Find a Security Clearance Job!

Military

*FM 20-32

Field Manual
20-32
Headquarters
Department of the Army
Washington, DC, 29 May 1998

FM 20-32

MINE/COUNTERMINE OPERATIONS

NOTE: Change 2, 22 August 2001, has not been incorporated into the basic document.

Table of Contents


Change 2, 22 August 2001

Change 1 (with Authentication), 30 June 1999)

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

FIGURES

TABLES

PREFACE

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

MECHANICS OF MINES

Characteristics and Functioning

Components and Initiating Actions

ANTITANK MINES

Types of Kills

Types of Sensing

Types of Warheads

ANTIPERSONNEL MINES

Types of Kills

Types of Sensing

Types of Warheads

ANTIHANDLING DEVICES

PART ONE. MINE OPERATIONS

CHAPTER 2. MINE-WARFARE PRINCIPLES

MINE-WARFARE CONCEPTS

TYPES OF MINEFIELDS

Protective Minefields

Tactical Minefields

Nuisance Minefields

Phony Minefields

PROTECTIVE VERSUS TACTICAL MINEFIELDS

TACTICAL MINEFIELDS

Minefield Variables

Design

TACTICAL-OBSTACLE INTEGRATION PRINCIPLES

Obstacle Emplacement Authority

Obstacle Control

Obstacle Control Measures

Fratricide Prevention

Maneuver-Plan Support

SITING AND EMPLACING TACTICAL MINEFIELDS

Coordinating with the Maneuver Commander

Siting the Minefield

Emplacing Minefields

Determining Resource Requirements

MINEFIELD SUPPLY OPERATIONS

Resupply Nodes

Resupply Rules

Supply Location

Resupply Methods

MINEFIELD MARKING

Criteria

Perimeter

Techniques

MINEFIELD TURNOVER

MINEFIELD INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE

CHAPTER 3. SCATTERABLE MINES AND MINE DELIVERY SYSTEMS

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

Antipersonnel Mines

Antitank Mines

CAPABILITIES

Faster Response

Remote Placement

Increased Tactical Flexibility

Efficiency

Increased Lethality

LIMITATIONS

Extensive Coordination

Proliferation of Targets

Visibility

Accuracy

Orientation

LIFE CYCLE

LETHALITY AND DENSITY

Lethality and Tactical-Obstacle Effect

Density

COMMAND AND CONTROL

AUTHORITY

COORDINATION

EMPLOYMENT AND EMPLACEMENT

Area-Denial Artillery Munitions and Remote Antiarmor Mines

Gator

Flipper

Volcano

Modular Pack Mine System

MARKING

Safety Zones

Fragment Hazard Zones

Fencing

CHAPTER 4. SPECIAL-PURPOSE MISSIONS

M86 PURSUIT-DETERRENT MUNITION

M18A1 CLAYMORE

SELECTABLE LIGHTWEIGHT ATTACK MUNITION

Operating Modes

Antitamper Feature

M93 HORNET

Employment Considerations

Employment Roles

Tactical Emplacement

Recording and Marking

CHAPTER 5. CONVENTIONAL MINES

ANTITANK MINES

M15

M19

M21

ANTIPERSONNEL MINES

M14

M16

EMPLACING MINES

Mines With Prongs

Mines With Pressure Plates

Mines With Tilt Rods

Bearing Boards

Concealment

Maneuver Assistance

CHAPTER 6. ROW MINING

USE

RULES

LOGISTICS

Calculations

Task Organization

Site Layout

Mine-Laying Vehicles

Laying a Row Minefield

Immediate-Action Drill

Squad Drill

Marking, Recording, and Reporting Row Minefields

STANDARDIZED TACTICAL ROW MINEFIELDS

Disrupt and Fix

Turn

Block

HASTY PROTECTIVE ROW MINEFIELDS

Rules

Site Layout

CHAPTER 7. STANDARD-PATTERN MINEFIELDS

COMPONENTS

Mine Strips

Mine Clusters

Rules for Positioning Clusters Within a Strip

Standard-Pattern Minefield Rules

LOGISTICAL CALCULATIONS

Cluster Calculation

Platoon Organization

Mine-Emplacement Procedures

Mine Emplacement

NUISANCE MINEFIELDS

Siting

Location

Laying

Inspection and Maintenance

Handover

CHAPTER 8. REPORTING AND RECORDING

MINEFIELD/MUNITION FIELD REPORTS

Report of Intention

Report of Initiation

Report of Completion

Report of Transfer

Report of Change

Progress Reports

MINEFIELD/MUNITION FIELD RECORDS

Minefield Record

Hasty Protective Row Minefield Record

Nuisance Minefield

SCATTERABLE MINEFIELD/MUNITION FIELD REPORTING AND RECORDING

MINEFIELD/MUNITION FIELD OVERLAY SYMBOLS

PART TWO. COUNTEROPERATIONS

CHAPTER 9. COUNTERMINE OPERATIONS

DEFINITIONS

Obstacle

Reduction

Breaching

Area Clearance

Route Clearance

Mine Neutralization

Proofing

Demining

BREACHING OPERATIONS

Intelligence

Fundamentals

Organization

Mass

Synchronization

CLEARING OPERATIONS

Upgrade of Breach Lanes

Area Clearance

Demining

CHAPTER 10. MINEFIELD REDUCTION

DETECTING

Visual

Physical

Electronic

Mechanical

REPORTING

REDUCING

Explosive

