior Intrusion-Detection System (J-SIIDS) is typical of this type of configuration but will not be further discussed in this manual. The second, and more popular type, is a digital multiplexed configuration that allows multiple protected areas to communicate with the security center over a common data line. A block diagram of a typical multiplexed alarm-annunciation system is shown in Figure 6-3.

Alarm-Annunciation Configuration

6-45. A block diagram of a typical alarm-annunciation system is shown in Figure 6-4. As shown in the figure, the central computer is the hub of the information flow. The central computer receives and displays alarm and device status information and sends operator-control commands to the ESS's local processors. It also interfaces with the CCTV system. For larger facilities, the management of the DTM communications tasks may be delegated to a separate communication processor so that the central computer can turn its full attention to interpreting the incoming information and updating the control and display devices located at the security console (display, logging, control, and storage devices).

6-46. The central computer may consist of one or more digital computers. The real-time clock is usually integral to the central computer and provides a time stamp for alarms and other events. It allows for time synchronization with the CCTV and other systems, if included. The console operator must be able to set the clock, which should include a battery backup. All system events must be properly time-correlated. For example, there will be an exact time correlation for an ESS alarm event reported on the alarm printer and the corresponding video scene recorded by the CCTV's video processor.

Data Storage

6-47. Computer-based systems are required to store large amounts of information such as system software, application programs, data structures, and system events (alarm transactions and status changes). Therefore, a large amount of nonvolatile memory is required. The semiconductor memory provided with a central computer is designed for rapid storage and retrieval and possesses extremely fast access times. The most commonly used media for archival storage are magnetic tape; compact-disk, read-only memory (CD-ROM); and magnetic disk. These media are capable of economically storing large amounts of data.

Operator Interface

6-48. The operator interacts with the alarm-annunciation system through devices that can be seen, heard, or touched and manipulated. Visual displays and printers can be used to inform the operator of an alarm or the equipment's status. Audible devices are used to alert an operator to an alarm or the equipment's failure. Devices such as push buttons and keyboards permit an operator to acknowledge and reset alarms, as well as change operational parameters.

  • Visual displays. The type of display used to inform the operator visually of the ESS's status is determined primarily by the system's complexity. Status information is usually displayed on monitors. Alphanumeric displays and map displays are seldom used. Monitors provide great flexibility in the type and format of alarm information that may be displayed. Both text and graphic information can be displayed in a variety of colors. Multiple alarms may also be displayed. If alarms are prioritized, higher-priority alarms may be highlighted by blinking, by using bold print or reverse video, or by changing colors. To assist the operator in determining the correct response, alarm-specific instructions may be displayed adjacent to the alarm information.
  • Audible alarm devices. In conjunction with the visual display of an alarm, the alarm-annunciation system must also generate an audible alarm. The audible alarm may be produced by the ringing of a bell or by the generation of a steady or pulsating tone from an electronic device. In any case, the audible alarm serves to attract the operator's attention to the visual-alarm display. A silence switch is usually provided to allow the operator to silence the bell or tone before actually resetting the alarm.
  • Logging devices. All alarm-system activity (such as a change of access/secure status, an alarm event, an entry-control transaction, or a trouble event) should be logged and recorded. Logged information is important not only for security personnel investigating an event, but also for maintenance personnel checking equipment performance for such causes as false and nuisance alarms. Most alarm-annunciation systems are equipped with logging and alarm printers.
  • Alarm printers. Alarm printers are typically of the high-speed, continuous-feed variety. The printer provides a hard-copy record of all alarm events and system activity, as well as limited backup in case the visual display fails.
  • Report printers. Most ESSs include a separate printer (report printer) for generating reports using information stored by the central computer. This printer will usually be typical of those found in modern office environments.
  • Operator control. A means is required to transmit information from the operator to the system. The type of controls provided usually depends on the type of display provided. The following are consistent with the controls:
    • Keypads consist of a numeric display system that will generally be provided with a 12-digit keypad and several function keys such as access, secure, acknowledge, and reset. The keypad enables an operator to key in numeric requests for the status of specific zones.
    • Monitor-based systems are usually provided with a typewriter-type keyboard that enables an operator to enter more information using a combination of alphanumeric characters and function keys.
    • An ESS may be equipped with enhancement hardware/devices to help the operator enter information or execute commands quickly. A mouse or a trackball are typical examples.

Field-data collection

6-49. Sensor and terminal device data must be transmitted to the central alarm monitor located in the security center using a selected DTM. The following are TDM methods that may be used:

Local Processors

6-50. Multiplexing techniques can be used to minimize the number of data links needed to communicate field-device status to the security center. This is done through devices called local processors. The following is descriptive of a local processor's capabilities:

  • A local processor may have very few device inputs, or it may have many (depending on the manufacturer). Rather than having a fixed number of inputs, many local processors are expandable. For example, a basic local processor may be provided with eight device inputs with additional blocks of eight inputs available by using plug-in modules.
  • The local processor must provide line supervision for all communication links to sensors, terminal devices, and so forth. Usually, direct-current (DC) line supervision is supplied as the standard with more secure techniques available as options. The data communication links between the local processor and the central alarm monitor must also be supervised.
  • Local processors can also provide output signals that can be used for such functions as activating sensor remote test features, light control, or portal control or activating a deterrent (such as a loud horn).
  • The local processor contains a microprocessor, solid-state memory, and appropriate software. It has the capability to perform a number of functions locally (such as access-/secure-mode selection, alarm reset, card or keypad electronic-entry control, portal control, and device testing). If the communication link to the security center is temporarily lost, local processors can continue to operate in a stand-alone mode, storing data for transmission after the link is restored.
  • The number of local processors required for a specific site depends on the number of protected areas and their proximity to each other and the number of sensors within a protected area. For example, a small building may require one local processor, whereas a large building may require one or more for each floor. An exterior IDS perimeter with two or three different sensors may require one local processor for every two perimeter zones. All local processors may be linked to the central computer using one common DTM link, or the DTM may consist of several links. The designer should note that the temporary loss of a DTM link would render all local processors on that link inactive for the duration of the loss.

Central Computer and Local-Processor Data Exchange

6-51. When the ESS is powered up or reset at the security center, the central computer will download all necessary operational information over the DTM to all local processors. After the download is complete, the central computer will automatically begin polling the local processors for ESS device status. In addition to alarm status, tamper indications, and local-processor status, the DTM may be required to convey security-center console-operator commands to field devices. Examples include security-area access-/secure-mode changes and initiation of the intrusion-sensor self test.

CCTV Interface

6-52. If a CCTV assessment system is deployed with the ESS, an interface between the two is required. This interface allows CCTV system alarms (such as loss of video) to be displayed by the ESS's alarm-annunciation system. The interface also provides IDS alarm signals to the CCTV's video switcher so that the correct CCTV camera will be displayed on the CCTV monitors to allow real-time alarm assessment and video recording as required.

ESS SOFTWARE

6-53. The software provided with computer-based ESS alarm-annunciation systems consists of three types—a standard operating system (such as the Microsoft®-disk operating system [MS-DOS]); vendor-developed application programs; and user-filled, site-specific data structures.

  • System software. The designer will ensure that system software provided by the vendor conforms to accepted industry standards so that standard, follow-on maintenance and service contracts can be negotiated to maintain the central computer system.
  • Application software. The vendor-developed application programs are typically proprietary and include ESS monitoring, display, and entry-control capabilities.
  • User-filled data structures. These data structures are used to populate the site-specific database. Specific electronic address information, personnel access schedules, and normal duty hours are typically included in the site-specific database. The information may include preferred route descriptions for the response force, the phone number of the person responsible for the alarmed area, and any hazardous material that may be located in the alarmed area.

