The IRS-P5 (CARTOSAT-1), initially scheduled for launch in late 1999 using PSLV-C3, will be India's first high-resolution earth resources and imagery intelligence satellite system. With a PAN camera featuring a ground sample distance of 2.5 meters and Fore-Aft stereo capability, CARTOSAT-1 will provide a significant improvement in ground resolution, at the expense of multispectral capability and smaller area coverage, with a swath width variously reported as either 10 or 30 kilometers. The 2.5 m resolution will cater cartographers and terrain modelling applications, providing cadastral level information up to 1:5000 scale for thematic applications, useful for making 2-5 m contour maps. The follow-on CARTOSAT-2 planned for launch in 2002 will offer imagery with resolution of less than one meter, again with a swath width of 10 kilometers.
The cabinet on 25 June 1997 approved of proposals for two new remote sensing satellites to be built by ISRO at Rs 390.07 crore. At a meeting, presided over by the prime minister, the cabinet approved the proposal to build an Indian Remote Sensing Satellite-Cartosat-1-at a cost of Rs 248.49 crore.
CARTOSAT-1 was launched into a 617 km polar sun synchronous orbit on May 5, 2005 on board PSLV-C6 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR, Sriharikota. Two panchromatic cameras, PAN (Fore) and PAN (Aft), with 2.5 m spatial resolution and a swath of 30 km are providing high quality images. The cameras are mounted with a tilt of +26 degree and -5 degree along track with respect to nadir that provides stereo pairs for the generation of Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Data from CARTOSAT-1 is being used for cartographic applications, cadastral level mapping, DEM generation and other high-resolution geospatial applications. The satellite has successfully completed its designed mission life and by 2013 ws continuing its operations and providing services.
|Spacecraft||Mass 1450 kg|
|Data Rate :||2 x 105 Mbps|
|Storage :||Solid State Recorder (SSR) 120 GB (EOL)|
|Data Encryption :||Provided|
Imaging Sensors - PAN Cameras
|No. of Cameras :||Two (PAN-fore and PAN-aft)|
|Swath :||27.5 km|
|Band :||Panchromatic 0.5 - 0.85µm|
|Camera Orientation :||+26º for PAN - fore and -5º for PAN - aft|
|Quantisation :||10 bits|
The 680 kg CARTOSAT-2, launched by PSLV-C7 on January 10, 2007, is the twelfth in the Indian Remote Sensing. CARTOSAT-2A is the thirteenth satellite in the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite series (IRS). Cartosat-2B provides continuity of remote sensing data services to the users of multiple spot scene imageries.
CARTOSAT-2, launched on January 10, 2007 by PSLV-C7, carries a single panchromatic camera with capability to provide better than 1 m spatial resolution imagery and a swath of 9.6 km. It was placed in a sun synchronous polar orbit of a nominal altitude of 630 km with a re-visit of 4-5 days and can be brought to a special orbit of 560 km with a revisit period of 1 day. This is a highly agile satellite with a capability of steering along and across the track of up to ± 45 degree to facilitate frequent imaging of any specific area. The satellite has successfully completed its designed mission life and is continuing its operations and providing services to the user community for cartographic applications, cadastral level mapping, urban and rural applications.
CARTOSAT-2A was launched on April 28, 2008 by PSLV-C9 from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota. CARTOSAT-2A is an advanced remote sensing satellite with similar capabilities to CARTOSAT- 2. CARTOSAT-2B was launched onboard PSLV-C15 on July 12, 2010 from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota. The CARTOSAT-2B satellite, a follow on of CARTOSAT-2A, weighing 694 kg, is configured to provide multi-scene imaging capabilities during a pass. This also has a single PAN camera and is also providing scene specific spot imagery for cartographic and a host of other applications.
CARTOSAT-2B was launched onboard PSLV-C15 on July 12, 2010 from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota. The CARTOSAT-2B satellite, a follow on of CARTOSAT-2A, weighing 694 kg, is configured to provide multi-scene imaging capabilities during a pass. This also has a single PAN camera and is also providing scene specific spot imagery for cartographic and a host of other applications.
India’s Space Research Organisation scripted new history on 22 June 2016 after it launched 20 satellites in one go. At 9:26 a.m on June 22, ISRO’s workhorse PSLV C-34 lifted off from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre at Sriharikota placing 20 satellites in respective orbits in one go… “Mission is successful. We had 17 satellites based on commercial transactions… 3 Indian satellites were there which collaborated with students were,” said ISRO in a statement. Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle C-34 designed by ISRO injected India’s own Cartosat-2 series and 19 other satellites of US, Germany, Canada and Indonesia making it a second mass induction after 2008. ISRO had earlier sent 10 satellites into various low earth orbits in a single launch.
On June 23, 2017 India's space agency launched 31 satellites including its main earth observation satellite and 29 foreign payloads in a single mission. An Indian Space Research Organization rocket launched from the Sriharikota spaceport in southern India at 9:05 am (0335 GMT) and placed the satellites into their prescribed orbit some 23 minutes later. The main payload, the Cartosat-2, a high-resolution cartography satellite, weighs 712 kilograms and has a design life of five years, an ISRO official said. The co-passenger satellites comprise 29 nano-satellites from 14 countries including Austria, Belgium, Chile, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Britain and US as well as a nano-satellite from India. The 30 smaller satellites weigh about 243 kilograms.
|Onboard Orbit||900 Watts|
|Stabilization||3 - axis body stabilised using high torque reaction wheels, magnetic torquers and thrusters|
|Launch date||10 January 2007|
|Launch site||SHAR Centre Sriharikota India|
|Launch vehicle||PSLV- C7|
|Orbit||Polar Sun Synchronous|
|Mission life||5 years|
In June 2019, PSLV-C47 will launch Cartosat-3, the advanced version with thecapability to zoom up to a resolution of 0.2 metre (20 cm), which is considered the best in the world. The resolution of Cartosat-3 will be so refined that it will be able to capture clear images of very smallobjects like an enemy bunker. The old Cartosat-2 series satellites had a resolution of only up to 0.5 meter.
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