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*FM 23-10

Field Manual
No. 23-10

HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
Washington, DC, 17 August 1994

 

FM 23-10

SNIPER TRAINING

Table of Contents


PREFACE

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION

1-1. Mission

1-2. Organization

1-3. Personnel Selection Criteria

1-4. Sniper and Observer Responsibilities

1-5. Team Firing Techniques

CHAPTER 2 - EQUIPMENT

Section I - M24 Sniper Weapon System

2-1. Operations and Functions

2-2. Inspection

2-3. Care and Maintenance

2-4. Disassembly

2-5. Loading and Unloading

2-6. Storage

Section II - Ammunition

2-7. Types and Characteristic

2-8. Round-Count Book

2-9. M24 Malfunctions and Corrections

Section III - Sniper Sighting Devices

2-10. M3A Scope

2-11. Iron Sights

Section IV - Other Equipment

2-12. M16A1/A2 Rifle with M203 Grenade Launcher

2-13. Image Intensification and Infrared Devices

2-14. M49 Observation Telescope

2-15. M19 Binoculars

2-16. M22 Binoculars

2-17. Other Sniper Equipment

Section V - Communications Equipment

2-18. AN/PRC-77 Radio

2-19. AN/PRC-104A Radio Transceiver

2-20. AN/PRC-119 Radio

CHAPTER 3 - MARKSMANSHIP

Section I - Fundamentals

3-1. Steady Position Elements

3-2. Aiming

3-3. Breath Control

3-4. Trigger Control

3-5. Follow-Through

3-6. Calling the Shot

3-7. Integrated Act of Firing

Section II - Ballistics

3-8. Types of Ballistics

3-9. Terminology

3-10. Effects on Trajectory

3-11. Angle Firing

Section III - Effects of Weather

3-12. Wind Classification

3-13. Wind Velocity

3-14. Conversion of Wind Velocity to Minutes of Angle

3-15. Effects of Light

3-16. Effects of Temperature

3-17. Effects of Humidity

Section IV - Sniper Data Book

3-18. Entries

3-19. Analysis

Section V - Holdoff

3-20. Elevation

3-21. Windage

Section VI - Engagement of Moving Targets

3-22. Techniques

3-23. Common Errors

3-24. Calculation of Leads

Section VII - Nuclear, Biological, Chemical

3-25. Protective Mask

3-26. Mission-Oriented Protection Posture

CHAPTER 4 - FIELD TECHNIQUES

Section I - Camouflage

4-1. Target Indicators

4-2. Basic Methods

4-3. Types of Camouflage

4-4. Ghillie Suit

4-5. Field-Expedient Camouflage

4-6. Cover and Concealment

Section II - Movement

4-7. Rules of Movement

4-8. Individual Movement Techniques

4-9. Sniper Team Movement and Navigation

Section III - Selection, Occupation, and Construction of Sniper Positions

4-10. Selection

4-11. Occupation

4-12. Construction

4-13. Positions in Urban Terrain

Section IV - Observation

4-14. Hasty and Detailed Searches

4-15. Elements of Observation

4-16. Twilight Techniques

4-17. Night Techniques

4-18. Illumination Aids

Section V - Target Detection and Selection

4-19. Target Indexing

4-20. Target Selection

4-21. Key Target

Section VI - Range Estimation

4-22. Factors Affecting Range Estimation

4-23. Range Estimation Methods

4-24. Laser Range Finder

4-25. Estimation Guidelines

Section VII - Information Records

4-26. Range Card

4-27. Military Sketch

4-28. Sniper Data Book

CHAPTER 5 - MISSION PREPARATION

Section I - Planning and Coordination

5-1. Mission Alert

5-2. Warning Order

5-3. Tentative Plan

5-4. Coordination Checklists

5-5. Completion of Plan

5-6. Operation Order

5-7. Briefback

5-8. Equipment Check

5-9. Final Inspection

5-10. Rehearsals

5-11. Final Preparations

5-12. Preparation of Debriefing

5-13. Countersniper Operation

5-14. Reaction to Enemy Sniper Fire

Section II - Mission Packing Lists

5-15. Arms and Ammunition

5-16. Special Equipment

5-17. Uniforms and Equipment

5-18. Optional Equipment

5-19. Special Tools and Equipment (MOUT)

5-20. Additional Equipment Transport

CHAPTER 6 - OPERATIONS

Section I - Insertion

6-1. Planning Insertion

6-2. Air Insertion

6-3. Amphibious Insertion

6-4. Land Insertion

6-5. Vehicle Insertion

Section II - Execution

6-6. Movement to Target Area

6-7. Occupation of Position

6-8. Site Selection

6-9. Reports

6-10. Movement to Extraction Site

Section III - Extraction and Recovery

6-11. Planning

6-12. Evasion and Escape Plan

6-13. Air or Water Extraction

6-14. Land Exfiltration

6-15. Vehicle Extraction

6-16. Recovery

CHAPTER 7 - COMMUNICATIONS

Section I - Field-Expedient Antennas

7-1. Repair Technique

7-2. Construction and Adjustment

7-3. Field-Expedient Omnidirectional Antenna

7-4. Field-Expedient Directional Antenna

7-5. Antenna Length

7-6. Antenna Orientation

7-7. Improvement of Marginal Communications

Section II - Radio Operations Under Unusual Conditions

7-8. Arctic Areas

7-9. Jungle Areas

7-10. Desert Areas

7-11. Mountainous Areas

7-12. Urbanized Terrain

7-13. Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Environment

Section III - Communications Format

7-14. Spot Report

7-15. Situation Report

7-16. Reconnaissance Report

7-17. Meaconing, Intrusion, Jamming, and Interference Report

7-18. Shelling Reports

7-19. Enemy Prisoner of War/Captured Materiel Report

7-20. NBC 1 Report

7-21. Medical Evacuation Request

CHAPTER 8 - TRACKING/COUNTERTRACKING

Section I - Tracking

8-1. Displacement

8-2. Stains

8-3. Weather

8-4. Litter

8-5. Camouflage

8-6. Immediate-Use Intelligence

8-7. Dog/Handler Tracking Teams

Section II - Countertracking

8-8. Evasion

8-9. Camouflage

8-10. Deception Techniques

CHAPTER 9 - SNIPER SUSTAINMENT TRAINING

9-1. Basic Skills Sustainment

9-2. Additional Skills Sustainment

9-3. Training Notes

9-4. Example 5-day Sniper Sustainment Training Program

9-5. Emergency Deployment Readiness Exercise

9-6. Record Fire Tables

9-7. M24 Sniper MILES Training

APPENDIX A - SNIPER WEAPONS OF THE WORLD

APPENDIX B - M21 SNIPER WEAPON SYSTEM

GLOSSARY

REFERENCES

BLANK FORMS

AUTHORIZATION LETTER


DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

*This publication supersedes TC 23-14, 14 June 1989.



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