Sharik / Ball
One unrealized project of the KBM was a self-guided projectile "Sharik", intended for the Soyuz space complex. Sharik in Russian means a small ball. It is a common dog name in countries of the former Soviet Union and may refer to: Sharik, a fictional dog in Bulgakov's novel Heart of a Dog; Sharik, a fictional dog in Dostoevsky's The House of the Dead.
In the early 1960s, the era of rocket and space technology began. During this period, the most important strategic targets along with intercontinental ballistic missiles were artificial Earth satellites that could carry a nuclear charge or were equipped with special reconnaissance equipment for photographing important military and industrial facilities from high altitudes.
The choice of the type of weaponry for the manned spacecraft was of fundamental importance. The complexity of technical problems in creating space-to-space missiles was primarily due to the space velocities of convergence and the high altitudes of flight trajectories.
In 1963 the Kolomna Design Bureau of Machine Building became the main enterprise for the development of the Sharik missile. The leading research institutes and defense industry KB took part in the work. The idea was suggested by a group of Soviet theoreticians headed by Alexander Arkadievich Krasovski, a professor at the Air Force Engineering Academy, Professor N.E. Zhukovsky, later an academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Boris Ivanovich Shavyrin created a special group of a few people. At that time, S.P. Korolev, by virtue of his power and authority, annexed to himself many organizations. Shavyrin and Korolev, of course, were very familiar. It seemed that Boris Ivanovich was somewhat afraid, no matter how that Korolyov did not crush under him and the SKB.
The relevance of this type of weapons quickly disappeared. It was unclear how events would develop, including international ones. About "Ball" little has been writen. Firstly, because little is known. And secondly, because it did not go to a deep level of elaboration. "Ball" came only to the advance design.
The sequence of the product development is the following: the tactical and technical task, the preliminary design (the theoretical and theoretical part), the draft design (the detailed nodal study with the release of drawings, the creation of full-scale and semi-detailed models and the initial stage of the bench tests), the interdepartmental or state commission, working design drawings of all elements), manufacturing of prototypes and prototypes, bench tests, manufacturing of full-scale samples, factory design tests, states tests, acceptance for armament, setting for serial production.
Ball used a constructive scheme of a self-guided projectile, which as a whole tracked with a single-channel gas-dynamic correction to provide large angular corrections, and due to this, had a high threshold sensitivity and the necessary range. At the same time, the angles of bearing of the projectile were unlimited, and in this connection it was possible to attack the target on incidentally intersecting and counter-intersecting orbits at any angles between the planes of orbits.
To intercept cosmic targets, it was decided to use passive optical means using sunlight reflected from targets. Due to the relay control of the rotating projectile and the high speed of the control system of angular movements and the center of mass, it was possible to ensure the necessary accuracy of hitting the target.
Structurally, the projectile consisted of two parts: a gyro projectile and a detachable starting propulsion system. It was placed in a special container. To reduce the effect of the gas jets of the starting engine on the carrier, a two-stage starter motor scheme was used, which consisted of an ejecting engine, a starting propulsion system, and a mechanism for separating the starting motor. The projectile used control motors with power-to-weight ratio, which, in the course of homing, eliminated large misses, as well as a mechanism for selecting thrust eccentricity.
The complex weighed 140 kilograms. The shell itself is 100 kilograms. It could capture the target at a distance of up to 500 kilometers and had a rapprochement rate of up to 16 kilometers per second.
The "ball" did not even have a layout. The team created the only model, which since 2004 is an exhibit of the Polytechnic Institute in Moscow.
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