Free Flyer Spacecraft
During the early years of the ISS development there was an intense rivalry from the US aerospace industry and the rebuilding Russian space industry over the development of a “Free Flyer” spacecraft for material experimentation, bioastronautics experimentation in pharmaceutical and Astronomical observations similar to what NASA’s, Hubble does. They are now considering a strictly unmanned free flyer spacecraft called Vozvrat.
Also within the Russian Federations approved FSP 2006-2015 program was another “Free Flyer spacecraft called Vozvrat-MKA that was designed to fly independently for one year before being returned to Earth. It offered a somewhat better environment for some zero-gravity experiments than OKA-T offers. It is not designed to dock with ISS or to be serviced in flight.
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