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Space


Sinosat / Xinnou /

Sino Satellite Communications was formed in 1994 with Chinese participation of China Aerospace Corp (CASC), Commission of Defence Science & Technology [COSTIND], People's Bank of China and the Government of Shanghai. Sino Satellite was formed in an effort to overturn ChinaSat's domination [along with the Ministry of Post and Telecommunications] of the Chinese satellite communications market.

During 1993-1994 DASA and Sinosat formed a new venture named EuraSpace to develop a follow-on DFH-3 spacecraft. China remains heavily dependent on American companies, such as Lockheed Martin, Hughes and Loral, as suppliers of telecommunications satellites. To gain greater access to spacecraft technology, the China Aerospace Corporation is working with Daimler Benz Aerospace's Dornier Satellite Systeme and Aerospatiale's Espace and Defense Branch on Sinosat-1.

The system is 90 percent financed by German banks, and the European partners agreed to assembly and testing of the new Sinosat-1 taking place in China. The preliminary design for Sinosat envisioned as many as 12 C-band and six Ku-band transponders initially with growth up to 30 transponders. The spacecraft was likely to be 50% more massive than DFH-3, but the first launch was not anticipated until 1997 (References 236, 239-243).

Subsequently, Aérospatiale built Sinosat 1 at its facilities in Cannes, with delivery in november 1997 of the satellite to the customer, the Chinese-German company Euraspace, acting on behalf of Sinosatcom, a Chinese company. This was the fifth satellite using the Spacebus 3000 platform.

It is a powerful three-axis satellite with a liftoff weight of 2,820kg. Its solar array, spanning 26 meters, supplies over 5 kW to the payload of twenty-four C-band channels (36 MHz) and fourteen Ku-band channels (54 MHz). Three antennas, including two deployable antennas measuring 1.6 and 1.8 meters in diameter, and a 1m in diameter fixed antenna, cover the targeted zone from an orbital position at 110.5°ree; East on the geostationary orbit, during a life span exceeding 15 years.

The 3B Long March launcher launched the satellite from the Xichang launch site in the People's Republic of China in July 1998 [after a delay from 25 January 1998]. The satellite provides a range of telecommunications services ( including television, telephony, and inter-banking data transmission) covering all China, the Indo-Chinese peninsula, Indonesia and the Philippines. The satellite would transmit data for the Peoples Bank of China, one of Sinosatcom's major customers. SinoSat-1, which was bought from France to handle radio and TV broadcasts, and communications services in the Asia-Pacific Region, was taken out of service in 2012.

The Dongfanghong-IV platform was first used to develop a satellite -- Sinosat-II -- for a Beijing-based operator, Sino Satellite Communications Co, to meet the country's mounting demands for communications and broadcasting, company president Cheng Guangren confirmed. Mindful of the disparities with similar industries in other space-faring nations, the State Council has approved a massive plan to develop China's new-generation communications satellite platform. The new models have longer life spans, are more reliable and have a higher capacity.

Investment in the platform to date has amounted to 1.3 billion yuan (US$156 million). Satellites based on this "most sophisticated" platform are expected to last for 15 years, carry up to 50 transponders and weigh about 5,100 kilograms at takeoff. Its end-of-life power output is expected to reach 10,000 watts, which would put it in line with the most advanced systems currently in use. China's newest platform would be capable of performing similar functions as the world's leading satellite platforms. That includes the world-leading Boeing702 of the Boeing Co, SB4000 of the Alcatel Space and A2100 of Lockheed Martin Commercial Space Systems.

The Chinese platform could be used to develop large communication systems, live broadcast satellites and other types purposes. Ultimately, the new satellites would deliver cleaner signals to ground based platforms even if they use smaller antennas. The first satellite system and the first satellite -- Sinosat-II -- to be built on this platform would be launched in the first half of 2005. Satellites based on the new large-scale platform would find a niche in the global commercial satellite market. By early 2004 CASC was close to an agreement with APT Satellite Co Ltd in Hong Kong to supply a backup satellite based on the new platform for APSTAR VI, a telecommunications array scheduled to be launched later in the year.

The SINOSAT-2 satellite was designed and manufactured in accordance with the AP30 and AP30A standards and regulations of ITU. The satellite is a dedicated DBS satellite using BSS frequency and orbit assigned to China. Therefore it had stronger anti-jamming capability than com- mon communications satellite. The satellite has 22 54MHz and 36MHz transponders equipped with 150W TWTA, 5 antennas covering mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. The antennas have been optimized in consideration of the population distribution and rainfall attenuation in China. Peak EIRP can reach 57.5dBW in some areas. Every transponder can transmit 6-10 TV programs under the condition that the satellite satisfied the 99.9% availability requirement and the end user terminal is no bigger than 0.45m in diameter. The satellite can transmit 150-200 TV programs in total.