6-54. ESS software functions typically include the following:

  • Alarm monitoring and logging. The software should provide for monitoring all sensors, local processors, and data communication links and notifying the operator of an alarm condition. All alarm messages should be printed on the alarm printer, archived, and displayed at the console. As a minimum, printed alarm data should include the date and time (to the nearest second) of the alarm and the location and type of alarm.
  • Alarm display. The software should be structured to permit several alarms to be annunciated simultaneously. A buffer or alarm queue should be available to store additional alarms until they are annunciated and, subsequently, acted upon and reset by the console operator.
  • Alarm priority. A minimum of five alarm-priority levels should be available. Higher-priority alarms should always be displayed before lower-priority alarms. This feature permits an operator to respond quickly to the more important alarms before those of lesser importance. For example, the priority of alarm devices may be as follows:
    • Duress.
    • Intrusion detection.
    • Electronic-entry control.
    • Tamper.
    • CCTV alarms and equipment-malfunction alarms.
  • Reports. The application software should provide for generating, displaying, printing, and storing reports.

Passwords

6-55. Software security will be provided by limiting access to personnel with authorized passwords assigned by a system manager. A minimum of three password levels shall be provided. Additional security can be provided by programmed restrictions that limit the keyboard actions of logged-in passwords to the user ranks of system managers, supervisors, and console operators, as appropriate.

Operator Interface

6-56. The software should enable an operator with the proper password to enter commands and to obtain displays of system information. As a minimum, an operator should be able to perform the following functions through the keyboard or the keypad:

  • Log on by password to activate the keyboard.
  • Log off to deactivate the keyboard.
  • Request display of all keyboard commands that are authorized for the logged-in password.
  • Request display of detailed instructions for any authorized keyboard command.
  • Acknowledge and clear alarm messages.
  • Display the current status of any device in the system.
  • Command a status change for any controlled device in the system.
  • Command a mode change for any access/secure device in the system.
  • Command printouts of alarm summaries, status summaries, or system activity on a designated printer.
  • Add or delete ESS devices or modify parameters associated with a device.

Interior Intrusion-Detection Sensors

6-57. Interior intrusion-detection sensors are devices used to detect unauthorized entry into specific areas or volumetric spaces within a building. These sensors are usually not designed to be weatherproof or rugged enough to survive an outdoor environment. Therefore, this type of sensor should not be used outdoors unless described by the manufacturer as suitable for outdoor use.

6-58. Interior intrusion-detection sensors generally perform one of three detection functions—detection of an intruder penetrating the boundary of a protected area, detection of intruder motion within a protected area, and detection of an intruder touching or lifting an asset within a protected area. Therefore, interior sensors are commonly classified as boundary-penetration sensors, volumetric motion sensors, and point sensors. Although duress switches are not intrusion-detection sensors, they are included in this discussion because they are usually wired to the same equipment that monitors the interior intrusion-detection sensors.

Boundary-Penetration Sensors

6-59. Boundary-penetration sensors are designed to detect penetration or attempted penetration through perimeter barriers. These barriers include walls, ceilings, duct openings, doors, and windows.

Structural-Vibration Sensors

6-60. Structural-vibration sensors detect low-frequency energy generated in an attempted penetration of a physical barrier (such as a wall or a ceiling) by hammering, drilling, cutting, detonating explosives, or employing other forcible methods of entry. A piezoelectric transducer senses mechanical energy and converts it into electrical signals proportional in magnitude to the vibrations. To reduce false alarms from single accidental impacts on the barrier, most vibration sensors use a signal processor that has an adjustable pulse-counting accumulator in conjunction with a manual sensitivity adjustment. The count circuit can be set to count a specific number of pulses of specific magnitude within a predefined time interval before an alarm is generated. However, the circuitry is usually designed to respond immediately to large pulses, such as those caused by an explosion. The sensitivity adjustment is used to compensate for the type of barrier and the distance between transducers. Typically, several transducers can be connected together and monitored by one signal processor. Figure 6-5 shows an example of wall-mounted, structural-vibration sensors.

 

Glass-Breakage Sensors

6-61. Glass-breakage sensors detect the breaking of glass. The noise from breaking glass consists of frequencies in both the audible and ultrasonic range. Glass-breakage sensors use microphone transducers to detect the glass breakage. The sensors are designed to respond to specific frequencies only, thus minimizing such false alarms as may be caused by banging on the glass.

Passive Ultrasonic Sensors

6-62. Passive ultrasonic sensors detect acoustical energy in the ultrasonic frequency range, typically between 20 and 30 kilohertz (kHz). They are used to detect an attempted penetration through rigid barriers (such as metal or masonry walls, ceilings, and floors). They also detect penetration through windows and vents covered by metal grilles, shutters, or bars if these openings are properly sealed against outside sounds.

6-63. Detection Transducer. The detection transducer is a piezoelectric crystal that produces electrical signals proportional to the magnitude of the vibrations. A single transducer provides coverage of an area about 15 by 20 feet in a room with an 8- to 12-foot ceiling. A typical detection pattern is shown in Figure 6-6. Ten or more transducers can be connected to a signal processor. As with vibration sensors, the signal processor for a passive ultrasonic sensor has manual sensitivity adjustment and an adjustable pulse-counting accumulator.

6-64. Sensors. Passive ultrasonic sensors detect ultrasonic energy that results from the breaking of glass, the snipping of bolt cutters on metal barriers, the hissing of an acetylene torch, and the shattering of brittle materials (such as concrete or cinderblock). However, the sensors will not reliably detect drilling through most material nor attacks against soft material such as wallboard. Their effective detection range depends largely on the barrier material, the method of attempted penetration, and the sensitivity adjustment of the sensor. Examples of maximum detection distances for a typical sensor for different types of attempted penetration are shown in Table 6-4.

    Table 6-4. Detection Range for Passive Ultrasonic Sensors

Penetration

Distance (in Feet)

Cut 1/4-inch-thick expanded metal with bolt cutters

55

Cut 5/8-inch reinforcing bar with bolt cutters

45

Use acetylene cutting torch

39

Cut wood with circular saw

30

Cut 5/8-inch reinforcing bar with hacksaw

19

Drill through brick

15

Drill through 1/8-inch steel plate

6

Cut 1/8-inch steel plate with hacksaw

4

Drill through cinderblock

3

 

6-65. Balanced Magnetic Switches. Balanced magnetic switches (BMSs) are typically used to detect the opening of a door. These sensors can also be used on windows, hatches, gates, or other structural devices that can be opened to gain entry. When using a BMS, mount the switch mechanism on the door frame and the actuating magnet on the door. Typically, the BMS has a three-position reed switch and an additional magnet (called the bias magnet) located adjacent to the switch. When the door is closed, the reed switch is held in the balanced or center position by interacting magnetic fields. If the door is opened or an external magnet is brought near the sensor in an attempt to defeat it, the switch becomes unbalanced and generates an alarm. A BMS must be mounted so that the magnet receives maximum movement when the door or window is opened. Figure 6-7 shows several configurations for mounting BMSs.

Grid-Wire Sensors

6-66. The grid-wire sensor consists of a continuous electrical wire arranged in a grid pattern. The wire maintains an electrical current. An alarm is generated when the wire is broken. The sensor detects forced entry through walls, floors, ceilings, doors, windows, and other barriers. An enamel-coated number 24 or 26 American wire gauge (AWG) solid-copper wire typically forms the grid. The grid's maximum size is determined by the spacing between the wires, the wire's resistance, and the electrical characteristics of the source providing the current. The grid wire can be installed directly on the barrier, in a grille or screen that is mounted on the barrier, or over an opening that requires protection. The wire can be stapled directly to barriers made of wood or wallboard. Wood panels should be installed over the grid to protect it from day-to-day abuse and to conceal it. When used on cinder, concrete, and masonry surfaces, these surfaces must first be covered with plywood or other material to which the wire can be stapled. An alternative method is to staple the wire grid to the back side of a panel and install the panel over the surface.

Volumetric Motion Sensors

6-67. Volumetric motion sensors are designed to detect intruder motion within the interior of a protected volume. Volumetric sensors may be active or passive. Active sensors (such as microwave) fill the volume to be protected with an energy pattern and recognize a disturbance in the pattern when anything moves within the detection zone. Whereas active sensors generate their own energy pattern to detect an intruder, passive sensors (such as IR) detect energy generated by an intruder. Some sensors, known as dual-technology sensors, use a combination of two different technologies, usually one active and one passive, within the same unit. If CCTV assessment or surveillance cameras are installed, video motion sensors can be used to detect intruder movement within the area. Since ultrasonic motion sensors are seldom used, they will not be discussed here.

