Military

Appendix A

Installation and Removal of US Mines and Firing Devices

This appendix provides installation and removal procedures for AT mines, AP mines, and FDs. The scope of this appendix is limited to US hand-emplaced mines that require manual arming.

WARNINGS

1. If there is a problem when performing any installation or removal step, notify the NCOIC.

2. If you hear a click when removing the safety clip or if the pressure plate snaps downward so it is level with the body of the mine, notify the NCOIC. DO NOT use the mine.

3. If the safety clip cannot be reinserted, notify the NCOIC.

4. DO NOT apply pressure to the pressure plate, tilt rod, or fuse at any time.

5. Before attempting to disarm and remove the mine, check for AHDs, damage, and malfunctions. If any of these conditions exist, notify the NCOIC. DO NOT attempt to disarm the mine.

6. If you feel a jar or hear a metallic click when removing the locking safety pin, stop and notify the NCOIC. The firing pin has gone forward and is resting on the positive safety pin. DO NOT remove the positive safety pin.

7. After removing the positive safety pin, proceed with extreme caution. The slider pin can detonate the mine if it is accidentally pushed in.

8. When attaching trip wires to the release-pin ring on the fuse, leave a little slack in the wires. This prevents pull on the release-pin ring, which could set off the mine when the safety pins are removed.

9. Ensure that the extension rod is vertical and is not tilted in any direction. A 20-degree tilt of the extension rod will detonate the mine.

10. Ensure that the safety fork moves freely. If there is pressure on the fork, DO NOT remove it.

11. DO NOT apply pressure to the pressure plate of the fuse when inserting it into the fuse well.

12. If the setting knob is difficult to turn, DO NOT force it; notify the NCOIC.

13. DO NOT adjust the setting knob while the detonator is in the detonator well.

14. If any cracks are noted in the plastic collar, slowly and carefully reassemble the stop and safety pin on the fuse. Carefully remove the extension rod and the fuse from the mine. Give the fuse to the NCOIC and replace it with a new fuse.

15. Before cutting loose trip wires, look at each end to ensure that there are no electric-producing devices that might initiate another system.

16. Arm and disarm all mines while in the prone position.

SECTION I. ANTIPERSONNEL MINES

AP mines can kill or incapacitate their victims. They can be fused by pressure, wire, or command detonation and contain a blast, bounding-fragmentation, or direct-fragmentation warhead.

M14

The M14 mine (Figure A-1) is a low-metallic, blast AP mine. It has a plastic body and an integral plastic fuse with a steel firing pin.

Figure A-1. M14 AP mine

CHARACTERISTICS

Main Charge Diameter Height Weight No Mines per Box Weight per Box
Tetryl, 28.4 g 56 mm 40 mm 99.4 g (fused) 90 19.8 kg

  • Korea Only: The M14 is employed in tactical and nuisance minefields.
  • The M14's size allows for employment in large numbers, and rapid concealment is possible.
  • The M14 is buried to prevent the target from knocking it over.
  • The M14 is not designed to kill but to penetrate a boot or a foot.
  • The M14 is difficult to detect because of plastic construction.
  • The M14 requires an operating force of 11.5 to 13.5 kilograms to activate.

INSTALLATION

WARNING

Emplace and remove the mine while in the prone position.

  • Inspect the mine.

  • Do not use the mine if it is dented, cracked, or damaged.
    Use the M22 wrench (Figure A-2) to remove the shipping plug from the detonator well.

Figure A-2. M22 wrench


    Inspect the position of the firing pin. Do not use the mine if the firing pin extends into the detonator well.
    Inspect the detonator well for foreign material. If foreign material is present, remove it by carefully tapping the mine against the palm of your hand. If you cannot remove the debris, replace the shipping plug and do not use the mine.
  • Test the pressure plate.

  • Ensure that the arrow is in the SAFE position.
    Use the M22 wrench to turn the pressure plate from the SAFE position to the ARMED position (Figure A-3).
    Grasp the mine in one hand and remove the safety clip with the other hand. Listen for a click, indicating that the firing pin has dropped. Recheck the fuse well (Figure A-4).
    Replace the safety clip.
    Use the M22 wrench to turn the pressure plate back to the SAFE position.

