Soyuz Follow on Flight Test & Manned Missions
PROGRAM DETAILS OF MAN-RELATED FLIGHTS
SOYUZ 22: THE MKF-6 MULTISPECTRAL CAMERA
Revised ASTP back up spacecraft used for Soyuz-22
The most recent free-flying Soyuz mission was Soyuz 22 (Yastreb), launched at 1248 Moscow Time on September 15, 1976 (see figure 25). Since that time, all Soyuz flights have been made in connection with space stations, and are discussed later.
• CAMERA MODULE 250 KG
• ORBITAL MODULE 900 KG
• DESCENT MODULE 2750 KG
• INSTRUMENT MODULE 2600 KG
MKF-6 MULTI-SPECTRAL CAMERA -J
• MANUFACTURED BY KARL ZEISS JENA, EAST GERMANY
• 204 KG CAMERA COMPLEX
• 6 CASSETTES OF FILM, ONE FOR EACH SPECTRAL BAND
8400 - INFRARED 6000 - ORANGE
7200 - INFRARED 5400 - GREEN
6600 - RED 4800 - BLUE
• 70 MM FILM - USING 70x91 MM (50 x 80 MM EXPOSED) FORMAT PER FRAMI
• 2400 PHOTO PAIRS - 115 x 165 KM AREAS WITH 20-30 M RESOLUTION
The mission was commanded by Col. Valeriy Bykovskiy and Vladimir Aksenov served as flight engineer. The mission was primarily concerned with testing an East German multispectral camera (MKF-6) for Earth resources photography. It was the first time foreign-made equipment was flown on a Soviet spacecraft, perhaps explaining why it was done on a free-flying mission. Tests with the camera were very successful and a slightly modified model was flown on Salyut 6. The camera simultaneously took photographs in six bands (four visible, two infrared). Each picture covered an area 80x55 km. Resolution is thought to have been as good as 10 meters, but the Soviets have not released information on this aspect of the instrument. During the mission, ground and aerial photography was taken at the same time for comparison purposes. The flight engineer took the pictures while the commander oriented the ship. The experimental program was called "Raduga" (the Russian word for rainbow).
Other experiments conducted on Soyuz 22 included work using seeds and fish in the "Biokat" experiment. Many of the biological investigations had begun on ASTP, and the spacecraft itself was the backup for that mission. The docking mechanism was removed and the camera installed in its place. (16)
The Soviets wanted to fly over East Germany, since MKF-6 was an East German experiment, so the inclination of the orbit initially was 64.75 degrees, the only time such an inclination was used for Soyuz. After two firings on the fourth revolution, the spacecraft was in a 280x250 km orbit inclined at 65 degrees. Some observers noted that the timing of the mission also permitted the Soviets to study NATO maneuvers taking place in Sweden at that time.(17) The ship landed at 0742 GMT on September 23, 150 km northwest of Tselinograd.
References:A. SOVIET SPACE PROGRAMS: 1976-80, (WITH SUPPLEMENTARY DATA THROUGH 1983) MANNED SPACE PROGRAMS AND SPACE LIFE SCIENCES PREPARED AT THE REQUEST OF HON. BOB PACKWOOD, Chairman, COMMITTEE ON COMMERCE, SCIENCE, AND TRANSPORTATION UNITED STATES SENATE, Part 2, OCTOBER 1984, Printed for the use of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, WASHINGTON
•Ms. Smith was an analyst in science and technology. Science Policy Research Division, Congressional Research Service, The Library of Congress.
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