Microwave Motion Sensors

6-68. With microwave motion sensors, high-frequency electromagnetic energy is used to detect an intruder's motion within the protected area. Interior or sophisticated microwave motion sensors are normally used.

6-69. Interior Microwave Motion Sensors. Interior microwave motion sensors are typically monostatic; the transmitter and the receiver are housed in the same enclosure (transceiver). They may each be provided with a separate antenna or they may share a common antenna. The high-frequency signals produced by the transmitter are usually generated by a solid-state device, such as a gallium arsenide field-effect transistor. The power generated is usually less than 10 milliwatts, but it is sufficient to transmit the signal for distances up to about 100 feet. The shape of the transmitted beam is a function of the antenna configuration. The range of the transmitted beam can be controlled with a range adjustment. A variety of detection patterns can be generated (see Figure 6-8). The frequency of the transmitted signal is compared with the frequency of the signal reflected back from objects in the protected area. If there is no movement within the area, the transmitted and received frequencies will be equal and no alarm will be generated. Movement in the area will generate a Doppler frequency shift in the reflected signal and will produce an alarm if the signal satisfies the sensor's alarm criteria. The Doppler shift for a human intruder is typically between 20 and 120 hertz (Hz). Microwave energy can pass through glass doors and windows as well as lightweight walls or partitions constructed of plywood, plastic, or fiberboard. As a result, false alarms are possible because of the reflection of the microwave signals from the movement of people or vehicles outside of the protected area. The designer can sometimes take advantage of this when the protected area is large and contains a number of partitions, but this is not normally done.

6-70. Sophisticated Microwave Motion Sensors. Sophisticated microwave motion sensors may be equipped with electronic range gating. This feature allows the sensor to ignore the signals reflected beyond the settable detection range. Range gating may be used to effectively minimize unwanted alarms from activity outside the protected area.

PIR Motion Sensors

6-71. PIR motion sensors detect a change in the thermal energy pattern caused by a moving intruder and initiate an alarm when the change in energy satisfies the detector's alarm criteria. These sensors are passive devices because they do not transmit energy; they monitor the energy radiated by the surrounding environment.

6-72. All objects with temperatures above absolute zero radiate thermal energy. The wavelengths of the IR energy spectrum lie between 1 and 1,000 microns. Because the human body radiates thermal energy of between 7 and 14 microns, PIR motion sensors are typically designed to operate in the far IR wavelength range of 4 to 20 microns.

6-73. The IR energy must be focused onto a sensing element, somewhat as a camera lens focuses light onto a film. Two techniques are commonly used. One technique uses reflective focusing; parabolic mirrors focus the energy. The other uses an optical lens. Of the various types of optical lenses, Fresnel lenses are preferred because they can achieve short focal lengths with minimal thickness. Because IR energy is severely attenuated by glass, lenses are usually made of plastic.

6-74. The sensor's detection pattern is determined by the arrangement of lenses or reflectors. The pattern is not continuous but consists of a number of rays or fingers, one for each mirror or lens segment. Numerous detection patterns are available, several of which are shown in Figure 6-9. The PIR is not provided with a range adjustment, but the range can be adjusted somewhat by manipulating the sensor's position; therefore, careful selection of the appropriate detection pattern is critical to proper sensor performance.

6-75. Most manufacturers use a pyroelectric material as the thermal sensing element. This material produces a change in electric charge when exposed to changes in temperature. To minimize false alarms caused by changes in ambient temperature, most manufacturers use a dual-element sensor. The sensing element is split into halves, one that produces a positive voltage pulse and the other a negative pulse when a change in temperature changes. An intruder entering one of the detection fingers produces an imbalance between the two halves, resulting in an alarm condition. Quadelement sensors that combine and compare two dual-element sensors are also in use. Pulse-count activation, a technique in which a predefined number of pulses within a specific interval of time must be produced before an alarm is generated, is also used.

Dual-Technology Sensors

6-76. To minimize the generation of alarms caused by sources other than intruders, dual-technology sensors combine two different technologies in one unit. Ideally, this is achieved by combining two sensors that individually have a high PD and do not respond to common sources of false alarms. Available dual-technology sensors combine an active ultrasonic or microwave sensor with a PIR sensor. The alarms from each sensor are logically combined in an "and" configuration; that is, nearly simultaneous alarms from both active and passive sensors are needed to produce a valid alarm. Although combined technology sensors have a lower false-alarm rate than individual sensors, the PD is also reduced. For example, if each individual sensor has a PD of 0.95, the PD of the combined sensors is the product of individual probabilities (0.9). Also, ultrasonic and microwave motion sensors have the highest probability of detecting movement directly toward or away from the sensor, whereas PIR motion sensors have the highest probability of detecting movement across the detection pattern. Therefore, the PD of sensors combined in a single unit is less than that obtainable if the individual sensors are mounted perpendicular to each other with overlapping detection patterns. Because of the lower false-alarm rate, the reduced PD can be somewhat compensated for by increasing the sensitivity or detection criteria of each individual sensor.

Video Motion Sensors

6-77. A video motion sensor generates an alarm when an intruder enters a selected portion of a CCTV camera's field of view. The sensor processes and compares successive images between the images against predefined alarm criteria. There are two categories of video motion detectors—analog and digital. Analog detectors generate an alarm in response to changes in a picture's contrast. Digital devices convert selected portions of the analog video signal into digital data that are compared with data converted previously; if differences exceed preset limits, an alarm is generated. The signal processor usually provides an adjustable window that can be positioned anywhere on the video image. Available adjustments permit changing horizontal and vertical window size, window position, and window sensitivity. More sophisticated units provide several adjustable windows that can be individually sized and positioned. Multiple windows permit concentrating on several specific areas of an image while ignoring others. For example, in a scene containing six doorways leading into a long hallway, the sensor can be set to monitor only two critical doorways.

Point Sensors

6-78. Point sensors are used to protect specific objects within a facility. These sensors (sometimes referred to as proximity sensors) detect an intruder coming in close proximity to, touching, or lifting an object. Several different types are available, including capacitance sensors, pressure mats, and pressure switches. Other types of sensors can also be used for object protection.

Capacitance Sensors

6-79. Capacitance sensors detect an intruder approaching or touching a metal object by sensing a change in capacitance between the object and the ground. A capacitor consists of two metallic plates separated by a dielectric medium. A change in the dielectric medium or electrical charge results in a change in capacitance. In practice, the metal object to be protected forms one plate of the capacitor and the ground plane surrounding the object forms the second plate. The sensor processor measures the capacitance between the metal object and the ground plane. An approaching intruder alters the dielectric value, thus changing the capacitance. If the net capacitance change satisfies the alarm criteria, an alarm is generated.

6-80. The maximum capacitance that can be monitored by this type of sensor is usually between 10,000 and 50,000 picofarads. The minimum detectable change in capacitance can be as low as 20 picofarads. The signal processor usually has a sensitivity adjustment that can be set to detect an approaching intruder several feet away or to require that the intruder touch the object before an alarm is generated.

6-81. Because air forms most of the dielectric of the capacitor, changes in relative humidity will affect the sensor's sensitivity. An increase in humidity causes the conductivity of the air to increase, lowering the capacitance. Moving a metal object (such as a file cabinet) closer to or away from the protected object can also affect the sensitivity of a capacitance sensor. Figure 6-10 illustrates a typical application using a capacitance sensor.

 

Pressure Mats

6-82. Pressure mats generate an alarm when pressure is applied to any part of the mat's surface, as when someone steps on the mat. One type of construction uses two layers of copper screening separated by soft-sponge rubber insulation with large holes in it. Another type uses parallel strips of ribbon switches made from two strips of metal separated by an insulating material and spaced several inches apart. When enough pressure is applied to the mat, either the screening or the metal strips make contact, generating an alarm. Pressure mats can be used to detect an intruder approaching a protected object, or they can be placed by doors or windows to detect entry. Because pressure mats are easy to bridge, they should be well concealed, such as placing them under a carpet.

