II. THE SOYUZ PROGRAM
Soviet Manned Space Programs: 1957-80
MANNED MISSIONS TO SALYUT 6: 1977-80
SOYUZ 28: FIRST "INTERKOSMONAUT" FROM CZECHOSLOVAKIA
The first non-Soviet, non-American cosmonaut was launched into space as part of the Soyuz 28 (Zenit) crew on March 2, 1978, at 1528 GMT. Vladimir Remek of Czechoslovakia and Aleksey Gubarev docked with Salyut 6 and the Soyuz 26/27 crew at 1710 GMT on March 3 at the aft end of the station.
The Soviets reported that in preparation for the mission, Remek (who was single) lived with Gubarev and his family for 1 year. Remek, the son of a deputy defense minister in Czechoslovakia was 29 at the time, only slightly older than Gubarev's son; Gubarev himself was almost 47.
The two crews conducted several joint experiments including the Morava materials processing experiment using the Splav furnace to develop new electrooptical materials; a chlorella experiment; a test using an Oxymeter device for studying the oxygen regimen in weightless tissues; and the Extinctia experiment for studying the brightness of stars when they set behind the Earth's horizon.
The crew landed on March 10, 310 km west of Tselinograd after an 8 day (190 hours 17 minutes) mission. The Soviets did not announce a landing time, but it must have been 1444 GMT based on other data they have published.
A. SOVIET SPACE PROGRAMS: 1976-80, (WITH SUPPLEMENTARY DATA THROUGH 1983) MANNED SPACE PROGRAMS AND SPACE LIFE SCIENCES PREPARED AT THE REQUEST OF HON. BOB PACKWOOD, Chairman, COMMITTEE ON COMMERCE, SCIENCE, AND TRANSPORTATION UNITED STATES SENATE, Part 2, OCTOBER 1984, Printed for the use of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, WASHINGTON, D. C., 1984