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Military

 *FM 27-100
FIELD MANUAL
No. 27-100
Headquarters
Department of the Army
Washington, DC, 1 March 2000

 

FM 27-100

LEGAL SUPPORT TO OPERATIONS

Table of Contents

PREFACE
INTRODUCTION
Chapter 1    Role of the Judge Advocate
1.1    THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL'S CORPS MISSION
1.2    PERFORMING TRADITIONAL ROLES
1.2.1    Mission
1.2.2    Service
1.2.3    Legitimacy
1.2.4    The Military General Practitioner
1.2.5    The "Judge" Function
1.2.6    The "Advocate" Function
1.2.7    The "Ethical Adviser" Function
1.2.8    The "Counselor" Function
1.3    IN A CHALLENGING NEW ENVIRONMENT
1.3.1    More Missions
1.3.2    Command and Control Relationships
1.3.3    International Operations
1.3.4    Fluid Operations
1.3.5    Technological Advancements
1.4    CHALLENGES FOR JUDGE ADVOCATES IN THE 21ST CENTURY
1.4.1    Mission
1.4.2    Service
1.4.3    Legitimacy
1.5    SUMMARY
Chapter 2    Organization to Support Army Operations
2.1    JUDGE ADVOCATE ORGANIZATIONS
2.1.1    Office of The Judge Advocate General
2.1.2    Field Operating Agencies
2.1.3    The U.S. Army Legal Services Agency
2.1.4    The Judge Advocate General's School, U.S. Army
2.1.5    Army National Guard Legal Organizations
2.1.6    U.S. Army Reserve Legal Organizations
2.1.7    Staff Judge Advocate Offices
2.1.8    Command Judge Advocates
2.2    JOINT LEGAL ORGANIZATIONS
2.2.1    The Office of the Legal Counsel to the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff
2.2.2    Unified, Specified, and Subordinate Unified Command Staff Judge Advocates
2.2.3    Joint Task Force Staff Judge Advocate
2.3    MULTINATIONAL FORCE LEGAL ORGANIZATIONS
2.4    PROVIDING ARMY LEGAL SUPPORT FOR OPERATIONS
2.4.1    Overview of Operational Law Support
2.4.2    Tailoring Operational Law Support
2.5    SUMMARY
Chapter 3    OPLAW and Core Legal Disciplines Supporting Army Operations
3.1    INTRODUCTION
3.2    OPLAW
3.3    MILITARY JUSTICE
3.4    INTERNATIONAL LAW
3.5    ADMINISTRATIVE LAW
3.6    CIVIL LAW
3.7    CLAIMS
3.8    LEGAL ASSISTANCE
3.9    SUMMARY
Chapter 4    Legal Support in Theater Operations
4.1    THE THEATER
4.1.1    Key Terms and Distinctions
4.1.2    Communications Zone and Combat Zone
4.1.3    Strategy
4.1.4    Structures of Command and Coordination
4.1.5    Command, Control, and Support Relationships
4.2    PLANNING AND DECISION-MAKING
4.2.1    Planning
4.2.2    Functions of Staffs
4.2.3    The Military Decision Making Process
4.2.4    Decision Making in a Time-Constrained Environment
4.2.5    SJA Planning, Decision-Making, and Orders
4.3    LEGAL SUPPORT IN THEATER
4.3.1    Introduction
4.3.2    Overseas Presence and Force Projection
4.3.3    Legal Support in Theater
4.3.4    The United States as a Theater (Domestic Operations)
4.3.5    Technical Channels
4.4    MATERIEL
4.4.1    Legal Automation
4.4.2    Mobility
4.4.3    Communications
4.5    TRAINING
4.5.1    Principles of Training
4.5.2    Mission Essential Task Lists (METL)
4.5.3    Planning for Training
4.6    LEGAL SUPPORT AND SPECIAL OPERATIONS
