Indian Space Facilities
Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC)
The Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) at Thumba, near Thiruvananthapuram, is the lead Centre for the development of satellite launch vehicles, sounding rockets and associated technologies. The Centre has developed expertise in aeronautics covering aerodynamics, flight mechanics, thermal analysis and structural engineering; mechanical engineering covering manufacturing technology, production and computer aided design; avionics covering control and guidance, TTC systems and on-board computers; propellants, polymers, chemicals, materials and metallurgy; propulsion and space ordnance; launch vehicle mechanism and launch vehicle design; composite materials and systems reliability. The Programme planning & evaluation, technology transfer & industrial co-ordination, human resources development, safety & personnel and general administration groups support the Centre. The Space Physics Laboratory (SPL) at VSSC carries out research in atmospheric and related space sciences. Apart from this, the Construction & Maintenance Division (CMD) carries out planning, execution and maintenance of all civil works related to the Centre.
VSSC has extension Centres at Valiamala, housing the major facilities of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and the Geo-Synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) Projects and at Vattiyoorkavu for the development of reinforced plastics and composites (Reinforced Plastics Facility). An Ammonium Perchlorate Experimental Plant (APEP) has been set up by VSSC at Aluva near Kochi. VSSC also supports the (i) Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS), the International sounding rocket range (ii) Rohini Sounding Rocket (RSR) Programme.
The major programmes at VSSC include: Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), Rohini Sounding Rocket, Space-capsule Recovery Experiment, Reusable Launch Vehicles, Air Breathing Propulsion, Geo-Synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) MK-III Development and development of critical technologies for Human Space Flight.
Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC)
The Liquid Propulsion System Centre (LPSC) with its facilities located at Thiruvananthapuram (Valiamala), Mahendagiri and Bangalore is the lead Centre in the development of liquid and cryogenic propulsion stages for launch vehicles and satellites. In LPSC, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram management of system projects, design activities in the area of storable, cryogenic and semi cryogenic liquid propulsion systems, electric propulsion systems, flow control components and modules and spacecraft thrusters are carried out. In LPSC, Mahendragiri, assembly and testing of storable and cryogenic liquid rocket engines and stages, spacecraft thrusters testing in sea level and high altitude conditions, storage of liquid and cryogenic propellants and production of liquid hydrogen etc., are carried out. In LPSC, Bangalore, spacecraft propulsion systems design, realization and integration, monopropellant thruster and component design, spacecraft propellant tank design and realization, managing production of propellant tank and structures for launch vehicles development and production of transducers are carried out.
Satish Dhawan Space Centre-SHAR (SDSC-SHAR)
The Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC-SHAR) is the principal operational Centre for launching Sounding Rockets and Satellite Launch Vehicles. This Centre has the facilities for solid propellant processing, static testing of solid motors, launch vehicle integration and launch operations, range operations comprising telemetry tracking and command network and mission control centre. Management service group, Advanced Engineering Group, reliability and Sriharikota Common Facilities support the Centre. Apart from this, the Construction & Maintenance Division (CMD) takes care of planning, execution and maintenance of all civil works of the Centre. The Centre has two launch pads from where the rocket launching operations on PSLV & GSLV are carried out.
ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC)
The ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC) at Bangalore is engaged in developing satellite technology and implementation of satellite systems for scientific, technological and application missions. ISAC is functionally organised into six major areas: Mechanical Systems Areas, Digital & Communications Area, Integration & checkout area, Power Systems & Avionics Production area, Control & Mission Area and Reliability & Components Area. The Construction & Maintenance Division (CMD) of the Centre is responsible for planning, execution and maintenance of all civil works related to the Centre. Four project management teams co-ordinate the implementation of projects. Space astronomy and instrumentation division is engaged in space science activities. A new facility, ISRO Satellite Integration and Test Establishment (ISITE) including a Comprehensive Assembly, Test and Thermo-vacuum Chamber (CATVAC) has been set up.
Laboratory for Electro-Optics Systems (LEOS)
The Laboratory for Electro-Optics Systems (LEOS) at Bangalore is responsible for design, development and production of electro-optic sensors like earth sensors, star sensors, sun sensors, magnetic sensors, temperature sensors and optical gyros for spacecraft use. LEOS is also responsible for the fabrication of various types of optics for satellite cameras & radiometers and development of indigenous detectors for spacecraft. LEOS is also involved in the development of miniature sensors Micro Electro Mechanical Sensors (MEMS) devices, development of Charge Coupled Devices (CCD), Time Delay Integration (TDI) devices with external participation.
