All Source Analysis System [ASAS]
The All-Source Analysis System is an Army program to automate the processing and analysis of intelligence data from all sources. ASAS is a tactically deployable, ruggedized, and automated information system. It is a tactically deployable Automated Data Processing (ADP) system designed to support management of IEW operations and target development in battalions, brigades, armored cavalry regiments (ACR), separate brigades, divisions, corps, and echelons above corps (EAC).
The ASAS is a "linchpin" system in forming a seamless intelligence architecture between and across echelons. The architecture can be broken down into three major groups: sensors, processors, and communications systems. The systems within each group support simultaneous demands for intelligence and targeting information at multiple echelons. They form a seamless intelligence system that supports commanders from tactical through strategic levels anywhere across the range of military operations.
The ASAS is an evolutionary system. Its development and fielding support the near-term needs of units, exploit emerging technology, and comply with the standards of the Army Battle Command System (ABCS). The Army is developing the system in several stages, or blocks. Block I is currently being fielded, Block II, a follow-on effort, is being developed over a 6-year period beginning in early fiscal year 1994, with limited fielding begining in fiscal year 1996, while block III is to begin about 1998 and be fielded after the year 2000. The Army pegs the cost to develop, procure, and operate the system over its 20-year life cycle at about $5 billion.
ASAS Block I
The ASAS Block I, the initial system, provides ASAS capability to corps and divisions. The ASAS block I was developed starting in 1984 and provides initial, limited interim capabilities. The Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) was the block I prime contractor and was responsible for systems integration of the various block I hardware and software components. The system is housed in trucks and truck-mounted shelters, and includes towed electrical generators. The Army spent $1.4 billion on block I, most of which was for research and development. Block I procurement was $345 million for 11 sets to be fielded at corps and divisions, plus 1 set for training. The ASAS system receives battlefield information and intelligence reports through the Communications Control System (CCS), store the information in the Data Processing System (DPS-D) and fuses information in the All source Correlated Data Base (ASCDB). This fused intelligence is produced quicker than the old manual systems.
The ASAS-All Source [ASAS-AS] Workstation is a component of the ASAS Block I which provides a suite of six AS workstations to the Army Division and Corps Analysis and Control Elements (ACE). The ASAS-AS receives Sensitive Compartmented Information level multi-disciplined information and processes it into intelligence products. The AS also assists analysts with Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB), maintenance of the enemy situation, and targeting.
The ASAS-Single Source (ASAS-SS) Workstation provides a suite of six SS workstations to the Army Division and Corps Analysis and Control Elements (ACE). ASAS-SS receives Sensitive Compartmented Information level Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) information and processes it into multi-discipline intelligence products. ASAS-SS receives Tacrep and Tacelint of reports directly from Joint battlefield and theater Communications Intelligence (COMINT) and Electronics Intelligence (ELINT) sensors. The Single Source workstation may be task organized to provide additional workstations and analysts to Imagery Intelligence (IMINT) and SIGINT. The JDISS tool set has been integrated into ASAS-SS. This tool set includes (Email, chatter, word processing, FTP, and imagery).
The Single Source Processor - SIGINT (Product Improvement) SSP-S PI provides Theater commanders with a high capacity interactive SIGINT processing system, in lightweight transit cases, capable of rapid contingency deployments. The SSP-S interfaces with National, other Theater, and Corps intelligence systems via record traffic and file transfer data circuits and accommodates rapid exchange and processing of large volumes of SIGINT data.
Remote Workstation (RWS) supports collateral intelligence processing at other maneuver units below division level. The system is networked to the G2 TOC and housed in the Lightweight, Multi-purpose Shelter (LMS). ASAS-RWS provides the G2 (S2) with the means to integrate IEW into the ABCS. These workstations provide the G2 (S2) and the ACE the ability to efficiently and effectively process high volumes of perishable combat information and multidiscipline intelligence. This ability in turn supports timely, relevant, accurate, and predictive reporting and dissemination of a common threat picture to other battlefield functional areas.