4.6.1    Legal Support and Special Operations
4.6.2    Legal Support and Civil Affairs
Chapter 5    Legal Support in War
5.1    THE LIMITS OF WAR
5.2    PHASED AND NESTED OPERATIONS
5.3    CONCEPT OF LEGAL SUPPORT IN WAR
5.3.1    Command & Control, Sustainment, Personnel Service Support
5.3.2    Command and Control (C2)
5.3.3    Sustainment
5.3.4    Personnel Service Support
5.4    THE CORE LEGAL DISCIPLINES IN WAR
5.4.1    Administrative Law
5.4.2    Claims
5.4.3    Civil Law
5.4.4    Military Justice
5.4.5    International Law
5.4.6    Legal Assistance
5.5    ORGANIZATION FOR WAR
5.5.1    Theater Legal Structure
5.5.2    Army Service Component Command
5.5.3    Command Posts
5.5.4    Judge Advocate Disposition
5.5.5Brigade Command and Control Facilities
5.6    MATERIEL IN WAR
5.7    TRAINING FOR WAR
Chapter 6    Legal Support to Military Operations Other Than War
6.1    INTRODUCTION
6.2    STRATEGIC CONCEPT
6.3    THEATER CONCEPT
6.3.1    Political Objectives
6.3.2    Legal Complexity
6.3.3    Mission Complexity
6.3.4    Command and Control
6.3.5    Interagency Coordination
6.4    THE ARMY'S ROLE IN MOOTW
6.4.1    Arms Control
6.4.2    Combating Terrorism
6.4.3    Counter-Drug Operations
6.4.4    Enforcement of Sanctions and Exclusion Zones
6.4.5    Humanitarian Assistance
6.4.6    Nation Assistance
6.4.7    Noncombatant Evacuation Operations
6.4.8    Peace Operations
6.4.9    Recovery Operations
6.4.10    Show of Force Operations
6.4.11    Strikes and Raids
6.4.12    Support to Insurgencies
6.4.13    Operations Under Armistice Conditions
6.5    ORGANIZATION OF LEGAL SUPPORT
6.6    LEGAL ASPECTS OF C2, SUSTAINMENT, AND SUPPORT OPS
6.6.1    Legal Basis for the Operation
6.6.2    Status of Forces
6.6.3    International & Interagency Relationships
6.6.4    Use of Force & Rules of Engagement (ROE)
6.6.5    Treatment of Civilians
6.6.6    Fiscal Responsibility
6.6.7    Intelligence Oversight
6.7    LEGAL TRAINING REQUIREMENTS
6.8    LEGAL EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS
6.9    SUMMARY
Chapter 7    The United States as a Theater
7.1    INTRODUCTION
7.2    Organizing and Equipping Judge Advocates
7.3    Training Judge Advocates
7.4    Military Support to Civil Authorities
7.4.1    General
7.4.2    Authorization for Military Support
7.4.3    Lead Agency Concept and Role of Military
7.4.4    Rules for Use of Force
7.5    Military Support to Law Enforcement
7.5.1    Civil Disturbance Operations
7.5.2    Counter-Drug Operations
7.6    Emerging Threats in the Continental United States (Terrorism)
Chapter 8    Rules of Engagement
8.1    INTRODUCTION
8.2    ROE DEVELOPMENT CONSIDERATIONS
8.2.1    Commander's Responsibility
8.2.2    Purposes of ROE
8.2.3    Drafting Considerations
8.2.4    Situation Considerations - METT-TC
8.2.5    Definitions and Key Concepts
8.2.6    Types of ROE
8.3    CJCS Standing ROE
8.4    THE I-D-D-T METHODOLOGY
8.4.1    Interpret
8.4.2    Draft
8.4.3    Disseminate
8.4.4    Train
GLOSSARY
REFERENCES
ENDNOTES
AUTHENTICATION

*This publication supersedes FM 27-100, 3 September 1991.



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