Haiyang-1 (HY-1 or Ocean-1)
Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST) devloped a small satellite bus for science and earth observation missions. The first two satellites based on this bus are Shijian-5 (SY-5) and Haiyang-1 (HY-1 or Ocean-1). Both satellites weigh 340kg and have two solar panels. With 11 science payloads onboard, SJ-5 will test 3 different kinds of attitude control methods: 3-axis, spin and gravity-gradient.
Using the space remote-sensing technology to monitor China's 3 million square kilometers of sea area is very important and necessary for safeguarding the ocean rights and interests of China, protect the ocean environment, develop the ocean resource, and reduce ocean disasters.
The Ocean-1 satellite and its successor satellite equipped with the 10-band ocean color scanner and 4-band CCD camera will be used to observe the ocean color and ocean temperature. The satellite would allow exploration and study of marine organisms, landforms under shallow water, water temperatures and ocean pollutants by distinguishing colors of the sea. The satellite would cover huge areas of the sea, providing real-time data that would benefit the fishing industry and study of ocean resources.
In July 1997 an official of the State Oceanography Bureau said that China planned to launch its first ocean exploration satellite in the second half of 1999. Ultimately, Haiyang-1 was launched on 15 May 2002.
On May 15, 2002, the Long March 4 rocket roared to Tianyu, and China’s first marine satellite, Ocean No. 1, was sent to the sky. Her successful launch and operational trial operation are an important symbol of the significant improvement of the country's comprehensive strength and the modernization of the marine industry, opening up epoch-making significance.
“In the 20th century, the requirements for ocean observations are getting higher and higher. Satellites are not restricted by climate, regional and geographical environment, and have the advantages that traditional observation methods such as airplanes, ships, shore stations and buoys do not have. They can be large-area and synchronized. Multi-element observation and measurement, combined with satellite observations and traditional observation methods, can form better ocean stereoscopic observations. Therefore, marine satellite observations have received more and more attention and become one of the leading means of ocean observation." Jiang Xingwei, director of the National Satellite Ocean Application Center, said.
In 1978, SeaSat-A, the first ocean satellite in the United States, was launched and attracted worldwide attention. China has also begun to focus on the development of marine satellites. “The State Oceanic Administration officially submitted the Ocean Satellite Argument Report to the State Planning Commission in 1986.” Jiang Xingwei said, “But it may be due to a large amount of one-time investment, as well as technical reserves and other factors. There was no project at the time.”
In 1996, the State Oceanic Administration established a special agency for marine satellites, the Marine Satellite General Department of the State Oceanic Administration, which is now the predecessor of the National Satellite Ocean Application Center. It mainly conducts comprehensive demonstration work on the establishment of marine satellites, and will launch the A marine satellite is also included in the “Six One” project of the State Oceanic Administration. In January 1997, the Ocean No. 1 satellite development project passed the national demonstration review. In May of the same year, it was officially approved by the state. Some experts described it as saying that the ocean satellite is like a star and a moon. This is the voice of many people.
In 1999, the ground application system corresponding to the marine satellites, including the Beijing and Sanya satellite ground stations, was approved for construction. “In 2000, the China Office of the China National Office approved the establishment of the National Satellite Ocean Application Center. At present, the construction of the Mudanjiang Ground Station, the marine series satellite and the ground application system have reached a considerable scale. This series has witnessed the process from organization to technology development. The national marine satellite industry has a little bit of nothing, from small to large, from weak to strong. It can also be seen that the state attaches great importance to the marine satellite industry." Jiang Xingwei said.
On May 15, 2002, the majority of marine workers, like the Chinese in 1970, followed the launch of China’s first man-made earth satellite, the Dongfanghong-1, with an excitement to listen to and watch the news report of the launch of the Ocean One satellite. “The State Oceanic Administration also organized a delegation of 130 people to witness the exciting and exciting moment.” Jiang Xingwei was immersed in joy. Since then, the marine satellite and the Chinese sea surveillance aircraft, ships, buoys and shore stations together constitute an all-round, three-dimensional, dynamic observation network of China's seas. "Ocean observation has taken a new step." Jiang Xingwei said.
In 2007, Ocean One B satellite replaced the Ocean One A satellite that had successfully completed its mission. "This marks a major step forward in the direction of serialization and scale of China's marine satellite and satellite marine applications. It provides a strong support for building a socialist harmonious society and enhancing China's international status." Jiang Xingwei introduced, " Next, we will launch the Ocean No. 1 operational satellite, which will form two satellites in the morning and afternoon alternately in orbit, which will further improve the time resolution, which is half the time of the one-day coverage period of the Ocean One B satellite. "
China's two ocean observation satellites, HY-1C and HY-2B, completed their in-orbit delivery, according to the Ministry of Natural Resources 29 June 2019. The two satellites represent the country's highest level of marine remote sensing satellites and the delivery signified that China's first batch of ocean observation satellites became operational. Ling Yueming, vice minister of natural resources, said China will take advantage of both land and ocean observation satellites and create a network for natural resources monitoring, which will support ecological protection. China will promote satellite data sharing to serve environmental protection, transportation and agriculture as well as other industries, Ling added.
The HY-1C was launched in September 2018 and had a designed life of five years. It will help monitor ocean color and water temperatures, providing basic data for research on the global oceanic environment. The HY-2B was launched in October 2018 and had a designed life of five years. It can acquire a variety of marine dynamic parameters such as global sea surface wind field, wave height and sea surface temperature. It will provide data to support marine disaster relief, ocean resources utilization and marine environmental protection.
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