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Anniston Army Depot
Anniston, Alabama

Anniston Army Depot (ANAD), though it's best known for housing chemical weapons, has the primary mission of repairing all tracked vehicles for the army with the exception of the Bradley. It is the only place the M1 Abrams tank and other tracked vehicles are repaired.

Nestled in the Appalachian foothills, Anniston Army Depot (ANAD) is the only depot capable of performing maintenance on heavy-tracked combat vehicles and their components. ANAD also performs maintenance on individual and crew-served weapons as well as land combat missiles. Additionally, the maintenance and storage of conventional ammunition and missiles as well as the storage of chemical munitions are significant parts of the overall mission and capabilities.

The combined total inventory of the depot and the Defense Distribution Depot, Anniston (DLA) amounts to over $7.6 billion and includes the shipping and receiving of over 400,000 tons of supplies, equipment, and ammunition and the production of over 500 combat vehicles annually. Covering over 25 square miles, the depot has more than 15,000 acres of woodland as well as 40 acres of lakes and streams; 2,100 buildings and structures; 266 miles of roads; 87 miles of fencing; and 46 miles of railroad tracks. The combined total number of employees for the depot, tenant activities and contractor is about 3,500 civilians and 6 military. Major tenants at Anniston Army Depot include the Defense Logistics Agency; Test Measurement Diagnostic Equipment; Health Services Command; Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office; Department of Army Center of Military History; and Soldier and Chemical Biological Command.

Anniston Army Depot, located in Anniston, Alabama, is a subordinate of the U.S. Army Tank-automotive and Armaments Command. Anniston Army Depot performs depot level maintenance for combat tanks, tracked combat vehicles, small arms weapons, mortars, recoilless rifles, and optical and electronic fire control systems. Anniston Army Depot also provides ammunition storage, renovation, modification and disposal.

Anniston Army Depot is the only depot designated to perform depot level maintenance on heavy-tracked combat vehicles and their components. The Depot is designated as the Center of Technical Excellence for the M1 Abrams Tank, and is the designated candidate Depot for the repair of the M60, AVLB, M728, M88, and M551 combat vehicles.

Additionally, the maintenance and storage of conventional ammunition and missiles, as well as the storage of chemical munitions, are significant parts of the Depot's overall mission and capabilities. The Depot's mission consists of the receipt, maintenance, storage, and shipment of all types of conventional ammunition ranging from 22 caliber bullets to large 2,000 pound bombs. This mission supports the Industrial Operations Command and the Aviation and Missile Command, as well as a wide range of U.S. Navy and Air Force missions.

In March 1940, the War Department began planning construction of an Army Ordnance Depot in northeast Alabama. Construction began in February 1941 on the first 500 ammunition storage igloos, along with six standard magazines, 20 warehouses, and several administrative buildings. From an initial workforce of four in September 1941, the Depot employed 4,339 personnel by November 1942. The land area expanded from 10,400 acres to 15,000.

In 1952, the Depot was assigned a maintenance mission for the overhaul and repair of combat vehicles. This mission continued to expand until it covered the repair, overhaul, and modification of anti-aircraft and mobile artillery, fire control material, and the many and varied aspects of the tank rebuild program. By the mid-1950s, the missions were rapidly changing as the Army upgraded its older weaponry and developed new weapon systems. With the advent of the 1960s, the Depot was involved with the M47, M48, M48A1, and M48A2C tank programs. Reconditioning programs also included the M48A1, M56, M59, M42, M19, M47, and M48A1-D vehicles. The maintenance and storage of chemical munitions began in 1963, and will continue until all of the munitions are disposed of in accordance with the Chemical Weapons Convention.

