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  *FM 3-06.11 (FM 90-10-1)
Field Manual
No. 3-06.11
Headquarters
Department of the Army
Washington, DC, 28 February 2002

 

FM 3-06.11

COMBINED ARMS OPERATIONS IN URBAN TERRAIN

 

Table of Contents

COVER  
PREFACE  
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
  Section I General Considerations
  1-1. Definitions
  1-2. Full Spectrum Operations/Urban Operations Concept
  1-3. Tactical Challenges
  1-4. Importance of Urban Areas
  1-5. Fundamentals of Urban Operations
  1-6. Characteristics of Urban Operations
  1-7. Urban Battle Space
  Section II. Special Considerations
  1-8. Weapons Considerations
  1-9. Target Engagement
  1-10. Munitions and Equipment
  1-11. Noncombatants
  1-12. Disease Prevention
  1-13. Stress
  1-14. Fratricide Avoidance
  1-15. Situational Awareness
  1-16. Media
  1-17. Unexploded Ordnance
CHAPTER 2. URBAN ANALYSIS
  Section I. Models of Urban Areas
  2-1. General Urban Characteristics
  2-2. Description of Urban Areas Worldwide
  Section II. Terrain and Weather Analyses
  2-3. Urban Zones and Street Patterns
  2-4. Special Terrain Considerations
  2-5. Special Weather Considerations
  2-6. Analysis of Other Characteristics
  2-7. Aperture Analysis
  2-8. Questions for Commanders and Leaders
  Section III. Urban Building Analysis
  2-9. Types of Mass-Construction Buildings
  2-10. Types of Framed Buildings
  2-11. Floor Plans
  2-12. Residential Areas
  2-13. Characteristics of Buildings
  2-14. Distribution of Building Types
  Section IV. Urban Threat Evaluation
  2-15. Operational Factors
  2-16. Threat
  2-17. Projected Threat Capabilities
  2-18. Modern Urban Battle Analysis
CHAPTER 3. URBAN COMBAT SKILLS
  Section I. Movement
  3-1. Crossing Open Areas
  3-2. Movement Parallel to Buildings
  3-3. Movement Past Windows
  3-4. Movement Around Corners
  3-5. Crossing a Wall
  3-6. Use of Doorways
  3-7. Movement Between Positions
  3-8. Fire Team Employment
  Section II. Entry Techniques
  3-9. Upper Building Levels
  3-10. Use of Grappling Hook
  3-11. Scaling of Walls
  3-12. Rappelling
  3-13. Entry at Lower Levels
  3-14. Use of Hand Grenades
  3-15. Individual Weapons Control When Moving
  Section III. Clearing
  3-16. High Intensity Versus Precision Clearing Techniques
  3-17. Principles of Precision Room Clearing
  3-18. Fundamentals of Precision Room Clearing
  3-19. Composition of the Clearing Team
  3-20. Breaching
  3-21. Considerations for Entry
  3-22. Techniques for Entering Buildings and Clearing Rooms
  3-23. Reflexive Shooting
  3-24. Target Discrimination
  3-25. Movement Within a Building
  3-26. Verbal Commands and Signals
  3-27. Safety and Force Protection
  Section IV. Fighting Positions
  3-28. Hasty Fighting Position
  3-29. Prepared Fighting Position
  3-30. Target Acquisition
  3-31. Defense Against Flame Weapons and Incendiary Munitions
  3-32. Defense Against Enhanced Flame Weapons
  Section V. Navigation in Urban Areas
  3-33. Military Maps
  3-34. Global Positioning Systems
  3-35. Aerial Photographs
  Section VI. Camouflage
  3-36. Application
  3-37. Use of Shadows
  3-38. Color and Texture
CHAPTER 4. OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS
  Section I. Offensive Considerations
  4-1. Reasons for Attacking Urban Areas
  4-2. Reasons for Not Attacking Urban Areas
  4-3. Troop Requirements
  4-4. Fires and Maneuver
  4-5. Limitations
  Section II. Mission, Enemy, Terrain, Troops, Time, Civil Factors
  4-6. Mission
  4-7. Enemy
  4-8. Terrain and Weather
  4-9. Troops Available
  4-10. Time Available
  4-11 Civil Considerations
  Section III. Command and Control
  4-12. Command
  4-13. Control
  4-14. Focus on the Threat
  4-15. Commander's Critical Information Requirements
  4-16. Rehearsals
  Section IV. Offensive Framework and Types of Attacks
  4-17. Offensive Framework
  4-18. Hasty Attack
  4-19. Deliberate Attack
  Section V. Brigade Offensive Operations
  4-20. Task Organization
  4-21. Assess
  4-22. Shape
  4-23. Dominate
  4-24. Types of Offensive Operations
  4-25. Transition
  Section VI. Battalion Task Force Offensive Operations
  4-26. Task Organization