Figure A-3. M14 mine in ARMED position

Figure A-4. Removal of safety clip

  • Ensure that a metallic washer is attached (glued) to the bottom of the mine. If a washer is not attached, notify the NCOIC and do not use the mine. Apply silicone on the outside of the washer to prevent water damage, and screw the detonator into the well on the bottom of the mine (Figure A-5) NOTE: Ensure that the gasket is tightly wedged between the detonator and the washer and that the washer is properly seated between the gasket and the body of the mine so that water cannot enter the mine.

Figure A-5. Bottom view of M14 mine

  • Dig a hole to fit the mine.

  • Dig a hole approximately 10 centimeters in diameter and deep enough (approximately 3.5 centimeters) so that the pressure plate extends above the ground.
    Inspect the ground at the bottom of the hole.
       > Ensure that the ground is hard enough to support the mine when pressure is applied to the pressure plate.
       > Place a flat object in the bottom of the hole for the mine to rest on if the ground is too soft. Allow additional depth for the objects.
  • Arm the mine with an M22 wrench by turning the pressure plate to the ARMED position.
  • Place the mine in the hole.
  • Remove the safety clip carefully, while holding the mine body firmly in the hole.
  • Camouflage the mine.

REMOVAL

  • Disarm the mine.

  • Clear the soil away from the mine carefully.
    Grasp the body of the mine firmly with one hand, and insert the safety clip with the other hand.
    Use the M22 wrench to turn the pressure plate to the SAFE position.
  • Remove the mine from the hole.

  • Turn the mine over, and carefully remove the detonator from the detonator well.
    Screw the shipping plug into the detonator well.
    Give the detonator to the NCOIC.

M16

The M16-series mine (Figures A-6) is a bounding-fragmentation AP mine. Once actuated, the mine is propelled out of the ground (to a height of approximately 1.8 meters) and explodes. The mine consists of an M605 fuse, a propelling charge, and a projectile that are contained in a sheet-steel case. The fuse is screwed into the top of the case and extends through the center of the projectile to the bottom of the case, where the propelling charge is located. The remaining space inside the case is occupied by the projectile. Earlier versions of the mine are also available for issue. The principal difference between the old and new versions is the construction of the detonators and boosters.

Figure A-6. M16A1 AP mine

CHARACTERISTICS

Main Charge Diameter Height Weight No Mines per Box Weight per Box
TNT
103 mm 199 mm 3.5 kg
4
20.25 kg

  • Korea Only: The M16 is employed in protective, tactical, and nuisance minefields.
  • The M16 is used to defeat dismounted assaults and breaching operations.
  • The M16 is pressure-actuated (3.6 to 9 kilograms) or pull-actuated (1.4 to 4.5 kilograms).
  • The M16 and M16A1 have a casualty radius of 27 meters; the M16A2 has a casualty radius of 30 meters. The danger radius for friendly forces is 183 meters for all M16 mines.

INSTALLATION

WARNING

Emplace and remove the mine while in the prone position.

  • Inspect the mine.

  • Do not use the mine if it is dented, cracked, or damaged.
    Use the closed end of an M25 wrench to remove the shipping plug from the fuse well (Figure A-7).

Figure A-7. M16A1 mine and M25 wrench


    Inspect the fuse well for foreign material. If foreign material is present, turn the mine upside down and gently tap the bottom with your hand to dislodge the material. If you cannot remove the debris, replace the shipping plug and do not use the mine.
    Examine the fuse assembly carefully for evidence of damage or missing safety pins. Ensure that the safety pins move freely in their holes and that the rubber gasket is around the fuse base (Figure A-8).

Figure A-8. M605 fuse

WARNING

DO NOT use any fuse that was manufactured before 1957.

  • Fuse the mine.