Pressure Switches

6-83. Mechanically activated contact switches or single ribbon switches can be used as pressure switches. Objects that require protection can be placed on top of the switch. When the object is moved, the switch actuates and generates an alarm. In this usage, the switch must be well concealed. The interface between the switch and the protected object should be designed so that an adversary cannot slide a thin piece of material under the object to override the switch while the object is removed.

Duress-Alarm Devices

6-84. Duress-alarm devices may be fixed or portable. Operations and security personnel use them to signal a life-threatening emergency. Activation of a duress device will generate an alarm at the alarm-monitoring station. Because of the nature of the alarm, duress devices should never annunciate at the point of threat. These devices are customarily manually operated.

6-85. Fixed duress devices are mechanical switches permanently mounted in an inconspicuous location, such as under a counter or desk. They can be simple push-button switches activated by the touch of a finger or hand or foot-operated switches attached to the floor.

6-86. Portable duress devices are wireless units consisting of a transmitter and a receiver. The transmitter is portable and small enough to be conveniently carried by a person. The receiver is mounted in a fixed location within the facility. Either ultrasonic or RF energy can be used as the communication medium. When activated, the transmitter generates an alarm that is detected (within range) by the receiver. The receiver then activates a relay that is hardwired to the alarm-monitoring system.

Exterior Intrusion-Detection Sensors

6-87. Exterior intrusion-detection sensors are customarily used to detect an intruder crossing the boundary of a protected area. They can also be used in clear zones between fences or around buildings, for protecting materials and equipment stored outdoors within a protected boundary, or in estimating the PD for buildings and other facilities.

6-88. Exterior sensors are designed to operate in outdoor environmental conditions. The detection function must be performed with a minimum of unwanted alarms such as those caused by wind, rain, ice, standing water, blowing debris, animals, and other sources. Important criteria for selecting an exterior sensor are the PD, the sensor's susceptibility to unwanted alarms, and the sensor's vulnerability to defeat.

6-89. The PD of an exterior sensor is much more vulnerable to the physical and environmental conditions of a site than that of an interior sensor. Many uncontrollable forces (such as wind, rain, ice, frozen soil, standing or running water, falling and accumulated snow, and blowing dust and debris) may affect an exterior sensor's performance. Although attention generally is directed to circumstances that cause a dramatic drop in the PD, environmental factors can also cause short-term increases in the PD. If controlled intrusions (intrusions by security personnel to verify the current detection capability of an IDS) are done while an IDS temporarily has a higher than usual PD as the result of current site conditions, the results may give a false indication of the general effectiveness of that IDS.

6-90. Because of the nature of the outdoor environment, exterior sensors are also more susceptible to nuisance and environmental alarms then interior sensors. Inclement weather conditions (heavy rain, hail, and high wind), vegetation, the natural variation of the temperature of objects in the detection zone, blowing debris, and animals are major sources of unwanted alarms.

6-91. As with interior sensors, tamper protection, signal-line supervision, self-test capability, and proper installation make exterior sensors less vulnerable to defeat. Because signal-processing circuitry for exterior sensors is generally more vulnerable to tampering and defeat than that for interior sensors, it is extremely important that enclosures are located and installed properly and that adequate physical protection is provided. Several different types of exterior intrusion-detection sensors are available. They can be categorized as—

  • Fence sensors.
  • Buried line sensors.
  • LOS sensors.
  • Video motion sensors.

Fence Sensors

6-92. Fence sensors detect attempts to penetrate a fence around a protected area. Penetration attempts (such as climbing, cutting, or lifting) generate mechanical vibrations and stresses in fence fabric and posts that are usually different than those caused by natural phenomena like wind and rain. The basic types of sensors used to detect these vibrations and stresses are strain-sensitive cable, taut wire, and fiber optics. Other types of fence sensors detect penetration attempts by sensing changes in an electric field or in capacitance. Mechanical and electromechanical fence sensors are seldom used and will not be discussed here.

Strain-Sensitive Cable

6-93. Strain-sensitive cables are transducers that are uniformly sensitive along their entire length. They generate an analog voltage when subject to mechanical distortions or stress resulting from fence motion. Strain-sensitive cables are sensitive to both low and high frequencies. The signal processor usually has a band-pass filter that passes only those signals characteristic of fence-penetration actions. An alarm is initiated when the signal's frequency, amplitude, and duration characteristics satisfy the processor's criteria. Because the cable acts like a microphone, some manufacturers offer an option that allows the operator to listen to fence noises causing the alarm. Operators can then determine whether the noises are naturally occurring sounds from wind or rain or are from an actual intrusion attempt. This feature is relatively costly to implement because it requires additional cable from each signal processor to the security center and, if CCTV is being used, it may be of limited benefit. Strain-sensitive cable is attached to a chain-link fence about halfway between the bottom and top of the fence fabric with plastic ties. One end of the cable is terminated at the signal processor and the other end with a resistive load. The DC through the cable provides line supervision against cutting or electrically shorting the cable or disconnecting it from the processor. A typical installation is shown in Figure 6-11.

Taut-Wire Sensor

6-94. A taut-wire sensor combines a physically taut-wire barrier with an intrusion-detection sensor network. The taut-wire sensor consists of a column of uniformly spaced horizontal wires up to several hundred feet in length and securely anchored at each end. Typically, the wires are spaced 4 to 8 inches apart. Each is individually tensioned and attached to a detector located in a sensor post. Two types of detectors are commonly used—mechanical switches and strain gauges.

  • The mechanical switch consists of a specially designed switch mechanism that is normally open. The tensioned wires are mechanically attached to the switch, and movement of the wire beyond a preset limit causes the switch to close. To counteract small gradual movements of a wire (such as that caused by settling of the fence or by freezing or thawing of soil) switches are usually supported in their housing by a soft plastic material. This material allows the switch to self-adjust when acted upon by gradual external forces and wire effects such as the relaxation of the wire with time and its thermal expansion or contraction.
  • Strain-gauge detectors are attached to the taut wire with a nut on a threaded stud. When a force is applied to the taut wire, the resulting deflection is converted by the strain gauge into a change in electrical output that is monitored by a signal processor.

6-95. With sensors that use mechanical switches as detectors, the switches in a single sensor-post assembly are wired in parallel and are connected directly to the alarm-annunciation system. Pulse-count circuitry is not used because a single switch closure, such as that caused by an intruder moving or cutting one wire, is indicative of an intrusion attempt. Strain-gauge detectors in a sensor post are monitored by a signal processor. When the signal from one or more strain gauges satisfies the processor's criteria, an alarm is initiated.

6-96. The taut-wire sensor can be installed as a freestanding fence or can be mounted on an existing fence or wall. Figure 6-12 shows a freestanding configuration.

Fiber-Optic Cable Sensors

6-97. Fiber-optic cable sensors are functionally equivalent to the strain-sensitive cable sensors previously discussed. However, rather than electrical signals, modulated light is transmitted down the cable and the resulting received signals are processed to determine whether an alarm should be initiated. Since the cable contains no metal and no electrical signal is present, fiber-optic sensors are generally less susceptible to electrical interference from lightning or other sources.

Electric-Field Sensors

6-98. Electric-field sensors consist of an alternating-current (AC) field generator, one or more field wires, one or more sense wires, and a signal processor. The generator excites the field wires around which an electrostatic-field pattern is created. The electrostatic field induces electrical signals in the sense wires, which are monitored by the signal processor. Under normal operating conditions, the induced signals are constant. However, when an intruder approaches the sensor, the induced electrical signals are altered, causing the signal processor to generate an alarm.

6-99. Several different field- and sense-wire configurations are available. They range from one field wire and one sense wire to as many as four field wires and one sense wire or four field wires and four sense wires. Figure 6-13 shows the detection pattern produced by vertical three-wire (one field and two sense wires) configurations. The three-wire system has a wider detection envelope and is less costly (one less field wire and associated hardware). However, because of the tighter coupling between wires, the four-wire system is less susceptible to nuisance alarms caused by extraneous noise along the length of the zone.

