Haiyang-3 (HY-3 or Ocean-3)
The marine satellite development plan is: three series according to the marine water environment (Ocean No. 1, HY-1) satellite, the marine dynamic environment (Ocean No. 2, HY-2) satellite, and the marine radar (Ocean No. 3, HY-3) satellite. Develop China's marine satellites, enable three series of satellites to achieve operational, long-life, uninterrupted and stable operation; establish an offshore radiation correction and authenticity test field; establish a polar remote sensing receiving system; improve and improve Beijing, Sanya, Mudanjiang, Hangzhou ground Receiving station; gradually realize the ocean stereoscopic observation system dominated by autonomous marine satellites.
China will build a national marine satellite ground application system covering the offshore of China and taking into account the global coverage of China's offshore and globally coordinated, well-planned, well-functioning, product-rich, and efficient services to achieve product diversification, data standardization, application quantification, and operational operations.
Marine surveillance monitors the requirements of modernization, scientific, information, and globalization. Provide strong technical support for implementing marine development strategies and developing marine industries. Improve the accuracy and timeliness of marine environmental forecasting and marine disaster warning, effectively implement marine environment and resource monitoring, and provide services for safeguarding maritime rights, disaster prevention and mitigation, national economic construction and national defense construction.
The marine water environment (Ocean No. 1, HY-1) satellite series is used to obtain information on the dynamic temperature and coastal dynamics of coastal waters and global oceans in China. The remote sensing loads are ocean water color scanners and coastal imagers.
The marine dynamic environment (Ocean No. 2, HY-2) satellite series is used to obtain information on marine dynamics such as sea surface wind field, sea surface height, effective wave height and sea surface temperature in China's offshore and global all-weather and all-weather. Remote sensing loads include microwaves. Scatterometers, radar altimeters and microwave radiometers.
The Marine Radar (Ocean 3, HY-3) satellite series is used to monitor islands, coastal zones, and maritime targets throughout the day and around the clock, and to obtain information on ocean waves, storm surges, internal waves, sea ice, and oil spills. The remote sensing load is a multi-polarized multi-mode synthetic aperture radar.
Nowadays, the development of marine satellite serialization is being implemented step by step, and the spatial layout of marine satellites is also being improved step by step. The Ocean 2 satellite will use microwave technology to detect the dynamic environmental parameters of the ocean, such as wave height, flow field, wind field, etc., which has the advantage of being able to detect through the clouds without being affected by the weather, which will be related to the Ocean One satellite. Forming complementarity, now under intense development, is scheduled to launch in 2019. The Ocean 3 satellite is undergoing pre-research and will use synthetic aperture radar detection technology, and the spatial resolution will reach the meter level, enabling all-weather surveillance and monitoring of the ocean.
According to the “Development Plan for Land and Sea Observing Satellite Business” (2011-2020), the “Ocean 3” satellite constellation plan is: inherit the high-tech satellite technology base, 1 m C-SAR satellite, interferometric SAR satellite (2 formations) Interference with small satellites or one) is distributed in the same orbit, forming a constellation of land-sea radar satellites.
"Ocean 3" satellite will have the ability to quickly revisit and intervene in sea and land observations, and can perform 1:50,000-1:1 million global DEM data acquisition, millimeter-level land surface deformation monitoring, combined with "Ocean No. 2" dynamic environment. The satellite can achieve centimeter-level sea surface height measurement, and realize all-weather all-day observation of maritime targets, important marine disasters, land subsidence, and global change information, and meet various needs such as marine target monitoring and land resource monitoring.
The main remote sensing load carried on the "Ocean III" satellite is Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), an active microwave remote sensing instrument that acquires sea surface information by first transmitting a microwave beam and then receiving backscattered echoes from the sea surface.
"It will achieve high-resolution (1m) two-dimensional images of ocean and land surfaces through synthetic aperture technology and pulse compression technology," said Lin Mingsen, deputy director of the National Satellite Ocean Applications Center.
The SAR-equipped marine surveillance satellite can penetrate the sea and cloud, and can observe the ocean during day and night. Its all-weather observation capability is better than that of optical ocean satellites that can only be observed when the weather is fine during the day.
The specific observation objects of marine surveillance and monitoring satellites mainly include: ships, offshore oil and gas platforms, oil spills, sea ice, waves, sea surface wind farms, internal waves, island coastal zones, etc. Among them, marine artificial targets such as ships and offshore oil and gas platforms usually show very strong targets on SAR images, which are obviously different from the surrounding marine regions.
"This makes marine surveillance and monitoring satellite data the first choice for census and surveillance of marine artificial targets." Lin Mingsen said that at present, ocean surveillance satellite data has been widely used in hijacking ship surveillance, illegal fishery fishing supervision, maritime distress Search and rescue and other aspects related to the safety of life and property at sea.
In recent years, the US Gulf of Mexico oil spill, Dalian oil spill, Bohai Penglai 19-3 oil spill, and Qingdao oil pipeline leakage and explosions have occurred frequently. Oil spill disasters have seriously affected the marine ecological environment and become the focus of attention around the world.
The State Oceanic Administration has carried out operational monitoring of oil spill disasters in China's jurisdictions based on ocean surveillance satellite data for many years, and has played an important role in disaster detection, disaster monitoring, disaster relief, and disaster assessment of marine oil spills.
The marine surveillance and monitoring satellite is also the most important means of operational monitoring of polar sea ice. It can provide full-time all-weather polar navigation support for the South and Arctic scientific expeditions of China Snow Dragon, and also provide a basis for the opening of the northern navigation channel in the future; In addition, it has an irreplaceable advantage in wave spectrum inversion, near-shore sea surface wind field monitoring, and ocean internal wave observation.
"As an important part of China's marine satellite business system, marine surveillance and monitoring satellites have important applications in marine rights maintenance, marine law enforcement monitoring, sea area use management, marine disaster prevention and mitigation, etc., and are the follow-up planning development of the national marine satellite business system Focus." Lin Mingsen said.
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|