ASAS-Collateral Workstation is a software package that provides a collateral intelligence processing capability to the G2s of Army divisions and corps. Doctrinally, each unit employees two workstations in the main Tactical Operations Center. It is the Intelligence and Electronic Warfare component of the Army Tactical Command and Control System (ATCCS) and rpovides the interface between ATCCS and the Analysis and Control Element (ACE). Principle functionality of the ASAS-CWS are Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield, current enemy and friendly situation, imagery, maps and graphics, and analyst tools.
In initial testing, the Block I configuration did not have the performance, reliability, availability, and deployability needed to support the Army's operations.
In 1991, elements of the original block I were merged with a development project called Hawkeye, sponsored by the Army Intelligence School. The Intelligence School initiated the Hawkeye effort because it was dissatisfied with the large, cumbersome equipment being developed for block I.
US Army Europe (USAREUR) continued to develop Hawkeye and deploy additional intelligence data processing capabilities in a system called Warrior, which cost about another $15 million. Warrior development continued in a new effort called Warlord, which was initially deployed in March 1994. The Army continued development of Warlord as a rapid prototyping program by agreement among USAREUR, the Army Intelligence School, and the Army program acquisition executive office for ASAS. The ASAS program manager objected to Warlord because it does not have all the automatic features of the JPL equipment in block I. However, Warlord development products will be retrofitted into block I, provided Warrior/Warlord capabilities to units not receiving block I, and integrated into the concurrent ASAS block II development as appropriate.
ASAS Block II
ASAS Block II will have greatly improved software that meets baseline system requirements. The ASAS block II development contract was awarded on October 29, 1993. As ABCS Common Hardware and Software (CHS) II become available, ASAS Block II will replace Block I. The ASAS Block II system provides additional software functionality required by the Army Battle Command Systems/Army Tactical Command and Control System (ABCS/ATCCS). Block II consists of three subsystems: the Analysis and Control Element (ACE); G2 Tactical Operations Center (G2-TOC); and the Remote Workstation (RWS).
Analysis and Control Element performance is improved through automatic sanitation and automatic collateral message release. Substantial improvements in communications include four additional channels as well as satellite communications. Deployability is enhanced by making the system smaller. Ipecific improvements to intelligence processing include secondary imagery dissemination with receipt, display, and storage capabilities.
G2 Tactical Operations Center (G2-TOC) applications provide the interactive tools and automated processes to analyze the mission and provide enemy situation and Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield products.
Remote Workstation (RWS) supports collateral intelligence processing at other maneuver units below division level. The WARRIOR workstation developed initially for US Army, Europe (USAREUR) is an example of ASAS prototyping efforts that have supported forces in the field and contributed to improvements to the ASAS-RWS. The RWS will replace the ASAS Warlord platforms wherever such platforms exist.
The ASAS-Single Source (ASAS-SS) Workstation workstation may be task organized to provide additional workstations and analysts to Counterintelligence and Human Intelligence (CI/HUMINT) under ASAS Block II.
The ASAS Block II development program will build upon and expand the capabilities and functionalities developed and produced in the ASAS Block I System including conversion to the Army Tactical Command and Control System (ATCCS) Common Hardware/Software Open architecture and the OSD directed Common Operating Environment (COE) and Modernized Integrated Database (MIDB). Additional software capabilities include enhanced intelligence and command and control functionality, jump and degraded mode operations, enhanced communications, and improved reliability and supportability. ASAS Block II strategy maximizes the use of Government Furnished Equipment (GFE), government and commercial Non-Developmental Item (NDI) software, reuse of proven Office of Secretary of Defense (OSD) and ATCCS Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (C3I) software, multiple prototype deliveries and continuous user test and evaluation opportunities.
ASAS Block III
The objective system, ASAS Block III, will expand upon Block II capabilities for operational, environmental, and performance requirements. In addition to these programmed materiel acquisition versions of ASAS, technology insertion and prototyping efforts will incrementally enhance ASAS and support the rapid distribution of ASAS capabilities to units in the field.