6-100. A signal processor monitors the signals produced by the sense wires. The processor usually contains a band-pass filter that rejects high-frequency signals such as those caused by objects striking the wires. Additional criteria that must be satisfied before the processor initiates an alarm include signal amplitude and signal duration. By requiring the signal to be present for a preset amount of time, false alarms (such as those caused by birds flying through the detection pattern) can be minimized.

6-101. As with taut-wire sensors, electric-field sensors can be freestanding (mounted on their own posts) or attached by standoffs to an existing fence. They can also be configured to follow contours of the ground. The area under the sensor must be clear of vegetation, since vegetation near or touching sense wires can cause false alarms. These sensors can also be installed on the walls and roof of a building.

Capacitance Proximity Sensors

6-102. Capacitance proximity sensors measure the electrical capacitance between the ground and an array of sense wires. Any variations in capacitance, such as that caused by an intruder approaching or touching one of the sense wires, initiates an alarm. These sensors usually consist of two or three wires attached to outriggers along the top of an existing fence, wall, or roof edge. Figure 6-14 shows a typical capacitance sensor consisting of three sensor wires attached to the outrigger of a fence. To minimize environmental alarms, the capacitance sensor is divided into two arrays of equal length. The signal processor monitors the capacitance of each array. Changes in capacitance common to both arrays (such as produced by wind, rain, ice, fog, and lightning) are canceled within the processor. However, when changes occur in one array and not the other because of an intruder, the processor initiates an alarm.

Buried-Line Sensors

6-103. A buried-line sensor system consists of detection probes or cable buried in the ground, typically between two fences that form an isolation zone. These devices are wired to an electronic processing unit. The processing unit generates an alarm if an intruder passes through the detection field. Buried-line sensors have several significant features:

  • They are hidden, making them difficult to detect and circumvent.
  • They follow the terrain's natural contour.
  • They do not physically interfere with human activity, such as grass mowing or snow removal.
  • They are affected by certain environmental conditions, such as running water and ground freeze/thaw cycles. (Seismic, seismic/magnetic, magnetic, and balanced pressure sensors are seldom used and will not be discussed here.)

6-104. The ported-coax cable sensor consists of two coax cables buried in the ground parallel to each other. An RF transmitter is connected to one cable and a receiver to the other. The outer conductor of each cable is ported (fabricated with small holes or gaps in the shield). The transmitter cable radiates RF energy into the medium surrounding the cables. A portion of this energy is coupled into the receiver cable through its ported shield. (Because of the ported shields, these cables are frequently referred to as leaky cables.) When an intruder enters the RF field, the coupling is disturbed, resulting in a change of signal monitored by the receiver, which then generates an alarm. Two basic types of ported-coax sensors are available—pulse and continuous wave.

  • Pulse-type sensors transmit a pulse of RF energy down one cable and monitors the received signal on the other. The cables can be up to 10,000 feet long. The signal processor initiates an alarm when the electromagnetic field created by the pulse is disturbed and identifies the disturbance's approximate location.
  • Continuous-wave sensors apply continuous RF energy to one cable. The signal received on the other cable is monitored for electromagnetic-field disturbances that indicate an intruder's presence. Cable lengths are limited to 300 to 500 feet. Additionally, the sensor is available in a single-cable configuration as well as two separate cables. The pattern typically extends 2 to 4 feet above the ground and can be 5 to 13 feet wide, depending on cable spacing and soil composition. Figure 6-15 represents a typical cross-section of a detection pattern created by a ported-cable sensor.

6-105. Sensor performance depends on properties of the medium surrounding the cables. Velocity and attenuation of the RF wave that propagates along the cables and the coupling between the cables are functions of the dielectric constant of the soil and its conductivity which, in turn, depends on its moisture content. For example, the velocity is greater and the attenuation is less for cables buried in dry, low-loss soil than in wet, conductive soil. Freeze/thaw cycles in the soil also affect the sensor's performance. When wet soil freezes, the wave velocity and the cable coupling increase and the attenuation decreases, resulting in greater detection sensitivity. Seasonal sensitivity adjustments may be necessary to compensate for changing ground conditions.

6-106. Although usually buried in soil, ported cables can also be used with asphalt and concrete. If the asphalt or concrete pavement area is relatively small and only a few inches thick (such as a pedestrian pavement crossing the perimeter), the ported cables can be routed under the pavement. However, for the large and deep pavements, slots must be cut into the asphalt or concrete to accept the cable.

6-107. A portable ported-coax sensor is available that can be rapidly deployed and removed. The cables are placed on the surface of the ground rather than buried. This sensor is useful for temporary perimeter detection coverage for small areas or objects (such as vehicles or aircraft).

LOS Sensors

6-108. The LOS sensors, which are mounted above ground, can be either active or passive. Active sensors generate a beam of energy and detect changes in the received energy that an intruder causes by penetrating the beam. Each sensor consists of a transmitter and a receiver and can be in a monostatic or bistatic configuration. Passive sensors generate no beam of energy; they simply look for changes in the thermal characteristics of their field of view. For effective detection, the terrain within the detection zone must be flat and free of obstacles and vegetation.

Microwave Sensors

6-109. Microwave intrusion-detection sensors are categorized as bistatic or monostatic. Bistatic sensors use transmitting and receiving antennas located at opposite ends of the microwave link, whereas monostatic sensors use the same antenna.

  • A bistatic system uses a transmitter and a receiver that are typically separated by 100 to 1,200 feet and that are within direct LOS with each other. The signal picked up by the receiver is the vector sum of the directly transmitted signal and signals that are reflected from the ground and nearby structures. Detection occurs when an object (intruder) moving within the beam pattern causes a change in net-vector summation of the received signals, resulting in variations of signal strength.
    • The same frequency bands allocated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for interior microwave sensors are also used for exterior sensors. Because high-frequency microwave beams are more directive than low-frequency beams and the beam pattern is less affected by blowing grass in the area between the transmitter and the receiver, most exterior sensors operate at the next to highest allowable frequency, 10.525 gigahertz (GHz).
    • The shape of the microwave beam and the maximum separation between the transmitter and the receiver are functions of antenna size and configuration. Various antenna configurations are available, including parabolic-dish arrays, strip-line arrays, and slotted arrays. The parabolic antenna uses a microwave-feed assembly located at the focal point of a metallic parabolic reflector. A conical beam pattern is produced (see Figure 6-16). A strip-line antenna configuration produces a nonsymmetrical beam that is higher than its height. Larger antenna configurations generally produce narrower beam patterns.
    • Monostatic microwave sensors use the same antenna or virtually coincident antenna arrays for the transmitter and receiver, which are usually combined into a single package. Two types of monostatic sensors are available. Amplitude-modulated (AM) sensors detect changes in the net-vector summation of reflected signals similar to bistatic sensors. Frequency-modulated (FM) sensors operate on the Doppler principle similar to interior microwave sensors. The detection pattern is typically shaped like a teardrop (see Figure 6-17). Monostatic sensors can provide volumetric coverage of localized areas, such as in corners or around the base of critical equipment.

.

IR Sensors

6-110. The IR sensors are available in both active and passive models. An active sensor generates one or more near-IR beams that generate an alarm when interrupted. A passive sensor detects changes in thermal IR radiation from objects located within its field of view.

6-111. Active sensors consist of transmitter/receiver pairs. The transmitter contains an IR light source (such as a gallium arsenide light-emitting diode [LED]) that generates an IR beam. The light source is usually modulated to reduce the sensor's susceptibility to unwanted alarms resulting from sunlight or other IR light sources. The receiver detects changes in the signal power of the received beam. To minimize nuisance alarms from birds or blowing debris, the alarm criteria usually require that a high percentage of the beam be blocked for a specific interval of time.

6-112. Active sensors can be single- or multiple-beam systems. Because single-beam sensors can be easily bypassed, multiple-beam systems are generally used in perimeter applications. There are two basic types of multiple-beam configurations—one type uses all transmitters on one post and all receivers on the other post; the second type uses one transmitter and several receivers on each post. Both types are illustrated in Figure 6-18.

6-113. The spacing between transmitters and receivers can be as great as 1,000 feet when operation is under good weather conditions. However, conditions such as heavy rain, fog, snow, or blowing dust particles attenuate the IR energy, reducing its effective range to 100 to 200 feet or less.