Mechanical

Electronic

Manual

PROOFING

MARKING

Lane-Marking Terms

Levels of Lane Marking and Patterns

Commander's Guidance for Lane Marking

Lane-Marking Devices

Marking Requirements of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

CHAPTER 11. ROUTE AND AREA CLEARANCE

ROUTE CLEARANCE

Planning

Planning Considerations

Task Organization

Methods and Types

AREA CLEARANCE

Planning

Planning Considerations

Task Organization

Methods and Types

IMPROVISED MINE THREAT

MINE LOCATIONS

DISPOSITION OF MINES

Mine-Removal Techniques

Hand Neutralization

SAFETY

REPORTS

Situation Report

Progress Report

Mine Incident Report

PART THREE. SPECIAL MINING OPERATIONS

CHAPTER 12. MINING OPERATIONS IN SPECIAL ENVIRONMENTS

STREAMBED AND RIVER MINING

Employment

Emplacement

Recovery

Recording

Safety

URBAN-TERRAIN MINING

Antipersonnel Mines

Conventional Antitank Mines

Scatterable Mines

Deception Measures

SPECIAL ENVIRONMENTS

Cold Regions

Jungles

Deserts

CHAPTER 13. BOOBY TRAPS AND EXPEDIENT DEVICES

Section I. Setting Booby Traps

TACTICS

SITING

TYPES OF TRAPS

COMPONENTS AND PRINCIPLES

ACTUATION METHODS

METHODS OF CONNECTION

Remote

Direct

PLANNING, SETTING, AND RECORDING

Timeliness

Orders and Briefing

Rehearsal

Organization and Procedure

Reporting and Recording

Section II. Clearing Booby Traps

SITES

SAFETY

CLEARING SEQUENCE

INDICATIONS

DETECTION

COMBAT CLEARANCE

CLEARANCE IN SECURE AREAS

Policy and Planning

Control Point

Control and Size of Parties

Marking

Clearing of Open Areas

Clearing of Buildings

Exterior Reconnaissance and Entry

Search Techniques

Clearing Installations and Facilities

Clearing Obstacles

Clearing Secure Areas

CLEARANCE METHODS

IMPROVISED TRAPS

NONEXPLOSIVE TRAPS

Punji

Closing Trap

Spike Board

Venus Flytrap

Section III. Expedient Devices

AUTHORIZATION

EMPLOYMENT AND CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES

High-Explosive, Artillery-Shell Antitank Device

Platter Charge

Improvised Claymore

Grapeshot Antipersonnel Device

Barbwire Antipersonnel Device

APPENDIX A. INSTALLATION AND REMOVAL OF US MINES AND FIRING DEVICES

Section I. Antipersonnel Mines

M14

Characteristics

Installation

Removal

M16

Characteristics

Installation

Removal

Section II. Antitank Mines

M15

Characteristics

Installation Using the M624 Fuse

Removal Using the M624 Fuse

Installation Using the M603 Fuse

Removal Using the M603 Fuse

M19

Characteristics

Installation

Removal

M21

Characteristics

Installation

Removal

Section III. Firing Devices and Activators

M5 PRESSURE-RELEASE FIRING DEVICE (MOUSETRAP)

Characteristics

Installation

Removal

M142 MULTIPURPOSE FIRING DEVICE

Characteristics

Arming and Disarming

M1 AND M2 ACTIVATORS

APPENDIX B. CONTROLS AND COMPONENTS OF SPECIAL-PURPOSE MUNITIONS

M86 PURSUIT-DETERRENT MUNITION

SELECTABLE LIGHTWEIGHT ATTACK MUNITION

M93 HORNET

APPENDIX C. THREAT MINE/COUNTERMINE OPERATIONS

MINE OPERATIONS

CHEMICAL MINES

COUNTERMINE OPERATIONS

Organization

Equipment

APPENDIX D. AIR VOLCANO

COMPONENTS

M87-Series Mine Canister

M139 Dispenser

LIMITATIONS

EMPLOYMENT

Deep Operations

Close Operations

Rear Operations

Minefield Effects

Planning

EMPLACEMENT

Outside Friendly Territory

Within Friendly Territory

REPORTING

Scatterable Minefield Warning

Scatterable Minefield Report and Record

APPENDIX E. SAFETY AND TRAINING

STORAGE

LIVE-MINE TRAINING

LIVE-MINE DEMONSTRATIONS

M16 Antipersonnel Mine

M18A1 Antipersonnel Munition

M15, M19, and M21 Antitank Mines

RISK ASSESSMENT FOR LIVE-MINE DEMONSTRATIONS

RISK ASSESSMENT FOR LIVE-MINE TRAINING

APPENDIX F. MINE AWARENESS

SOLDIER

Visual Indicators

Probing

AN/PSS-12 Metallic Mine Detector

Evacuation Drills

LEADER

Risk Management

Recording and Mine-Data Tracking

Mine-Incident Report

TRAINING

Individual Training

Leader Training

Unit Training

APPENDIX G. COUNTERMINE DATA

BREACHING ASSETS VERSUS THREAT OBSTACLES

FOREIGN MINE DATA

FOREIGN MINEFIELD EMPLACEMENT DATA

FOREIGN MINE DELIVERY SYSTEMS

APPENDIX H. METRIC CONVERSION CHART

GLOSSARY

REFERENCES

AUTHENTICATION PAGE


DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

*This publication supersedes FM 20-32, 30 September 1992.

 



NEWSLETTER
Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list