Tiantong Mobile Satellite Communications System
Tiantong 1 is part of China's space-based information infrastructure and is the country's answer to the Inmarsat network. The Tiantong 1 system was developed by the China Academy of Space Technology and consists of space-based assets, ground facilities as well as user terminals. Its service is helping China break foreign companies' dominance in this field.
In the national grid enterprise system, the geographical environment of transmission, substation lines and equipment distribution is very complicated. Transmission lines and substation equipment built in complex environments such as plateaus, forests, canyons and borders are often subjected to earthquakes, floods and blizzards. The threat of mudslide disasters, the ground communication network is greatly affected by extreme natural disasters, and it is impossible to repair and rescue in time when disasters occur. In response to the needs of facility operation and maintenance under emergency anomalies, Tiantong No. 1 satellite is a communication satellite with independent intellectual property rights in China. It has functions such as voice communication, image transmission, positioning, and data reporting. It can set up satellite Internet of Things to realize real-time monitoring and equipment. Conveniences such as inspections and emergency rescues reduce the operation and maintenance costs of the power transmission and transformation process.
The Tiantong-1 satellite mobile communication system is composed of a space segment, a ground segment and a user terminal, and the space segment is planned to consist of multiple geosynchronous orbit communication satellites. It is mainly developed by China Academy of Space Technology and uses new plastic antennas. New equipment and technologies such as stand-alone integrated technology, the communication frequency is designed in the S band, and the cellular technology with a bandwidth of 30 MHz can form hundreds of spot beams. The signal transmission loss is small and the communication quality can be effectively guaranteed. At the same time, it uses communication satellite frequency multiplexing technology and a large-scale expandable antenna on board, which greatly improves the sensitivity of satellite receiving signals and increases the capacity of satellite communications.
There are no restrictions on the coverage of the terrain, and the ocean, mountains, Shangyuan, forests, Gobi, and desert can be seamlessly covered. Covers all types of mobile users including vehicles, airplanes, ships, and individuals. It provides all-weather, all-day, stable and reliable mobile communication services for various fields such as personal communications, marine transportation, ocean fishing, aviation rescue, and tourism research. When natural disasters occur in voice, short message and data services, the emergency communication capabilities of Tiantong One can play a great role. In addition, the main advantages of Tiantong One 01 are reflected in the miniaturization and mobile phone of the terminal, which is easy to carry.
The ground service of Tiantong No. 01 is operated by China Telecom Corporation, which will form a mobile communication network with ground mobile communication systems, and provide voice and data communication coverage for various handheld and small mobile terminals in China's land and surrounding sea areas. It is understood that China Telecom has launched an operation and plans to launch a mobile phone with mobile satellite communication capabilities.
China on early 06 August 2016 successfully launched the first satellite for mobile telecommunication. It is part of APMT mobile satellite communication system offered to customers in the Middle East, Africa, the Pacific and the Indian Ocean region. System will be ready in 2020 and will provide voice communication service, data transfer and internet access. The Tiantong-01 satellite was launched at 00:22 a.m. Beijing Time, at southwestern China's Xichang Satellite Launch Center, with the Long March-3B carrier rocket. It is the first satellite of China's home-made satellite mobile telecom system, and a key part of the country's space information infrastructure. More geostationary satellites will be sent into orbit for the system.
Tiantong-01 was designed by China Academy of Space Technology and its ground service will be operated by China Telecom. It will establish a mobile network with ground facilities, providing services for China, the Middle East, Africa and other areas. The Long March-3B carrier rocket was produced by China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology. It was the 232nd flight of the Long March series carrier rockets, and the 36th launch of the Long March-3B.
Although the success of the launch was confirmed shortly after liftoff by Chinese state-run media, there was no official indication of the upcoming mission ahead of the event. Some witnesses confused the launch with an earthquake as they reported rumbling and shaking windows via social media sites.
