Egypt Earth Observation Systems
In the field of remote sensing, Egypt has its own advanced and integrated capability for processing and analysing images that are obtainable from international commercial satellite systems. Those images are used efficiently in development plans in various fields. In the same field, Egypt intended to build a ground receiving station for satellite images during the year 2000. This will lead to enhanced capabilities in remote sensing and will provide speedier and cheaper access to satellite data and their wider use for development purposes.
The National Authority for Remote Sensing & Space Sciences [NARSS] is the pioneering Egyptian institution in the field of satellite remote sensing. NARSS is an outgrowth of a Remote Sensing Center, established in 1971 as an American-Egyptian joint project that was affiliated to the Egyptian Academy of Scientific Research and Technology. In 1994 the Authority was established as an organization under the State Ministry of Scientific Research to promote the use of state of the art space technology for the development of the country and introducing High Tech capabilities in regional planning and other applications. NARSS includes two major sectors: Remote Sensing and Space Sciences. The sector of remote sensing works on the use of data provided by earth observation satellites and various airborne sensors to produce maps and spatial data for the evaluation and monitoring of natural resources, natural hazards and management environmental. The sector of space sciences is concerned with the development of sensors for earth observation to be mounted on satellites and with all the problems involved with monitoring communication with satellites and retrieving the information for processing, and ultimately on launching an Egyptian remote sensing satellite.
NARSS is an outreach institution with two large sectors for remote sensing applications and space science and technology. The sector of remote sensing application works on the use of data provided by earth observation satellites and various airborne sensors to produce maps and spatial data for various applications such as the evaluation and monitoring of natural resources, natural hazards and environmental management. The sector of space science and technology is concerned with the development of sensors to be mounted on the earth observation satellites, satellite subsystems and space research. The sector is also concerned with the control and communication with the satellites as well as receiving the data for archiving and dissemination.
In 2001 Ukrainian State Design Office “Yuzhnoe’’(Dnipropetrovs’k) won the international tender which was carried out by the government of Egypt for creation of the first Egyptian satellite of Earth remote sensing - EgyptSat-1, also called MisrSat-1. Apart from Ukraine, Great Britain, Russia, Korea, Italy took part in the tender from the National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences [NARSS]. Work on the creation of the space vehicle EgyptSat-1 was carried out under the contract on designing, manufacturing, start, training and transfer of technology for the satellite EgyptSat-1 between NARSS as the customer and State Desigh Office “Yuzhnoye” as the contractor.
In accordance with a contract NARSS plans to create improved microsatellite within the framework of program EgyptSat-1 for reception of space images from the satellite and the satellite system which was developed together with State Office “Yuzhnoye”. NARSS intended to get space technologies with the help of training and transfer the technology of designing, manufacturing, assembling, integration, tests, preparations for starting of the satellite, introduction in operation of space system Egyptsat-1.
EgyptSat-1 was created on the basis of micro-technologies in weight up to 100 kg it will be maintained on solar- synchronous orbit. Launch of the satellite into an orbit would be realized with the help of the conversion booster rocket "Dnipro-1." Ukraine will create and provide the development of management satellite ground station in flight and modernization of reception the facts of remote sounding station in Egypt.
Ukrainian experts carry out training of the Egyptian personnel, and also preparation of local experts for development of satellites of a similar class. The number of State Design Office “Yuzhnoye” partners includes Scientific Research Institute of radio engineering measurements (Kharkiv), research-and-production enterprises “Khartron-Konsat” and “Khartron-Yukom (Zaporizh’ya), State research-and-production enterprise KONEX (Lviv), Design Office “Arsenal” (Kyiv). The project of creation EgyptSat-1 is the basic project of cooperation between two countries which confirms the presence of good potential of cooperation between Ukraine and Egypt in the field of high technologies.
EgyptSat 1 is an Egyptian minisatellite that was launched by Dnepr rocket from Baikonur at 07:02 UT on 17 April 2007. The 100 kg minisatellite carries a multispectral imager for Earth observations, stores the data on-board and forwards them over Egypt. Contact with it was lost in 2011. Egyptian specialists said back then that it was a pilot spacecraft built to operate for three years.
EgyptSat-2 / MisrSat 2
An Egyptian land remote sensing satellite, Egyptsat-2, launched from Baikonur cosmodrome on 16 April 2014 successfully separated from Soyuz-U launch vehicle and entered terrestrial orbit. At 8:28 pm the satellite successfully separated from the third stage of the launch vehicle. Soyuz-U took off from pad 31 in Baikonur at 8:20 pm. Egyptsat was designed and manufactured by Energia rocket and space corporation at orders from the Egyptian State Committee for Land Remote Sensing and Space Studies. The satellite weighs 1,050 kilos and has a service life of 11 years. The equipment installed on it will permit taking images of the Earth with a resolution of 1 meter in panchromatic mode and 4 meters in multispectral mode. As a rule land remote sensing probes operate in solar synchronized orbits close to polar.
Data will be transmitted through an X-band communications terminal at a rate of 300-600 Mbit/s to ground stations located near Cairo and Aswan. the 559GK satellite appeared similar to the latest-generation Earth-watching satellites developed in the West, such as Pleiades. One ton, 700-kilometer orbit.
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