The SINOSAT-2 satellite is China’s first satellite adopting on board anti-jamming technology, which represents the most significant feature of the satellite. The anti-jamming design of the satellite can meet the transmission security requirements and can effectively block the illegal signal from abroad. Falun Gong’s illegal interference with SINOSAT-1 on June 23, 2002 warned the central government that the broadcasting information security was endangered. To effectively defend the illegal interference signal and to ensure the security of TV & broadcasting transmission, anti-jamming capability became one of the significant characteristics during the course of SINOSAT-2 satellite's design and development.

Anti-jamming design of SINOSAT-2 satellite took two measures. On the one hand, space isolation was adopted in the satellite's antenna beam design; on the other hand, flexible transponder configuration and flexible connection and switch between transponders and beams applied in transponder design. These two measures can effectively avoid the illegal interference from abroad.

For the up-link illegal interference, three up-link beams were adopted in the satellite antenna beam design. One North China spot beam (covering Beijing and city of Hohhot), which is dual circular polarization, is used for receiving of the TV & Digital Movie signals centralized transmitted from Beijing and the City of Hohhot. Thus the illegal and malicious interference signals from abroad will be blocked effectively.

The SINOSAT-2 satellite was designed and manufactured in accordance with the AP30 and AP30A standards and regulations of ITU and in line with the frequency configuration, antenna beam and polarization specifications registered and filed with ITU. The SINOSAT-2 satellite was intended to be the one of the best quality satellites on-orbit in the Asia-pacific region. The satellite satisfied the 99.9% availability requirement and the end user can use terminal no bigger than 0.45m in diameter to receive high quality signals.

Servicing the TV Broadcasting, Digital Movie, DTH and Broadband multimedia customers from China including Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan and surrounding countries. And meet the requirements of domestic trial DBS program. Low risk requirement intensified international cooperation in design and development, adoption of flight-proven technology and components to lower the technical risk and schedule risk. The program management is in line with the international standards.

The space segment of China’s DBS system was to consist of two satellites. The two satellites are the same in transponder capacity and working frequency. Both satellites would be positioned at 92.2FE. One is SINOSAT-2 satellite; the satellite contract was entered into between SINOSATCOM and CAST in May 2002. The other is a backup satellite using ALCATEL’s SB400 bus and was to be launched in mid 2007. Another Chinese satellite operator, namely CHINASAT, owned the satellite. The two satellites were be operated by a joint venture between SINOSATCOM and CHINASAT.

SinoSat-2, China's first direct-to-home satellite, was launched on 29 October 2006. It was revealed a month later that it failed to deploy its solar panels and communication antennae and was deemed inoperable, the Sino Satellite Communications Co. Ltd. (SinoSat), a Chinese satellite operator and the user of the SinoSat series, has said. A substitute satellite for the failed SinoSat-2 will take at least three years to develop, with more technical upgrades, according to a SinoSat spokesman last November.

China on June 1, 2007 launched SinoSat-3, a communications satellite for radio and television broadcasting, aboard a Long March-3A carrier rocket, marking the 100th flight of its Long March series. The satellite, launched from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in the southwest Sichuan Province at 0:08 AM (Beijing Time), separated from the rocket about 24 minutes after lift-off, before entering the geosynchronous orbit, data from the northwest Xi'an Satellite Control center show. SinoSat-3 and its carrier rocket, were mainly developed and manufactured by the China Academy of Space Technology and the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, both under the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation.

ChinaSat 9A (SinoSat-4) is based on the DFH-4 satellite platform and will provide direct broadcast services with eighteen 36MHz and four 54MHz BSS Ku band transponders. Together with ChinaSat-9 direct broadcast satellite, ChinaSat-9A is designed to serve the radio and TV transmission, digital film and digital broadband multi-media system as well as information and entertainment broadcasting market.

In November 2005 the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) signed a deal at the Zhuhai air show with China Direct Broadcast Satellite Co Ltd (China DBSAT) to launch two communications satellites - SinoSat-5 (in 2011) and SinoSat-6 (in 2010) aboard Long March-3B rockets from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center. SinoSat-6 would replace SinoSat-3, and was scheduled to be put into orbit before June 2010. In fact it was launched 05 September 2010.




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Page last modified: 25-12-2013 17:57:21 ZULU