Overhaul of the M551 Sheridan tank commenced in the early 1970s. In 1975, the Depot was selected to overhaul and convert the M48A1 to the M48A5 model. In 1979, the Depot started the M60A1 to M60A3 conversion program. As the decade of the 1980s began, missile maintenance was an added mission, as was the M1 Abrams tank, the newest addition to the Army inventory. In August 1992, Anniston Army Depot's General Supply Mission was assumed by the Defense Distribution Depot, Anniston, which became a major tenant organization on the Depot. This mission consists of the storage and worldwide distribution of combat vehicles, small arms, and associated spare parts and sub-assemblies; and the receipt, storage, and shipment of both serviceable and unserviceable commodities within the Army. On average, the Defense Distribution Depot, Anniston supply operation receives more than 107,000 line items and ships over 180,000 line items annually ranging from the largest of tanks, the M1 Abrams, to the smallest of calibrated parts.

Supply storage capacity is approximately 3.1 million gross square feet of covered space, and 1.8 million square feet of open storage. The combined total inventory of the Depot and Defense Distribution Depot, Anniston amounts to more than $7.6 billion and includes the shipping and receiving of over 400,000 tons of supplies, equipment, and ammunition, and the production of more than 600 combat vehicles annually.

In mid-April 1995, the Depot's Directorate of Chemical Operations was provisionally redesignated as the Anniston Chemical Activity under the U.S. Army Chemical, Biological Defense Command. The official transfer was effective October 1, 1995. Anniston Chemical Activity is a major tenant organization at Anniston Army Depot. The Depot stores 7.2% of the nation's chemical weapons stockpile, all scheduled to be destroyed by 2004. A new 31,000 square foot download/reconfiguration facility became operational in July 1995.

Covering more than 25 square miles, Anniston Army Depot has more than 15,000 acres of woodland, as well as 40 acres of lakes and streams. Additionally, there are more than 2,100 buildings and structures, and 266 miles of roads and streets, 87 miles of fencing, and 46 miles of railroad track. The Depot covers 15,279 acres, having 8.5 million square feet of floor space; storage capacity is 2.3 million gross square feet of covered storage and 600,000 square feet of open storage.

BRAC 2005

Secretary of Defense Recommendations: In its 2005 BRAC Recommendations, DoD recommended that the Red River Depot be closed. As a result, DoD recommedned relocating Red River's depot maintenance of Armament and Structural Components, Combat Vehicles, Depot Fleet/Field Support, Engines and Transmissions, Fabrication and Manufacturing, Fire Control Systems and Components, and Other to Anniston Army Depot. Red River's depot maintenance of Construction Equipment was relocated to both Anniston Army Depot and the Marine Corps Logistics Base Albany, GA. This recommendation would reinforce Anniston's role as a Center of Industrial and Technical Excellence for Combat Vehicles.

Another recommendaton was to consolidate depot maintenance of Engines/Transmissions, Other Components, and Small Arms/Personal Weapons, formerly at Marine Corps Logistics Base Barstow, CA, at Anniston. This recommendation would follow the strategy of minimizing sites using maximum capacity of 1.5 shifts while maintaining a west coast depot maintenance presence at Marine Corps Logistics Base Barstow to provide west coast operating forces with a close, responsive source for depot maintenance support. As a result of this recommendatino, Anniston would be in Attainment. There would be impacts anticipated for threatened and endangered species or critical habitat.

In another recommendation, DoD recommended to realign Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach, CA, by relocating the depot maintenance of Other Components to Anniston Army Depot. This recommendation would support depot maintenance function elimination at Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach and would follow the strategy of minimizing sites using maximum capacity at 1.5 shifts. Environmentally, Anniston AD might require additional mitigation and pollution prevention measures with increased depot maintenance activities. Anniston might also require upgrades to its industrial wastewater treatment plant due to increased depot maintenance activities. This recommendation would have the potential to impact threatened and endangered species or critical habitat at Anniston AD.