Video Motion Sensors

6-114. A video motion sensor generates an alarm whenever an intruder enters a selected portion of a CCTV camera's field of view. The sensor processes and compares successive images from the camera and generates an alarm if differences between the images satisfy predefined criteria. Digital devices convert selected portions of the analog video signal into digital data that are compared with data converted previously; if differences exceed preset limits, an alarm is generated.

6-115. The signal processor usually provides an adjustable window that can be positioned anywhere on the video image. Available adjustments permit changing the window's horizontal and vertical sizes, its position, and its sensitivity. More sophisticated units provide several adjustable windows that can be individually sized and positioned. Multiple windows permit concentrating on several specific areas of an image while ignoring others. For example, in a scene that contains several critical assets and multiple sources of nuisance alarms (such as large bushes or trees), the sensor can be adjusted to monitor only the assets and ignore the areas that contain the nuisance-alarm sources.

6-116. The use of video motion-detection systems for exterior applications has been limited, primarily because of difficulties with uncontrolled exterior environments. Lighting variations caused by cloud movement and shadows of slow-moving objects, birds and animals moving within the camera's field of view, camera motion and moving vegetation during windy conditions, and severe weather conditions have traditionally caused a multitude of unwanted alarms in this type of system. Systems using more advanced signal-processing algorithms have improved motion-detection capability and nuisance-alarm rejection; however, they are still subject to high unwanted-alarm rates under certain conditions and should be used with due caution and extreme care.

Electronic Entry Control

6-117. The function of an entry-control system is to ensure that only authorized personnel are permitted into or out of a controlled area. Entry can be controlled by locked fence gates, locked doors to a building or rooms within a building, or specially designed portals.

6-118. These means of entry control can be applied manually by guards or automatically by using entry-control devices. In a manual system, guards verify that a person is authorized to enter an area, usually by comparing the photograph and personal characteristics of the individual requesting entry. In an automated system, the entry-control device verifies that a person is authorized to enter or exit. The automated system usually interfaces with locking mechanisms on doors or gates that open momentarily to permit passage. Mechanical hardware (such as locking mechanisms, electric door strikes, and specially designed portal hardware) and equipment used to detect contraband material (such as metal detectors, X-ray baggage-search systems, explosives detectors, and special nuclear-material monitors) are described in other documentation. Refer to TM 5-853-1 for additional information on determining entry-control requirements and integrating manual electronic-entry control into a cohesive system.

6-119. All entry-control systems control passage by using one or more of three basic techniques—something a person knows, something a person has, or something a person is or does. Automated entry-control devices based on these techniques are grouped into three categories—coded, credential, and biometric devices.

Coded Devices

6-120. Coded devices operate on the principle that a person has been issued a code to enter into an entry-control device. This code will match the code stored in the device and permit entry. Depending on the application, a single code can be used by all persons authorized to enter the controlled area or each authorized person can be assigned a unique code. Group codes are useful when the group is small and controls are primarily for keeping out the general public. Individual codes are usually required for control of entry to more critical areas. Coded devices verify the entered code's authenticity, and any person entering a correct code is authorized to enter the controlled area. Electronically coded devices include electronic and computer-controlled keypads.

Electronic Keypad Devices

6-121. The common telephone keypad (12 keys) is an example of an electronic keypad. This type of keypad consists of simple push-button switches that, when depressed, are decoded by digital logic circuits. When the correct sequence of buttons is pushed, an electric signal unlocks the door for a few seconds.

Computer-Controlled Keypad Devices

6-122. These devices are similar to electronic keypad devices, except they are equipped with a microprocessor in the keypad or in a separate enclosure at a different location. The microprocessor monitors the sequence in which the keys are depressed and may provide additional functions such as personal ID and digit scrambling. When the correct code is entered and all conditions are satisfied, an electric signal unlocks the door.

Credential Devices

6-123. A credential device identifies a person having legitimate authority to enter a controlled area. A coded credential (plastic card or key) contains a prerecorded, machine-readable code. An electric signal unlocks the door if the prerecorded code matches the code stored in the system when the card is read. Like coded devices, credential devices only authenticate the credential; it assumes a user with an acceptable credential is authorized to enter. Various technologies are used to store the code upon or within a card. Hollerith, optically coded, magnetic-spot, capacitance, and electric-circuit cards are seldom used and will not be discussed here. The most commonly used types of cards are described as follows:

Magnetic-Stripe Card

6-124. A strip of magnetic material located along one edge of the card is encoded with data (sometimes encrypted). The data is read by moving the card past a magnetic read head.

Wiegand-Effect Card

6-125. The Wiegand-effect card contains a series of small-diameter, parallel wires about one-half inch long, embedded in the bottom half of the card. The wires are manufactured from ferromagnetic materials that produce a sharp change in magnetic flux when exposed to a slowly changing magnetic field. This type of card is impervious to accidental erasure. The card reader contains a small read head and a tiny magnet to supply the applied magnetic field. It usually does not require external power.

Proximity Card

6-126. A proximity card is not physically inserted into a reader; the coded pattern on the card is sensed when it is brought within several inches of the reader. Several techniques are used to code cards. One technique uses a number of electrically tuned circuits embedded in the card. Data are encoded by varying resonant frequencies of the tuned circuits. The reader contains a transmitter that continually sweeps through a specified range of frequencies and a receiver that senses the pattern of resonant frequencies contained in the card. Another technique uses an integrated circuit embedded in the card to generate a code that can be magnetically or electrostatically coupled to the reader. The power required to activate embedded circuitry can be provided by a small battery embedded in the card or by magnetically coupling power from the reader.

Laser Card

6-127. The optical memory card, commonly called the laser card, uses the same technology developed for recording video and audio disks for entertainment purposes. Data is recorded on the card by burning a microscopic hole (using a laser) in a thin film covering the card. Data is read by using a laser to sense the hole locations. The typical laser card can hold several megabytes of user data.

Smart Card

6-128. A smart card is embedded with a microprocessor, memory, communication circuitry, and a battery. The card contains edge contacts that enable a reader to communicate with the microprocessor. Entry-control information and other data may be stored in the microprocessor's memory.

Bar Code

6-129. A bar code consists of black bars printed on white paper or tape that can be easily read with an optical scanner. This type of coding is not widely used for entry-control applications because it can be easily duplicated. It is possible to conceal the code by applying an opaque mask over it. In this approach, an IR scanner is used to interpret the printed code. For low-level security areas, the use of bar codes can provide a cost-effective solution for entry control. Coded strips and opaque masks can be attached to existing ID badges, alleviating the need for complete badge replacement.

Biometric Devices

6-130. The third basic technique used to control entry is based on the measurement of one or more physical or personal characteristics of an individual. Because most entry-control devices based on this technique rely on measurements of biological characteristics, they have become commonly known as biometric devices. Characteristics such as fingerprints, hand geometry, voiceprints, handwriting, and retinal blood-vessel patterns have been used for controlling entry. Typically, in enrolling individuals, several reference measurements are made of the selected characteristic and then stored in the device's memory or on a card. From then on, when that person attempts entry, a scan of the characteristic is compared with the reference data template. If a match is found, entry is granted. Rather then verifying an artifact, such as a code or a credential, biometric devices verify a person's physical characteristic, thus providing a form of identity verification. Because of this, biometric devices are sometimes referred to as personnel identity-verification devices. The most common biometric devices are discussed below.

Fingerprints

6-131. Fingerprint-verification devices use one of two approaches. One is pattern recognition of the whorls, loops, and tilts of the referenced fingerprint, which is stored in a digitized representation of the image and compared with the fingerprint of the prospective entrant. The second approach is minutiae comparison, which means that the endings and branching points of ridges and valleys of the referenced fingerprint are compared with the fingerprint of the prospective entrant.

Hand Geometry

6-132. Several devices are available that use hand geometry for personnel verification. These devices use a variety of physical measurements of the hand, such as finger length, finger curvature, hand width, webbing between fingers, and light transmissivity through the skin to verify identity. Both two- and three-dimensional units are available.