  • Use the open end of the M25 wrench to tighten the bushing adapter on the fuse well.
    Screw the fuse assembly into the fuse well by hand and tighten the assembly with the M25 wrench. Ensure that the rubber gasket is between the fuse body and the bushing adapter. NOTE: For long-term use, smear a thin layer of silicone grease or similar lubricant on the fuse and threads.
  • Dig a hole to fit the mine.

  • Pressure installation. Dig the hole so that only the pressure-prong tips are above ground level.
    Trip-wire installation. Dig the hole so that the release-pin ring is above ground level.
  • Emplace the mine.

  • Place the mine in the hole and ensure that the safety pins remain in place.
    Cover the mine with soil to the bottom of the release-pin ring.
    Press the soil firmly around the sides of the mine.

Pressure Installation

  • Remove the locking safety pin (Figure A-9). The interlocking safety pin will come free.

Figure A-9. Safety pins

  • Arrange the pull cord on the positive safety pin so that it withdraws easily. Remove the metal collar.
  • Finish covering the mine with soil until only the pressure prongs are above ground level.
  • Camouflage the mine, place excess soil in sandbags, and remove sandbags from the area.
  • Arm the mine by removing the positive safety pin (Figure A-9).
  • Give the safety pins and the shipping plug to the NCOIC.

Trip-Wire Installation

  • Install the trip wire (Figure A-10).

Figure A-10. Buried mine with a trip wire

  • Cover the mine with soil and press it firmly around the sides of the mine. Leave the release-pin ring and the pressure prongs exposed.
  • Tie off trip wires, approximately 10 meters from the mine. The wires should form a wide V, with the opening toward the enemy.
  • Attach trip wires to the release-pin ring on the fuse.
  • Remove the locking safety pin. The interlocking safety pin will come free.
  • Arrange the pull cord on the positive safety pin so that it withdraws easily.
  • Camouflage the mine, place excess soil in sandbags, and remove sandbags from the area.
  • Arm the mine by removing the positive safety pin.
  • Give the safety pins and the shipping plug to the NCOIC.

REMOVAL

WARNING

Before attempting to disarm and remove the mine, ensure that the metal collar (Figure A-11) over the top of the striker on the M605 fuse is in place.

Figure A-11. Metal collar on an M605 fuse

  • Disarm the mine.

  • Clear the soil carefully from the top of the fuse to the positive safety-pin hole. When using the M605 fuse, clear away all the soil from the fuse area.
    Insert the positive safety pin through the positive safety-pin hole.
    Insert the locking safety pin through the locking safety-pin hole.
    Cut the slack trip wires that are attached to the release-pin ring.
  • Check for AHDs.

  • Hold the mine body firmly in place with one hand.
    Feel for AHDs with the other hand by digging around the sides of and underneath the mine.
  • Remove the mine.

  • Remove the mine from the hole. Ensure that the safety pins remain in place.
    Remove the M605 fuse with the M25 wrench.
    Replace the shipping plug in the fuse well.

SECTION II. ANTITANK MINES

AT mines are designed to immobilize or destroy tanks and vehicles and their crews. They perform this function by producing an M-Kill or a K-Kill. An M-Kill is achieved by destroying one or more of the vehicle's vital drive components (usually breaking the track on a tank), causing the target to be immobilized. The weapon system and the crew are not destroyed in an M-Kill; the weapon system is immobile but continues to function. A K-Kill results when the weapon system or the crew is destroyed.

Conventional AT mines are distinguished by their warheads and the type of fusing mechanism used. Blast AT mines, such as the M15 and M19, derive their effectiveness through the force generated by an HE detonation. These mines usually produce an M-Kill, but a K-Kill can result. SFF mines, such as the M21, utilize direct-energy (shaped charge) warheads that are designed to penetrate the underside of a vehicle's armor. They spray shrapnel throughout the inside of the vehicle and kill the crew. A K-Kill normally results unless the mine is detonated under the vehicle's track.

M15

The M15 (Figure A-12) is a blast AT mine that is contained in a round sheet-steel casing. The primary fuse well is located in the top center of the mine. There are two secondary fuse wells--one on the side and one on the bottom. The primary fuse well accepts the M603 pressure-actuated fuse. Standard FDs can be used in the secondary fuse wells with the M1 activator. The M624 tilt-rod-actuated fuse can also be used with this mine.