  4-27. Deliberate Attack
  4-28. Movement to Contact
  4-29. Infiltration
  4-30. Attack of a Village
  4-31. Route Security and Clearance
  4-32. Nodal Attack
  Section VII. Company Team Attack of an Urban Area
  4-33. Task Organization
  4-34. Deliberate Attack
  4-35. Isolate an Urban Objective
  4-36. Assault a Building
  4-37. Attack of a Block or Group of Buildings
  4-38. Hasty Attack
  4-39. Movement to Contact and Reconnaissance
  4-40. Seizure of Key Urban Terrain
  4-41. Direct Fire Planning and Control
  Section VIII. Platoon Attack of an Urban Area
  4-42. Task Organization (Platoon Attack of a Building)
  4-43. Movement in Urban Terrain
  4-44. Attacking in Urban Terrain
  4-45. Platoon Assault of a Building
  4-46. Consolidation and Reorganization
CHAPTER 5. DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS
  Section I. Defensive Considerations
  5-1. Reasons for Defending Urban Areas
  5-2. Reasons for Not Defending Urban Areas
  5-3. General Considerations
  Section II. Mission, Enemy, Terrain, Troops and Time Available, Civil Considerations
  5-4. Mission
  5-5. Enemy
  5-6. Terrain and Weather
  5-7. Time Available
  5-8. Troops Available
  5-9. Civil Considerations
  Section III. Defensive Framework and Organization
  5-10. Defensive Framework
  5-11. Command and Control
  5-12. Organization and Preparation of the Defense
  5-13. Priorities of Work
  Section IV. Brigade Defensive Operations
  5-14. Defensive Planning
  5-15. Integrating the Urban Area into the Defense
  5-16. Nodal Defense
  Section V. Battalion Defensive Operations
  5-17. Employment of Combat and Combat Support Assets
  5-18. Integrating Urban Areas into the Defense
  5-19. Defense of a Village
  5-20. Defense in Sector
  5-21. Nodal Defense
  5-22. Delay
  Section VI. Company Defensive Operations
  5-23. Hasty Defense
  5-24. Defense of a Village
  5-25. Defense of a Block or Group of Buildings
  5-26. Defense of Key Urban Terrain
  5-27. Defense of an Urban Strongpoint
  5-28. Delay
  Section VII. Platoon Defensive Operations
  5-29. Planning the Defense
  5-30. Priorities of Work and Defensive Considerations
  5-31. Conduct of the Defense
  5-32. Consolidation and Reorganization
  5-33. Counterattack
  5-34. Defense Against Armor
  5-35. Conduct of Armored Ambush
CHAPTER 6. SNIPER AND COUNTERSNIPER TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES
  Section I. Employment of Snipers
  6-1. Sniper Capabilities
  6-2. Employment Considerations
  6-3. Commander's Responsibilities to the Sniper
  Section II. Countering the Urban Sniper
  6-4. Types of Enemy Snipers and Their Capabilities
  6-5. The Law of Land Warfare Applied to Snipers
  6-6. Sniper Awareness
  6-7. Planning Sniper Countermeasures
  6-8. Countersniper Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures
CHAPTER 7. EMPLOYMENT AND EFFECTS OF WEAPONS
  7-1. Effectiveness of Weapons and Demolitions
  7-2. Rifle, Carbine, and Squad Automatic Weapon
  7-3 Medium and Heavy Machine Guns (7.62-mm and Caliber .50)
  7-4. Grenade Launchers, 40-mm (M203 and MK 19)
  7-5. Light and Medium Recoilless Weapons
  7-6. Antitank Guided Missiles
  7-7. Flame Weapons
  7-8. Hand Grenades
  7-9. Mortars
  7-10. 25-mm Automatic Gun
  7-11. Tank Cannon
  7-12. Artillery and Naval Gunfire
  7-13. Aerial Weapons
  7-14. Demolitions
  7-15. Common Effects of Urban Combat
CHAPTER 8. OBSTACLES, MINES, AND DEMOLITIONS
  Section I. Obstacles
  8-1. Types of Obstacles.
  8-2. Construction of Obstacles
  Section II. Mines
  8-3. Types of Mines and Employment Techniques
  8-4. Enemy Mines and Booby Traps
  Section III. Demolitions
  8-5. Offensive Use
  8-6. Defensive Use
  8-7. Safety
  Section IV. Field Expedient Breaching of Common Urban Barriers
  8-8. Force Protection
  8-9. Breaching Reinforced and Nonreinforced Exterior Walls
  8-10. Breaching Interior Walls and Partitions
  8-11. Door-Breaching Charges
CHAPTER 9 EMPLOYMENT OF ATTACK AND ASSAULT/CARGO HELICOPTERS
  9-1. Support for Ground Maneuver Units
  9-2. Role During Urban Operations.
  9-3. Command and Control
  9-4. Maneuver Graphic Aids
  9-5. Identifying Friendly Positions, Marking Locations, and Acquiring Targets