Retinal Patterns

6-133. This type of technique is based on the premise that the pattern of blood vessels on the human eye's retina is unique to an individual. While the eye is focused on a visual target, a low-intensity IR light beam scans a circular area of the retina. The amount of light reflected from the eye is recorded as the beam progresses around the circular path. Reflected light is modulated by the difference in reflectivity between blood-vessel pattern and adjacent tissue. This information is processed and converted to a digital template that is stored as the eye's signature. Users are allowed to wear contact lenses; however, glasses should be removed.

Device Combinations

6-134. Frequently, an automated entry-control system uses combinations of the three types of entry-control devices. Combining two different devices can significantly enhance the system's security level. In some cases, combining devices results in reduced verification times.

Application Guidelines

6-135. The primary function of an automated entry-control system is to permit authorized personnel to enter or exit a controlled area. Features available to the designer are described below.

  • Enrollment. All entry-control systems must provide a means of entering, updating, and deleting information about authorized individuals into the system's database files. This is usually accomplished with a dedicated enrollment station for enrolling and disenrolling purposes that is directly connected to the central-processing unit. When credential devices are used, all authorized users must be provided with an appropriate credential. A means should also be provided to disenroll a person quickly without having to retrieve a credential. When using biometric devices, additional enrollment equipment will be required.
  • Entry-control techniques. Some entry-control functions require additional hardware, while others are accomplished with software. Those features accomplished with software require that the appropriate database be available for every portal affected by them. Typically, these techniques include—
    • Area zones.
    • Time zones.
    • Team zones.
    • Anti-pass back.
    • Antitailgate.
    • Guard tour.
    • Elevator control.
  • Alarms. Several types of alarms can be used with an entry-control system. These alarms must annunciate audibly and visually in the security center.
  • Entry denial. Most entry-control devices are configured to permit the user three entry attempts. If more than three unsuccessful entry attempts are made within a specified period, the device generates an alarm. An alarm is also generated if an invalid credential is used or attempted entries are detected that violate specified area, time, or team zoning requirements.
  • Communication failure. This alarm is generated when a loss of communication between the central processor and the local equipment is detected.
  • Portal open. If a portal door remains open longer than a predefined time, an alarm is generated.
  • Duress. This alarm is generated when a special duress code is entered at a keypad.
  • Guard overdue. This duress alarm is generated when a security guard is determined to be overdue at a checkpoint during a predefined guard tour.
  • Software tamper. This type of alarm is generated when unauthorized persons are detected attempting to invoke certain system commands or modify database files.

Performance Criteria

6-136. The overall performance of an entry-control system can be evaluated by examining the verification error rate and the throughput rate. An entry-control system can produce two types of errors—denial of admission of a person who should be admitted or admission of a person who should not be admitted. These are commonly referred to as false-reject errors (type I errors) and false-accept errors (type II errors). Although a false-reject error does not constitute a breach of security, it does create an operational problem that must be handled by an alternative method. False-accept errors constitute a breach of security. Ideally, both false-reject and false-accept error rates should be zero; in practice, however, they are not. In fact, they tend to act in opposition to each other. When the system is adjusted to minimize the false-accept error rate, the false-reject error rate usually increases. Verification error rates are typically measured in percent (number of errors/number of attempts x 100 percent). These error rates are typically very low for coded and credential devices, but many become significant if biometric devices are used.

6-137. The throughput rate is the number of persons that can pass through an entry point in a given unit of time and is usually expressed in persons per minute. It is the time required to approach the entry-control device and for the device to verify information (verification time) and the time required passing through the entry point. Typically, an individual can approach the device and pass through in 3 to 5 seconds. Verification time depends on the type of device and may vary from 3 to 15 seconds. Table 6-5 provides a list of typical verification times for different types of entry-control devices.

    Table 6-5. Typical Verification Times of Entry-Control Devices

Device

Verification Time

Keypad

3 seconds

Card reader

3 seconds

Keypad/card reader

6 seconds

Biometric/keypad

6 to 15 seconds

Biometric/card reader

6 to 15 seconds

Biometric

2 minutes

Data Transmission

6-138. A critical element in an integrated ESS is the DTM that transmits information from sensors, entry-control devices, and video components to display and assessment equipment. A DTM link is a path for transmitting data between two or more components (such as a sensor and alarm reporting system, a card reader and controller, a CCTV camera and monitor, or a transmitter and receiver). The DTM links connect remote ESS components to the security center. An effective DTM link ensures rapid and reliable transmission media, transmission technique, associated transmission hardware, and degree of security to be provided for the communication system.

6-139. A number of different media are used in transmitting data between elements of an IDS, an EECS, and a CCTV system. These include wire lines, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, and RF transmission.

  • Wire line. Wire lines are twisted pairs that consist of two insulated conductors twisted together to minimize interference by unwanted signals.
  • Coaxial cable. Coaxial cable consists of a center conductor surrounded by a shield. The center conductor is separated from the shield by a dielectric. The shield protects against electromagnetic interference.
  • Fiber optics. Fiber optics uses the wide bandwidth properties of light traveling through transparent fibers. Fiber optics is a reliable communication medium best suited for point-to-point, high-speed data transmission. Fiber optics is immune to RF electromagnetic interference and does not produce electromagnetic radiation emission. The preferred DTM for an ESS is fiber-optic cables unless there are justifiable economic or technical reasons for using other types of media.
  • RF transmission. Modulated RF can be used as a DTM with the installation of radio receivers and transmitters. An RF transmission system does not require a direct physical link between the points of communication, and it is useful for communicating over barriers such as bodies of water and heavily forested terrain. A disadvantage is that the signal power received depends on many factors (including transmission power, antenna pattern, path length, physical obstructions, and climatic conditions). Also, RF transmission is susceptible to jamming and an adversary with an appropriately tuned receiver has access to it. The use of RF will be coordinated with the communications officer to avoid interference with other existing or planned facility RF systems.

6-140. There are two basic types of communication links—point-to-point and multiplex lines. A point-to-point link is characterized by a separate path for each pair of components. This approach is cost effective for several component pairs or when a number of scattered remote areas communicate with a single central location. The multiplex link, commonly referred to as a multidrop or multipoint link, is a path shared by a number of components. Depending on the number and location of components, this type of configuration can reduce the amount of cabling required. However, the cost reduction from reduced cabling is somewhat offset by costs of equipment required to multiplex and demultiplex data.

6-141. Data links used to communicate the status of ESS devices or other sensitive information to the security center must be protected from possible compromise. Attempts to defeat the security system may range from simple efforts to cut or short the transmission line to more sophisticated undertakings, such as tapping and substituting bogus signals. Data links can be made more secure by physical protection, tamper protection, line supervision, and encryption.

CCTV for Alarm Assessment and Surveillance

6-142. A properly integrated CCTV assessment system provides a rapid and cost-effective method for determining the cause of intrusion alarms. For surveillance, a properly designed CCTV system provides a cost-effective supplement to guard patrols. For large facilities, the cost of a CCTV system is more easily justified. It is important to recognize that CCTV alarm-assessment systems and CCTV surveillance systems perform separate and distinct functions. The alarm-assessment system is designed to respond rapidly, automatically, and predictably to the receipt of ESS alarms at the security center. The surveillance system is designed to be used at the discretion of and under the control of the security center's console operator. When the primary function of the CCTV system is to provide real-time alarm assessment, the design should incorporate a video-processing system that can communicate with the alarm-processing system.

6-143. A candidate site for a CCTV assessment system will typically have the following characteristics:

  • Assets requiring ESS protection.
  • A need for real-time alarm assessment.
  • Protected assets spaced some distance apart.

6-144. Figure 6-19 below shows a typical CCTV system configuration. A typical site will locate CCTV cameras—

  • Outdoors, along site-perimeter isolation zones.
  • Outdoors, at controlled access points (sally ports).
  • Outdoors, within the protected area, and at viewing approaches to selected assets
  • Indoors, at selected assets within the protected area.

6-145. The security console is centrally located in the security center. The CCTV monitors and the ancillary video equipment will be located at this console, as will the ESS alarm-processing and -annunciation equipment.