Figure A-12. M15 AT mine

CHARACTERISTICS

Main Charge Diameter Height Weight No Mines per Box Weight per Box
Comp B, 9.9 kg 337 mm 125 mm 13.5 kg 1 18 kg

  • The M15 is employed in protective, tactical, and nuisance minefields.
  • The M15 is surface-laid or buried.
  • The M15 requires a force of 158 to 338 kilograms to detonate the M603 fuse and a force of 1.7 kilograms to deflect the tilt rod and detonate the M624 fuse.
  • The M15 is designed to defeat heavy tanks.
  • The M15 produces an M-Kill upon contact.

INSTALLATION USING THE M624 FUSE

WARNING

Emplace and remove the mine while in the prone position.

  • Inspect the mine.

  • Do not use the mine if it is dented, cracked, or damaged.
    Use the M20 wrench (Figure A-13) to remove the arming plug.

Figure A-13. M20 wrench


    Inspect the fuse well for foreign material. If foreign material is present, turn the mine upside down and gently tap the bottom with your hand to dislodge the material. If you cannot remove the debris, replace the arming plug and do not use the mine.
    Ensure that the booster retainer ring is seated in the fuse well. If the retainer ring is missing, replace the mine.
  • Inspect the fuse.

  • Remove the M624 fuse from the metal shipping container and inspect it for serviceability.
    Inspect the plastic collar of the fuse by looking down through the top of the pressure ring. If the safety pin is missing or improperly assembled, do not use the fuse (Figure A-14).

Figure A-14. Correct safety-pin configuration


    Do not use the fuse if the plastic collar appears to be cracked.
  • Fuse the mine.

  • Remove the M624 fuse from its fiber sleeve.
    Remove the end closure on the M624 fuse. NOTE: For long-term emplacement, coat the fuse threads and gasket with silicone grease before removing the end closure Figure A-15).

Figure A-15. Greasing the M624 fuse


    Screw the fuse hand-tight into the fuse well.
    Remove the extension rod from its packaging.
    Tighten the fuse by inserting the unthreaded end of one extension rod piece into the hole on the side of the fuse. Turn the fuse a quarter turn (Figure A-16).

Figure A-16. Tightening the fuse with the extension rod


    Remove the extension rod for further use after the fuse is secure.

NOTE: The M15 AT mine (with the M624 fuse) can be buried or surface-laid. If surface-laid, it must be staked in place.

  • Dig a hole to fit the mine.

  • Dig a hole deep enough so that the top of the pressure plate will be at ground level.
    Dig the sides of the hole at a 45-degree angle to prevent vehicles from bridging the mine.
  • Emplace the mine.

  • Place the mine in the hole.
    Cover the mine with 2 centimeters of soil (Figure A-17).

Figure A-17. M15 mine in the hole

NOTE: The M15 AT mine (with the M624 fuse) can be used in the tilt-rod or pressure role. In the tilt-rod role only, assemble all three pieces of the extension rod (Figure A-18) and thread the extension rod into the threaded pressure ring of the fuse (Figure A-19).

Figure A-18. Extension-rod assembly

Figure A-19. Assembly of the extension rod into the fuse ring

  • Arm the mine.

  • Use your right hand to raise the safety pin to the horizontal position, and grasp the safety band and safety stop with your left hand. Note the position of the thumb in Figure A-20.

Figure A-20. Removal of safety pin


    Remove the safety pin with your right index finger, pulling it to the right.
    Remove the safety stop carefully while holding the safety band in place.
    Remove the safety band.
  • Camouflage the mine.

  • Camouflage the mine with twigs, grass, or other material in the area. Place mines with extension rods in tall grass, if possible. Ensure that no pressure is applied to the tilt rod or the fuse.
    Place excess soil in sandbags and remove them from the area.
    Give the band, the stop, the pull-ring assembly, the arming plug, and the end closure to the NCOIC.

Continue Appendix A



NEWSLETTER
Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list