Zarya (14F70) "Super Soyuz"
Zarya [Dawn] is a reusable multipurpose spacecraft developed by RSC Energia in 1986-1989, the production of which was never started due to a reduction in the funding of space programs.
Since the beginning of 1985, RSC Energia conducted studies to replace the Soyuz with the multi-seat Zorya spaceship (14F70). The device consisted of a reusable ship and the disposable hinged compartment that was dropped before leaving orbit. "Dawn" had a diameter of 4.1 m. length 5m. mass about 15t in the introduction into the reference orbit of up to 190 km kilometers. The mass of goods delivered and returned, respectively 2,5t. and 1.5-2 tons. with a crew of two cosmonauts; 3 t and 2-2.5 t when flying without crew, or a crew of eight people. The device could be used for 30-50 flights. Reusability was achieved due to the application of "Buranovskiy" heat- protective materials and a new scheme of vertical landing on Earth with the help of a multi- one-time liquid rocket engines for damping vertical and horizontal landing speeds and soto- shock absorber of the hull of the ship to exclude its damage.
The overall layout of the ship is similar to the ships of the Soyuz series. The main difference from existing spacecraft can be called a vertical method of landing using jet engines operating on kerosene as fuel and hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant (this combination was chosen in connection with the low toxicity of components and combustion products). A total of 24 landing engines were placed along the circumference of the module, the nozzles were directed at an angle to the side wall of the ship. The installation of the "Dawn" consisted of 24 LRE engines with a thrust of 1.5 tons. each working on peroxide hydrogen and kerosene, and 16 single-component LPRE with a thrust of 62 kg. each for descent.
At the initial part of the descent, braking was planned to be carried out by aerodynamic braking to a speed of about 50-100 m / s, then the landing engines were switched on, the rest of the speed was planned to be extinguished due to deformable shock absorbers of the ship and crew seats. The launch into orbit was planned to be carried out with the help of the upgraded Zenit launch vehicle.
The ship's diameter should be 4.1 m, the length of 5 m. The starting mass of the ship is 15 tons, the mass of the cargo delivered to orbit is 3 tons or the crew of 8 people, the weight of the cargo returned to the earth is 2.5 tons. The flight duration together with the orbital station 195 -270 days.
Works on the ship "Dawn" were started in accordance with the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR of January 27, 1985. The draft project was submitted and approved at a meeting of the Military Industrial Commission ( MIC ) on December 22, 1986 and completed in the first quarter of 1987. Work on the program was discontinued in January 1989 due to lack of funding. At this point, the main design documentation was completed.
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