CCTV Camera Components

6-146. An optical-lens system that captures and focuses reflected light from the scene being viewed onto an image target is common to all CCTV cameras. The image target converts reflected light energy into electrical impulses in a two-dimensional array of height and width. An electronic scanning system (reading these impulses in a predetermined order) creates a time-sensitive voltage signal that is a replica of optical information captured by the lens and focused on the target. This voltage signal is then transmitted to a location where it is viewed and possibly recorded. For components and technical information regarding CCTV cameras, see the appropriate TMs.

Video Signal and Control Links

6-147. A CCTV transmission system is needed to convey video signals from various facility cameras to the security center and to carry commands from the security center to the cameras. Information may be sent via metallic cable, RF, or optical transmission.

Metallic Cable

6-148. Metallic video cables are electrical conductors manufactured specifically for the transmission of frequencies associated with video components. Coaxial cable is a primary example of this type of transmission media. Devices such as video-equalization amplifiers, ground loop correctors, and video-distribution amplifiers may be required.

RF Transmission

6-149. For a system that has widely separated nodes, RF transmission may be a good alternative to metallic cable and associated amplifiers. The information can be transmitted over a microwave link. A microwave link can be used for distances of about 50 miles, as long as the receiver and the transmitter are in the LOS.

Fiber-Optic Cable

6-150. In fiber-optic cable systems, electrical video signals are converted to optical light signals that are transmitted down the optical fiber. The signal is received and reconverted into electrical energy. An optic driver and a receiver are required per fiber. The fiber-optic transmission method provides a low-loss, high-resolution transmission system with usable length three to ten times that of traditional metallic in cable systems. Fiber-optic cable is the transmission media favored by DA.

CCTV-System Synchronization

6-151. Timing signals are processed within the image-scan section of the CCTV camera. These signals may be generated internally from a crystal clock, derived from the camera's AC power source, or supplied by an external signal source. The camera should be capable of automatic switchover to its internal clock in case of external signal loss. When CCTV cameras are supplied by a common external (master) signal source or are all powered from the same AC power source, all cameras scan in synchronism. In this case, a console CCTV monitor will display a smooth transition when switched from one video source to another. Without this feature, the monitor display breaks up or rolls when switched between video sources. The rolling occurs for as long as it takes the monitor to synchronize its scan with that of the new video source, typically one second. The resynchronization delay will be experienced by all system components that receive video information, including recorders. To avoid this delay, the designer must specify that all cameras are powered from the AC power phase or must specify master synchronization for the design.

Video Processing and Display Components

6-152. As shown in Figure 6-19 , CCTV camera signals propagate through the video transmission system and through coverage at the security center. In very simple configurations with only a few cameras and monitors, a hardwired connection between each camera and console monitor is adequate. As the number of cameras increases, the need to manage and add supplemental information to camera signals also increases. Psychological testing has demonstrated that the efficiency of console-operator assessment improves as the number of console monitors is reduced, with the optimum number being four to six monitors. Effectiveness is also enhanced by the use of alarm-correlated video. Major components of the video-processor system are the video switcher, the video-loss detector, the alarm-processor communication path, the master video-sync generator, video recorders, and monitors.

  • Video switchers. Video switchers are required when the number of cameras exceeds the number of console monitors or when a monitor must be capable of selecting video from one of many sources. Video switchers are capable of presenting any of multiple video images to various monitors, recorders, and so forth.
  • Video-loss detector. Video-loss detectors sense the continued integrity of incoming camera signals.
  • ESS interface and communication path. There must be a means of rapid communication between the ESS alarm-annunciation and video-processor systems. The alarm processor must send commands that cause the video switcher to select the camera appropriate for the sensor reporting an alarm. The video-processor system must report system tampering or failures (such as loss of video) to the alarm processor. The path should also pass date-and-time synchronizing information between processors so that recorded video scenes and printed alarm logs are properly correlated.
  • Master video-sync generation and distribution. Master video sync includes a crystal-controlled timing generator, distribution amplifiers, and a transmission link to each camera.
  • Video recorders. Video recorders provide the means to record alarm-event scenes in real time for later analysis. A recorder typically receives its input through dedicated video-switcher outputs. To support recorder playback, the recorder output is connected to a dedicated switcher input and must be compatible with the switcher-signal format. In addition, the recorder receives start commands from the switcher, and compatibility must exist at this interface. Videocassette recorders should be used when alarm events are to be recorded for later playback and analysis. The cassettes can record in time lapse for up to 240 hours (depending on the user-selected speed) and will change to real-time recording on command. The cassettes can be erased and reused or archived if required.
  • Monitors. Monitors are required to display the individual scenes transmitted from the cameras or from the video switcher. In alarm-assessment applications, the monitors are driven by dedicated outputs of the video switcher and the monitors display video sources selected by the switcher. For security-console operations, the 9-inch monitor is the smallest screen that should be used for operator recognition of small objects in a camera's field of view. Two 9-inch monitors can be housed side by side in a standard 19-inch console. If the monitors are to be mounted in freestanding racks behind the security console, larger units will be used.

6-153. Video-processor equipment will be specified to append the following alphanumeric information so that it appears on both monitors and recordings. The equipment must allow the operator to program the annotated information and dictate its position on the screen. This information includes—

  • Time and date information.
  • Video-source or alarm-zone identification.
  • Programmable titles.

CCTV Application Guidelines

6-154. Site-specific factors must be taken into consideration in selecting components that comprise a particular CCTV system. The first is the system's size in terms of the number of cameras fielded, which is the minimum number needed to view all ESS sensor-detection fields and surveillance cameras. Another factor is that some CCTV cameras may require artificial light sources. Finally, there are CCTV-system performance criteria and physical, environmental, and economic considerations. Each is discussed in detail in TM 5-853-4.

Scene Resolution

6-155. The level to which video details can be determined in a CCTV scene is referred to as resolving ability or resolution. It is generally accepted that for assessment purposes, three resolution requirements can be defined. In order of increasing resolution requirements, they are detection, recognition, and identification.

  • Detection is the ability to detect the presence of an object in a CCTV scene.
  • Recognition is the ability to determine the type of object in a CCTV scene (animal, blowing debris, or crawling human).
  • Identification is the ability to determine object details (a particular person, a large rabbit, a small deer, or tumbleweed).

6-156. A CCTV assessment system should provide sufficient resolution to recognize human presence and to detect small animals or blowing debris. Given an alarmed intrusion sensor, it is crucial that the console operator be able to determine if the sensor detected an intruder or if it is simply responding to a nuisance condition. (Refer to TM 5-853-4 for detailed design applications.)

Illumination Levels

6-157. For interior applications where the same camera type is used in several different areas and the scene illumination in each area is constant, specify the manually adjustable iris. This allows a manual iris adjustment appropriate for each particular area's illumination level at the time of installation. If the camera must operate in an area subject to a wide dynamic range of illumination levels (such as would be found outdoors), specify the automatically adjusted iris feature.

Cost Considerations

6-158. The cost of a CCTV system is usually quoted as cost-per-assessment zone. When estimating the total system cost, video-processor equipment costs and the video-transmission system's costs must be included. Other potentially significant costs are outdoor lighting system upgrades and the site preparation required to support the CCTV cameras. The CCTV systems are expensive compared to other electronic security subsystems and should be specified with discretion.

Design Guidelines

6-159. The design and application of CCTV systems are quite complex and should be left to professionals who are abreast of the current state-of-the-art systems. Some of the general design guidelines include the following:

  • System familiarity. Before designing an effective CCTV assessment system, the designer must be familiar with the ESS's sensor placement and the detection field's shape.
  • CCTV camera placement and lighting. The placement of exterior cameras requires more attention than that of interior cameras because of weather and illumination extremes. The field-of-view alignment, illumination range, and balanced lighting are major design factors. Exterior CCTV design considerations include environmental housings, camera mounting heights, system types, and so forth. Indoor design considerations include the mounting location and tamper detection. The layout for indoor alarm-assessment cameras is subject to three constraints—
    • The camera's location should enclose the complete sensor detection field in the camera's field of view.
    • Lighting that is adequate to support alarm assessment will be provided.
    • Protection from tampering and inadvertent damage by collision during normal area operations will be provided.



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