China launched a Long March 3B carrier rocket on Thursday night to deploy a communication satellite into space, according to China Aerospace Science and Technology Corp, the nation's leading space contractor. The rocket blasted off at 11:59 pm at the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in Sichuan province, transporting the Tiantong 1-02 to a geosynchronous orbit. Tiantong 1-02 is the second satellite in the Tiantong 1 system. Based on the DFH-4 satellite framework, the Tiantong 1-02 has better design and higher flexibility than its predecessor. It is tasked with providing all-weather, all-time, stable and reliable mobile communication services to users in China and its surrounding areas, the Middle East and Africa, as well as most sea areas in the Pacific and Indian oceans.
China successfully conducted the year's first space launch early on 20 January 2021, sending the Tiantong 1-03 mobile telecommunication satellite into a preset orbit from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in Southwest China's Sichuan Province, marking a perfect start to what is expected to be a fruitful year in aerospace development. The Tiantong 1-03 satellite, launched at 0:25 (Beijing Time) by a Long March-3B carrier rocket, entered its planned orbit in a smoothly executed operation, the China National Space Administration said.
Developed by the China Academy of Space Technology, a subsidiary of China's space giant China Aerospace Science and Technology Corp (CASC), Tiantong-1 is a homegrown satellite mobile communication system independently developed and built by China. It consists of a space segment, ground segment, and user terminal. The Tiantong 1-03 satellite will establish a mobile network with ground facilities to provide all-weather, non-stop, stable communication services, such as voice, short messaging and data for users in China, its surrounding areas, and the Middle East, Africa and other regions. Users in most sea areas in the Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean will also be included in the services. The latest launch was the 358th of the Long March rocket series.
Tiantong Temple, 25 km to the east of Ningbo, is the No. 2 mountain among the five Chinese Zen Buddhist School Mountains. It is often referred to as the "Dongnan Foguo(Buddhist Country in Southeast China)" Tiantong Temple lies in the Taibai Mountains, 25 kilometers east of the city proper of Ningbo. The temple was built in 300 AD in the West Jin Dynasty. With its history of 1700 years, the temple is 90 years older than the Lingyin Temple in Hangzhou. As one of the ten sacred temples of the Buddhist Chan sect, Tiantong Temple is also known as "Buddha's Holy Land in Southeast China".
The ancient Tiantong Temple enjoys a loud prestige not only for its Buddhist significance, but also for its picturesque surroundings, cuddling against the soaring Taibai Mountain, in the neighborhood of luxuriant pines and bamboos, a beauty that could only be found here. For centuries the "Three Passes" and "Ten Highlights" of the temple are tantalizing romantic and poetic minds. It is due to the charming environment of mountains and water in the area that Yixing, a monk living 1700 years ago, decided to build a temple here. Legend says the Heavenly King sent God Taibai to the mortal world incarnated as a child, who assisted Venerable Master Yixing in building the temple. Thus the mountain is named Taibai and the temple Tiantong, which means "heavenly child".
Tiantong Temple is located on the ascending slope at the foot of the mountain. The whole place consists of structures like the Hall of the Four Guardian Gods, the Grand Hall, the Hall of Buddhist Rites, the Hall of Early Enlightenment, the Hall of Arhats, the Bell Tower, and the Imperial Library Tower. A stringy roofed veranda connects all these components and therefore shelters the visitors from the scorching sun and annoying rains. The veranda also helps visitors find access to any of the temple's components, an ingenuity of the architects indeed. Tiantong Temple was in its prime time during the Song Dynasty, having 999 halls, pavilions and towers altogether, a rarity across the empire in terms of its size. Unfortunately this nonpareil temple was not spared from cataclysms in the mortal world. On July 21, 1587 AD in the Ming Dynasty, a serious flood in Yinxian County wrecked all the halls of the temple. Nothing survived the flood. In the winter in the same year after the flood, Abbot Yinhuai had the halls rebuilt over the rubbles. In the following centuries, the temple came through a succession of warfare. Today, the temple has 730 houses of the architectural style formed during the Ming Dynasty, covering 58 thousand square meters.
As a holy place of Buddhism, Tiantong Temple is not only an important temple of Linji Sect but also the father of Soto (Caotong in Chinese Sect) in Japan with 8 million disciples in 33,000 temples. It plays an important role in the cultural exchanges between China and Japan and it is well known in the southeast Asian countries.
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