Central Scientific Research Institute for Machine Building4 Pionyerskaya Street Kaliningrad 141070 Moscow Region Russia
One of the leading units of the Institute - the Flight Control Center (MCC) - provides command and software for the flight of the Russian segment of the International Space Station, the Soyuz and Progress vehicles, space vehicles for scientific and socio-economic purposes. The Institute is the main analytical center of Roskosmos in the field of system-wide studies of the problems of the development of Russia's RKT with a wide range of tasks: from conceptual design and long-term prospects for the development of rocket and space technology to specific technological developments and their conversion in the interests of other industries. Specialists of the Center for Heat Exchange and Aerogasdynamics and the Center for Strength carry out applied research and research work to provide ground-based experimental testing of rocket and space technology.
The Informational and Analytical Center for Coordinate-Time and Navigation Support (IAC KVNO) conducts system studies for Roscosmos formation of GLONASS and KVO development strategies in general, implements scientific and methodological and information support of the Federal Target Program "Global Navigation System", provides information to consumers of global navigation satellite systems. The institute is working on the creation and improvement of industry quality systems, reliability and safety, standardization of RKT, as well as the Federal system of certification of space technology.
TsNIIMash actively develops international scientific and technical cooperation in the field of space activities. The Institute participates in the majority of international projects with the participation of CNIIIMash on a regular basis, carrying out joint work with scientific organizations, scientists and specialists from the USA, Great Britain, France, Germany, China, Japan and other countries.
The Institute was established in accordance with the resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 1017-419 of May 13, 1946, on the deployment of works on reactive weapons in the country. This decision actually initiated the creation of a domestic missile industry. Work on liquid rocket technology was entrusted to the Ministry of Armaments of the USSR, in which, as the main research and production center for the development of long-range missiles (RDD), anti-aircraft guided missiles (SAM), cruise missiles, as well as LPRE in Kaliningrad (1996 - Korolev) of the Moscow Region, the State Scientific Research Institute for Reactive Weapons (NII-88) was established on the basis of the artillery plant No. 88, renamed in 1967 the Central Research Institute of Mechanical Engineering.
In the early 1950s the institute was released from the work on ZUR, and then on the winged RDD. By that time, significant work was being done on ballistic RDDs, led by Chief Designer SP Korolyov since 1946, and NII-88 became the head in this direction. The first successes of practical cosmonautics showed the richest possibilities of using missile technology not only in defense, but also in peaceful scientific research and economic purposes. Therefore, in the missile industry, rocket and space technology (RKT) was rapidly developed. In it, the institute continued to play a leading role: first in the Ministry of Defense Industry, then in the USSR State Committee for Defense Technology, since 1965 - in the Ministry of General Mechanical Engineering of the USSR, since 1992 in the Russian Space Agency, since 1999.
In May 1948, the design office of the Institute included the design bureau of A. Isayeva. In April 1953 the flight-design tests of the first domestic strategic missile R-5 were carried out. The R-5M missile, which could carry a nuclear charge up to a distance of 1200 km, was adopted in 1956.
In different years the institute was headed by LR Gonor, KN Rudnev, MK Yangel, AS Spiridonov, GA Tyulin, YA Mozhororin, VF Utkin, N. A.Anfimov, G.G.Raykunov, N.G. Panichkin, A.Milkovsky. From 21.07.2015 acting general director, and from 18.12.2015 the general director was Oleg A. Gorshkov.
In May 1954, the government issued a decree on the creation of an intercontinental ballistic missile R-7. Design and development work was carried out by OKB-1 SRI-88 under the direction of SPKorolev. Studies in the field of aerogasdynamics, heat transfer and structural strength, as well as experimental testing of the product, were carried out by the scientific divisions of the Institute. On April 20, 1956, it was awarded the Order of Lenin for the creation of the first RDD NII-88.
In January 1956, the USSR Council of Ministers issued a decree on the creation of an artificial satellite and its launch using a medium developed on the basis of an intercontinental ballistic missile R-7. In accordance with the decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR in 1960, a computing center is being set up at NII-88 for the design work on the institute's subjects.
August 13, 1956 issued a decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on the allocation of SRI-88 as an independent organization OKB-1 SP Korolyov together with the plant number 88 (since 1994 RSC Energia named after SP Korolev), as well as NII-229 (since 2008 the Federal State Enterprise "Research and Test Center of the Rocket and Space Industry" of the Research Center of the RCP). Subsequently , several other organizations were separated from NII-88.
The governmental decree of June 23, 1960, "On the Creation of Powerful Launch Vehicles, Satellites and Spacecraft, and the Exploration of Outer Space in 1960-1967," assigns the functions of the main center of the branch for comprehensive scientific research and experimental development of RKT at NII-88.
After the end of the "dispute of the century" the authority of TsNIIMash grew noticeably: it turned out that he not only has his own technical position, but also is able to defend it in disputes with the powers that be. But since the institute in the "dispute of the century" was in opposition to the leadership of the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Defense, it did not bring well-deserved laurels and did not rain the favors of the closest superiors.
In accordance with the governmental decree of February 16, 1976 #132-51 TSNIIMash becomes the main executor of the work on the study of strength, aerodynamic processes, heat exchange of reusable space systems and gasdynamics of launch, participates in the preparation of the Mission Control Center for work with reusable space systems. For participation in the successful implementation of the Soviet-American project "Union-Apollo" on January 15, 1976, the Central Research Institute of Machine Building was awarded the Order of the October Revolution.
TSNIIMASH, the largest research and testing center in the country, is involved in all domestic developments in the field of RKT, participates in most international (with the participation of Russia) space programs and projects.
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