  9-6. Attack Helicopter Target Engagement
  9-7. Air Ground Integration in the Hasty Attack/Close Fight
  9-8. Employment of Assault/Cargo Helicopters
  9-9. Aviation Urban Operations Risk Assessment
CHAPTER 10. FIRES
  10-1. Brigade Fire Support for Urban Operations
  10-2. Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C4I)
  10-3. Mission Support of Offensive and Defensive Operations
  10-4. Acquisition Platforms
  10-5. Meteorological and Survey Requirements
  10-6. Delivery Assets
  10-7. Tactical Air
  10-8. Nonlethal Means
  10-9. Artillery Used in Direct Fire
CHAPTER 11. MOBILITY, COUNTERMOBILITY, SURVIVABILITY
  11-1. General
  11-2. Mission Analysis
  11-3. Support Products
  11-4. Engineer Staff Planning Checklist (Brigade and Below)
  11-5. Reconnaissance and Surveillance Planning Considerations
  11-6. Mobility Planning Considerations
  11-7. Countermobility Planning Considerations
  11-8. Survivability Planning Considerations
CHAPTER 12. COMBAT SUPPORT
  12-1. Mortars
  12-2. Field Artillery
  12-3. Air Defense Artillery
  12-4. Engineers
  12-5. Military Police
  12-6. Communications
CHAPTER 13. COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT
  Section I. General
  13-1. Guidelines
  13-2. Principal Functions
  13-3. Supply and Movement Functions
  13-4. Company Resupply Operations.
  13-5. Load Planning and Management
  13-6. Other Combat Service Support Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures
  13-7. Personnel Services
  13-8. Deceased Personnel
  Section II. Combat Health Support
  13-9. Medical Considerations for the Battalion Staff
  13-10. Considerations for the Combat Medic (Trauma Specialist)
  13-11. Considerations for the Battalion Physician's Assistant and Command Surgeon
  13-12. Battalion Aid Station Operations
  13-13. Precombat Medical Checklists
  Section III. Legal Aspects of Urban Operations
  13-14. Civilian Impact in the Battle Area
  13-15. Limits of Authority
  13-16. Diversion of Military Resources
  13-17. Health and Welfare
  13-18. Law and Order
  13-19. Public Affairs Officer and Media Relations
  13-20. Civil Affairs Units and Psychological Operations
  13-21. Provost Marshall
  13-22. Commanders' Legal Authority and Responsibilities
CHAPTER 14. STABILITY OPERATIONS AND SUPPORT OPERATIONS
  Section I. Stability Operations
  14-1. Purposes and Types of Stability Operations
  14-2. Planning Considerations
  14-3. Establish a Lodgment Area
  14-4. Conduct Negotiations
  14-5. Monitor Compliance With an Agreement
  14-6. Establish Observation Posts
  14-7. Establish Checkpoints
  14-8. Conduct Area Security Patrols
  14-9. Conduct Convoy Escort
  14-10. Open and Clear Routes
  14-11. Conduct Reserve Force Mission
  14-12. Cordon and Search
  Section II. Support Operations
  14-13. Types of Support Operations
  14-14. Forms of Support Operations
  14-15. Phases of Support Operations
  Section III. Transition to Combat Operations
  14-16. Plan for Contingencies
  14-17. Balanced Mindset
  14-18. Combat Skills Training
APPENDIX A. URBAN OPERATIONS UNDER RESTRICTIVE CONDITIONS
APPENDIX B. URBAN OPERATIONS UNDER CONDITIONS OF LIMITED VISIBILITY
APPENDIX C. LIGHT INFANTRY AND ARMORED VEHICLE TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES
APPENDIX D. INFORMATION OPERATIONS
APPENDIX E. COALITION OPERATIONS
APPENDIX F. WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION, TOXIC INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS, AND THE USE OF OBSCURATION
APPENDIX G. INTELLIGENCE REQUIREMENTS CHECKLISTS FOR URBAN OPERATIONS
APPENDIX H. LESSONS LEARNED FROM MODERN URBAN COMBAT
APPENDIX I. PLATOON URBAN OPERATIONS KIT AND TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES FOR MARKING BUILDINGS AND ROOMS
APPENDIX J. SUBTERRANEAN OPERATIONS
APPENDIX K. TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES FOR THE EMPLOYMENT OF MORTARS ON URBAN TERRAIN
APPENDIX L. COMMUNICATIONS DURING URBAN OPERATIONS
GLOSSARY  
REFERENCES  
AUTHENTICATION

Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.


*This publication supersedes FM 90-10-1, 12 May 1993, with Change 1, 3 Oct 95.



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