In another recommendation, DoD would realign Rock Island Arsenal, IL, by relocating the depot maintenance of Combat Vehicles and Other to Anniston Army Depot, AL. This recommendation would support minimizing the number of depot maintenance sites through the consolidation of Rock Island's remaining Combat Vehicle workload and capacity at Anniston Army Depot, the Army's Center for Industrial and Technical Excellence for Combat Vehicles. This recommendation would also facilitate future interservice utilization of DoD depot maintenance capacity. Environmentally, additional operations might impact TES, candidate species, and/or critical habitats at Anniston, possibly leading to restrictions on operations. Increased depot maintenance activities at Anniston might require mitigation and pollution prevention measures to protect the aquifer and upgrades to the industrial wastewater treatment plant.

Secretary of Defense Justifications: DoD would realign Anniston Army Depot, AL, by disestablishing storage and distribution functions for tires, packaged petroleum, oils, and lubricants, and compressed gases. This recommendation would achieve economies and efficiencies that would enhance the effectiveness of logistics support to forces as they transition to more joint and expeditionary operations. This recommendation would disestablish the wholesale supply, storage, and distribution functions for all tires; packaged petroleum, oils and lubricants; and compressed gases used by the Department of Defense, retaining only the supply contracting function for each commodity. The Department would privatize these functions and would rely on private industry for the performance of supply, storage, and distribution of these commodities. By doing so, the Department could divest itself of inventories and eliminate infrastructure and personnel associated with these functions. This recommendation would result in more responsive supply support to user organizations and would thus add to capabilities of the future force. The recommendation would provide improved support during mobilization and deployment, and the sustainment of forces when deployed worldwide. Privatization would enable the Department to take advantage of the latest technologies, expertise, and business practices, which translates to improved support to customers at less cost. It centralizes management of tires; packaged petroleum, oils, and lubricants; and compressed gases and eliminates unnecessary duplication of functions within the Department. Assuming no economic recovery, this recommendation could result in the maximum potential job reductions of 2 total jobs (1 direct and 1 indirect) in the Anniston-Oxford, AL, Metropolitan Statistical Area over the 2006-2011 time period (less than 0.1 percent).

The recommendation regarding the consolidation of depot maintenance of Engines/Transmissions, Other Components, and Small Arms/Personal Weapons, formerly at Marine Corps Logistics Base Barstow, CA, at Anniston, follows the strategy of minimizing sites using maximum capacity of 1.5 shifts while maintaining a West Coast depot maintenance presence at Marine Corps Logistics Base Barstow to provide West Coast operating forces with a close, responsive source for depot maintenance support. Required capacity to support workloads and core requirements for the DoD is relocated to other DoD Centers of Industrial and Technical Excellence, thereby increasing the military value of depot maintenance performed at these sites. This recommendation decreases the cost of depot maintenance operations across DoD through consolidation and elimination of 30 percent of duplicate overhead structures required to operate multiple depot maintenance activities. This recommendation supports transformation of DoD's depot maintenance operations by increasing the utilization of existing capacity by up to 150 percent while maintaining capability to support future force structure. This recommendation also results in utilization of DoD capacity to facilitate performance of interservice workload. In addition, based on present and future wartime surge projections, Marine Corps Logistics Center Barstow will establish an additional 428,000 hours of amphibious vehicle capacity.

This recommendation, along with other recommendations affecting supply and storage functions, optimizes the depot maintenance operations at Marine Corps Logistics Base Barstow.

Community Concerns: There were no formal expressions from the community of Anniston Army Depot.

Commission Findings: The Commission agreed with the Secretary of Defense that the proposed realignment of Marine Corps Logistics Base Barstow, CA will decrease the cost of depot maintenance operations across DoD while increasing the military value to the Warfighter. The community's contentions that cycle times would be degraded, and the quality of work would suffer, were not supported by the Commission's review and analysis. The realignment recommendation will leave in place sufficient depot surge capacity while generating cost savings.

Commission Recommendations: The Commission found the Secretary's recommendation consistent with the final selection criteria and the Force Structure Plan. Therefore, the Commission approves the recommendation of the Secretary for consolidation from Marine Crops Logistics Base Barstow to Anniston Army Depot



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