The ASAS-Extended [ASAS-E] is a software package that provides ASAS Block I (ASAS-AS, ASAS-SS, and ASAS-RWS) and Block II intelligence processing capabilities on non-standard hardware to selected Active and Reserve units not scheduled to receive Block I. In March 1994, the Army was directed to accelerate fielding the ASAS capability across the force (including all Military Intelligence reserve units and National Guard brigades) by FY99. This ASAS-Extended program accomplishes this through reuse of proven Block I software, leveraging the traditional acquisition successes of Block I, use of relatively low cost NDI equipment, and tailoring the existing training and maintenance support structure.
In addition to these programmed materiel acquisition versions of ASAS, technology insertion and prototyping efforts will incrementally enhance ASAS and support the rapid distribution of ASAS capabilities to units in the field. The ASAS is upgraded as new technology becomes available. An example of technology insertion is the use of the commercial Alpha Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC) processor. The Alpha RISC operates 30 times faster than the initially fielded processor in the Block I ASAS-ASW. It eliminates the need for the two AN/TYQ-36(V) 3 Data Processing Sets (DPSs) in the ASAS Block I. Some units equipped with ASAS Block I will be upgraded with the Alpha RISC processor. The Alpha RISC processor is also used in the ASAS-Extended provided to selected units not receiving the ASAS Block I hardware.
The current Block II development is structured so that the interim capability is attained through a series of stand-alone products that can be tested and fielded when they are ready. The ASAS Remote Workstation (RWS) began fielding after completing its operational test in March 1999. An upgrade to the Communications Control Set obtained a conditional material release in June 1999 following a series of developmental tests. The Analysis and Control Team Enclave, a shelter for the team at brigade, successfully completed testing and started fielding in September 2000. The ASAS Light, a downsized laptop version of the ASAS RWS at battalion, obtained a conditional material release and began fielding in FY01. The Army has decided to replace the ASAS RWS with the ASAS Light configuration. The ASAS requirements are migrating to the Distributed Common Ground Station- Army program and ASAS development ends with Block II.
The Analysis and Control Element, the final part of ASAS to undergo testing in Block II, completed contractor and software beta-version developmental testing in August 2003. Continued testing of the beta-version software occurs in November 2003. Security and information assurance testing occurs in conjunction with the November 2003 testing.
The Army consolidated the Limited User Test for the ASAS RWS into the same test event as the Maneuver Control System; the Force XXI Battle Command, Brigade and Below; and the Integrated Systems Control Version 4 IOT&Es. The deployment of the test unit in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom has postponed the test. The Army developed an alternative test and evaluation strategy for ASAS RWS software. However, the Army's decision to use the ASAS Light configuration in place of the ASAS RWS terminals preempted execution of this strategy.
The Army upgraded ASAS Light software to Version 6 and fielded it as a field maintenance upgrade. A new version of the ASAS Communications Control Set completed security certification testing and a supportability review in April 2003.
The ASAS RWS risk assessment identified four accomplishments to be completed to support fielding of the Version 6 software to non- Army Battle Command System units as an upgrade to Version 4: developmental testing, an operational assessment, intra-Army interoperability certification (IAIC), and joint interoperability certification. The ASAS RWS has accomplished only the developmental test to date. IAIC testing conducted in August 2003 identified a problem sending messages to the Maneuver Control System. A fix has been developed and once successful regression testing is accomplished, the IAIC will be released. The Army's switch from the ASAS RWS to the ASAS Light platform deleted the requirement for an operational assessment of the RWS. However, the plan to use the ASAS Light as a replacement for the RWS in the Analysis and Control Team and the Analysis and Control Element will require developmental and operational test and evaluation of the changes in both software and employment. The joint interoperability certification remains an open issue with sufficient testing unlikely until the Block II IOT&E.
According to the DOT&E, the ASAS is experiencing difficulties obtaining a test unit. The operational tempo and deployments have limited the availability of forces to support Army operational tests. The Army and OSD continue to seek acceptable venues to accomplish required operational testing; however, continued delays will adversely affect program schedules and fielding plans. For programs like ASAS, which are included in the digital Army Battle Command System family, the deployment of the 4th Infantry Division has created an untenable situation in terms of completing required testing. Currently, the 4th Infantry Division is the only unit capable of supporting an adequate operational test of this digital information sharing architecture.
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