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Space


Haiyang-2 (HY-2 or Ocean-2)

At 6:57 on August 16, 2011, China's first marine power environment satellite, the Ocean 2 satellite (HY-2), was successfully launched at the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center. The Ocean 2 satellite is the third ocean satellite successfully launched by China following the Ocean One A satellite and the Ocean No. 1 B satellite. The Ocean 2 satellite is equipped with four microwave remote sensors, such as microwave scatterometer, radar altimeter, scanning microwave radiometer and calibration microwave radiometer.

The development of the Ocean 2 satellite project was approved by the National Defense Science and Technology Commission and the Ministry of Finance in January 2007. The satellite was developed by the China Space Technology Research Institute of Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation.

HY-2 satellite loading radar altimeter, microwave scatterometer, scanning microwave radiometer and calibration microwave radiometer and DORIS, dual-frequency GPS and laser range finder. The satellite orbit is a sun-synchronous orbit with a dip angle of 99.34 degrees and a descending point of 6:00 am. The satellite adopts a recurring orbit with a repetition period of 14 days in the early life of the satellite. The altitude is 971 km, the period is 104.46 minutes, and the daily operation is 13+11/14. Circle; in the later stage of life, adopting a recurring orbit with a repetition period of 168 days, the satellite height is 973km, the period is 104.50 minutes, and 13+131/168 circles are run every day.

The satellite design life is 3 years. The satellite size is 8.56m × 4.55m × 3.185m, and the mass is = 1575kg. The X-band is performed under the digital transmission system, the downlink code rate is 20 Mbps, and the on-board storage recorder capacity is 120 Gbits.

The Ocean 2 satellite (HY-2) is China's first marine power environment satellite. The satellite integrates the main and passive microwave remote sensors into one, with high-precision orbit determination, orbit determination and all-weather, all-day, global detection capability. . Its main mission is to monitor and investigate the marine environment, and obtain a variety of marine dynamic environmental parameters including sea surface wind field, wave height, current current, sea surface temperature, etc., directly provide measured data for early warning and forecast of catastrophic sea conditions, for marine disaster prevention and mitigation, maritime rights and interests. Support services are provided for maintenance, marine resource development, marine environmental protection, marine scientific research, and national defense construction.

Significant wave height (SWH) can be computed from the returning waveform of radar altimeter, this parameter is only raw estimates if it does not calibrate. But accurate calibration is important for all applications, especially for climate studies. HY-2a altimeter has been operational since April 2012 and its products are available to the scientific community. SWH data from HY-2A altimeters are calibrated against in situ buoy data from the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC), Distinguished from previous calibration studies which generally regarded buoy data as “truth”, the work of calibration for HY-2A altimeter wave data against in situ buoys was applied a more sophisticated statistical technique—the total least squares (TLS) method which can take into account errors in both variables.

Haiyang-2 (HY-2 or Ocean-2) Haiyang-2 (HY-2 or Ocean-2) Haiyang-2 (HY-2 or Ocean-2) Haiyang-2 (HY-2 or Ocean-2)

China on 25 October 2018 launched an ocean monitoring satellite that Chinese experts said would strengthen the country's civilian and military nautical navigation. A Long March-4B rocket carrying the HY-2B maritime satellite took off Thursday morning from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center in North China's Shanxi Province.

HY-2B was an ocean dynamic satellite, and will form a network with subsequent HY-2C and HY-2D for maritime environmental monitoring, said the report. China Academy of Space Technology (CASC), also known as the Fifth Academy of the Beijing-headquartered China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, led HY-2B's development. HY-2B is capable of providing all-weather, 24-hour service including constant monitoring of sea winds, wave conditions and storms.

"Chinese vessels can better understand the sea conditions before they sail out and forecast natural disasters such as typhoons, to avoid accidents," Ma Shijun, senior advisor to the project, told China Central Television News. HY-2B includes different equipment from the previous HY-2A including an automatic identification system and a data collection subsystem. The equipment enables the satellite to provide global ship identification and tracking services. The satellite is also able to collect, save and transmit buoy information from waters off China's coast and other parts of the world, according to the CASC article. Such a development could reveal how many ships are in certain waters and where congestion would likely occur.

"The tracking is not limited to civilian ships, but can also apply to various scales of military vessels," Song Zhongping, a Beijing-based military expert and TV commentator, told the Global Times. "It can not only provide an early-warning service to assist civilian vessels to choose safe routes, but also be used to guide Chinese warships to smoothly perform military missions at sea," he said.

Jiang Xingwei, director of the National Ocean Satellite Application Center under the Ministry of Natural Resources, was quoted by Xinhua as saying, "The HY-2 satellites will play a key role in China's ocean resource survey, disaster relief and environmental management. "The follow-up satellite network will better serve both the world and China's maritime power strategy." HY-2B will replace the previously launched HY-2A which was sent to space in August 2011.

China's two ocean observation satellites, HY-1C and HY-2B, completed their in-orbit delivery, according to the Ministry of Natural Resources 29 June 2019. The two satellites represent the country's highest level of marine remote sensing satellites and the delivery signified that China's first batch of ocean observation satellites became operational. Ling Yueming, vice minister of natural resources, said China will take advantage of both land and ocean observation satellites and create a network for natural resources monitoring, which will support ecological protection. China will promote satellite data sharing to serve environmental protection, transportation and agriculture as well as other industries, Ling added.

The HY-1C was launched in September 2018 and had a designed life of five years. It will help monitor ocean color and water temperatures, providing basic data for research on the global oceanic environment. The HY-2B was launched in October 2018 and had a designed life of five years. It can acquire a variety of marine dynamic parameters such as global sea surface wind field, wave height and sea surface temperature. It will provide data to support marine disaster relief, ocean resources utilization and marine environmental protection.

China successfully launched its HY-2C ocean-observation satellite into planned orbit on 21 September 2020 via a Long March-4B carrier rocket from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in North China's Shanxi Province. The HY-2C satellite, named after the Chinese word Haiyang for "ocean" and given the "HY" designation for short, is the country’s third ocean-observation satellite, and the second space-borne infrastructure satellite to provide ocean dynamics monitoring services.

"The HY-2 satellites will play a key role in China's ocean resource surveys, disaster relief and environment management. The follow-up satellite network will better serve the world and China's maritime power strategy," said Jiang Xingwei, director of the National Ocean Satellite Application Center under the Ministry of Natural Resources.

The HY-2C satellite will team up with the HY-2B, which was launched in October 2018, and subsequent Y-2D satellites to form a network for maritime environment monitoring, enabling China to carry out 24/7 all-weather high precision monitoring of maritime data including sea surface height, wave height as well as oceanic water color. The HY-2C satellite and the Long March-4B carrier rocket were developed by the state-owned space giant China Aerospace Science and Technology Corp, and China’s Ministry of Natural Resources is in charge of its operation.

China sent a new ocean-monitoring satellite on 19 May 2021 into orbit from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in northwest China. A Long March-4B rocket carrying the Haiyang-2D (HY-2D) satellite took off at 12:03 a.m. (Beijing Time), according to the launch center.




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Page last modified: 23-06-2021 14:58:49 ZULU