Space Applications Centre (SAC)
The Space Applications Centre (SAC) at Ahmedabad is responsible for the development, realization and qualification of communication, navigation, earth observation & meteorological payloads and related data processing and ground systems. The Centre carries out development of ground systems and application activities in the areas of communications, broadcasting, earth observations for remote sensing of natural resources, weather and environmental studies, disaster monitoring/mitigation, etc. SAC plays an important role in harnessing space technology for a wide variety of applications for societal benefits. The activities of SAC are grouped under microwave systems, satellite communication applications, sensor developments, image and information processing and remote sensing applications. Programme planning group, systems reliability group and library and documentation group support the Centre. The Construction & Maintenance Division (CMD) takes care of planning, execution and maintenance of all civil works related to the Centre. The facilities of this Centre include the Ahmedabad Earth Station, the Delhi Earth Station, Portable & Mobile Earth Stations, Laboratories for remote sensing & communication activities, fabrication & environmental test facilities for development and qualification of space and ground hardware.
Development and Educational Communication Unit (DECU)
The Development and Educational Communication Unit (DECU) at Ahmedabad is involved in the conceptualisation, definition, planning, implementation and socio-economic evaluation of innovative developmental communications in space applications. The major current activities of DECU include: Training and Development Communication Channel (TDCC), Village Resource Centres (VRC), Tele-Health (TH), Tele-Education (TE) mission and new satellite communication development and applications.
National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC)
National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC) located at Hyderabad is responsible for satellite data acquisition, processing and dissemination of aerials and remote sensing data. NRSC has set up data reception station at Shadnagar near Hyderabad for acquiring data from Indian remote sensing satellites as well as others. The Centre is also engaged in executing remote sensing application projects in collaboration with the users.
Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS)
Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), Dehra Dun is a premier training and educational institute set up for developing trained professional in the field of Remote Sensing, Geoinformatics and GPS Technology for Natural Resources, Environmental and Disaster Management. The main area of the function of the Institute is capacity building through technology transfer among user community, education at post-graduate level in the application of Remote Sensing and Geoinformatics for Natural Resources Management and promote research in Remote Sensing and Geoinformatics. The Institute provides value-added services in the field of natural resources management, remote sensing, GIS and GPS technology. Earlier, IIRS, Dehradun, was functioning under NRSC. With effect from April 30, 2011, IIRS has been re-organised as a separate Unit of ISRO.
ISRO Telemetry, Tracking & Command Network (ISTRAC)
The ISRO Telemetry, Tracking & Command Network (ISTRAC) at Bangalore provides mission support to low-earth orbit satellites as well as for launch vehicle missions. ISTRAC has its headquarters and a multi-mission Spacecraft Control Centre at Bangalore. It has a network of ground stations at Bangalore, Lucknow, Sriharikota, Port Blair and Thiruvananthapuram in India besides stations at Mauritius, Bearslake (Russia), Brunei and Biak (Indonesia). ISTRAC activities are organised into network operations, network augmentation, mission operation and spacecraft health monitoring, communications & computers & control centre facilities and development projects. Programme planning and reliability groups support ISTRAC activities. ISTRAC also operates the Local User Terminal/Mission Control Centre (LUT/MCC) under the international programme for satellite aided search and rescue. An Indian Deep Space Tracking Network station at Byalalu near Bangalore for India’s mission to moon, Chandrayaan-1, was established by ISTRAC.
Master Control Facility (MCF)
The Master Control Facility (MCF) located at Hassan in Karnataka and Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh monitors and controls all the geo-stationary satellites of ISRO. MCF carries out operations related to initial orbit raising of satellites, in-orbit payload testing and on-orbit operations through out the life of the satellites. The operations involve continuous tracking, telemetry and commanding, special operations like eclipse management, station-keeping maneuvers and recovery in case of contingencies. MCF interacts with the user agencies for effective utilisation of the satellite payloads and to minimize the service disturbances during special operations.
ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (IISU)
The ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (IISU) situated at Vattiyoorkavu, Thiruvananthapuram carries out research and development in inertial sensors, inertial systems, navigational software, actuators & mechanisms and to realize the flight units of these system for the launch vehicle & satellite programmes and allied satellite elements. IISU is organised into research and development divisions in the areas of launch vehicle inertial systems, spacecraft inertial systems, inertial system production and reliability & quality assurance. It has facilities for precision fabrication, assembly, clean room and integration & testing.
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