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Space


Feng Yun 2 Earth Observation System

China begins its geostationary meteorological satellite FY-2 program in 1980. Feng-Yun-2 is China's geostationary meteorological satellite, built by the Shanghai Institute of Satellite Engineering. The spin-stabilized spacecraft is quite similar to the Japanese GMS-5 satellite originally built by the Hughes. The FY-2 satellite is operationally similar to GMS with high resolution stretched VISSR data (5km IR, 5km WV, 1.25km VIS), low resolution Wefax (analog), DCP capability and a new digital S-band fax service (CCITT G3) for domestic distribution of charts and imagery. The attitude of the satellite is spin stabilized with a speed of 100 rotation/min. The spacecraft is slightly more massive than PRC's DFH-2 communications satellite. The Feng Yun 2 spacecraft bus diameter is 2.1 m, and the total height on-station is about 4.5 m.

In 1994 the long-awaited Feng Yun 2 GEO meteorological spacecraft was to be launched and positioned at 105 degrees E. The first Feng Yun 2 satellite was undergoing final check-out on 2 April 1994 before being mated to its launch vehicle when a fire and explosion erupted, destroying the vehicle, killing one worker, and injuring 20 or more others. A second Feng Yun 2 spacecraft was not expected to be ready until late 1995 at the earliest (References 625-631).

The Chinese Meteorological Administration (CMA) launched FY-2B to 105 degrees East longitude on 10 June 1997 on a CZ-3 booster from Xichang, and the satellite began regular service late in 1997. On 8 April 1998, FY-2 ceased transmission of images due to a problem with the S-band antenna on the spacecraft.

The FY-2B geostationary meteorological satellite was launched into space on June 25, 2000 with LM-3 from Xi Chang Satellite Launch Center. On July 3, the satellite was successfully positioned at 105?. The on-orbit test for the satellite is going well with all indicators showing that the satellite and the multi-channel scan radiometer are in normal status. The Beijing Meteorological Satellite Ground Station received the first visible image from the satellite at 13:08pm July 6, 2000. On July 20, 2000 the infrared channels were opened. The operational broadcast of the satellite started on January 1, 2001. The S-VISSR data and WEFAX image are open to all users within the transmission coverage.

According to the plan, there were three FY-2 (FY-2C, D and FY-2E) satellites to be manufactured. These three satellites are still spin-stabilized. The main difference from the FY-2A/B is that these three satellites, the radiometer will have five spectral channels. The space resolution of the radiometer remains the same.

China's first independently developed weather satellite formally sent its first visible cloud picture. China's Central Meteorological Station received the first picture of the Fengyun-2 C on 01 January 2005. The Fengyun-2 C was launched into space in October 2004. It monitors the temperature and the clouds above China and neighbouring areas and is able to provide meteorological information for the Asia-Pacific region.

FY-2 satellite data is open for international users. User stations covered by FY-2A can receive S-VISSR high resolution digital data and WEFAX low resolution analogue data from FY-2A.

With the launch of FY-2D on 8 December 2006, China's first geostationary meteorological satellite system, the formation of the binary observation model, greatly improve the timeliness of meteorological satellite cloud images.

The FY-2D will provide accurate and timely information about weather changes during the Beijing Olympic Games, in particular for opening and closing ceremonies. The FY-2D, developed and manufactured by the Aerospace Technology Shanghai Academy affiliated to the China Aerospace Science and Industry Corp., can observe weather changes continuously and will be able to transmit satellite infrared pictures of form and of the cloud structure and to analyze data of the visible light. It will form an observation system with two satellite Fengyun-2C, the first geostationary meteorological satellite of China, put into orbit 19 October 2004. The two satellites have their own observation tasks, but can replace each other in case of failure, according to the BMC.

After the successful launch of its second geostationary meteorological satellite Fengyun-2D (FY-2D), an official of the China Meteorological Administration (BMC) said Fengyun-2E, Fengyun-2E, Fengyun-2G and Fengyun-2H will be launched in 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014 respectively,

By 2007, China had successfully launched four geostationary meteorological satellites, including two satellites FY-2A and FY-2B, which had stopped working, and were moved out of the geosynchronous orbit.

The satellite "Fengyun II 06" was successfully launched 24 December 2008 from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center wtih the launch vehicle of the type "Long March 3A". Fengyun II 06 stars (FY-2E) was launched at the end of 2008 to replace the FY-2C. "Fengyun II 06" is used for meteorological observations and to collect meteorological, marine and hydrological data and transmit them.

Fengyun-II 07, was launched on 13 January 2012 and was still operating orbit at the end of 2014. The Long March 3A rocket that was used to carry the satellite into space is a product of the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, another CASC subsidiary. Friday's launch marked the 157th Long March rocket launch.

The Fengyun-II 08 satellite, launched from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in Sichuan province on 31 December 2014, will be used to collect meteorological and environmental information. The data will be used for weather forecasting and climate monitoring, Xinhua reported. The satellite and the Long March 3A rocket, which delivered the satellite to near-earth orbit, were constructed by China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, according to news agency.

The FY-2 program ground system consists of a command and data acquisition station (CDAS), a data process center (DPC), a satellite operation control center (SOCC), ranging stations (one primary station, three secondary stations including one in Australia), widely dispersed data collection platforms (DCP), medium-scale data utilization stations (MDUS) and small-scale data utilization stations (SDUS), and a ground communications system,


Main Parameters of the FY-2 Onboard Remote Sensing Detector 
Channel         Spectral   Instant.   Sub-sat   Spin Rate    Scan Time 
                range      POV        Point     Cycles/min   per pict.
                (micro     (micro-    resolu-                (minutes)
                meters)     rad)      tion (Km)  
==================================================================
Visible         0.55-1.05    35       1.25       100          25
IR              10.5-12.5   140       5          100          25 
Water vapor     5.7-7.1     140       5          100          25
==================================================================
Major Performance:
Launch Mass: 1,380kg
Stabilization dual spin
Power: 300w
Design Lift: 3-4 years






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