Center for Resources Satellite Data and Applications (CRESDA)
China Center for Resources Satellite Data and Applications (CRESDA) was formally established in October 1991 with approval of the Ministry of Personnel Affairs. It is a scientific research and operation institution under the supervision of the State Planning Commission and Commission of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense. China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation is responsible for the administrative management of CRESDA.
CBERS-1, the first in a series of earth resources satellites, was launched on October 14, 1999. This satellite is used for many units including application institutions and end-users, so the operation and the use of this satellite must be under cooperative supervision by national integrated departments. The purposes and tenets of CRESDA are to assist in the development of China's space technology; bring about economic benefits to China; and provide high quality and effective services for the State Council, Central Military Commission, the related departments of the government and local authorities.
The main responsibilities of CRESDA are: (1) to implement the government's policies on satellite applications; (2) to put forward strategies, long-term plans, annual plans and financial budgets on the development of resources satellites; (3) to be responsible for program design, engineering supervision, and technical coordination and operational management for application system of the resources satellite; (4) to put forward a proposal on utilization requests and development direction of resources satellite series based on the development of user community and research results; (5) to organize the research and development activities for applications, technologies and approach of resources satellite data; (6) to provide data on resources, environment, and natural disaster, etc. for macro-decision to governments and end-users respectively; (7) to study and draw up standards about the technologies and qualities of China Resources Satellite Application System; and (8) to organize research on the application of earth observing satellite all over the world.
The application of earth resources satellite data is the most important to an application center. CRESDA is responsible for the construction of application demonstration and analysis model. Taking CBERS-1 satellite data as the main information source, CRESDA plans to construct (1) a dynamic monitoring system for agriculture, forestry, water conservancy, land use, etc.; (2) a quick response system to disasters in agriculture, forestry, flood, and drought effects; and (3) demonstration systems applied to other related fields.
CRESDA is also responsible for the construction of data simulation and application evaluation of China's earth resources satellite data. The main responsibilities of CRESDA are (1) to evaluate the quality of early data and its applications; (2) to offer the real-time absolute radiometric calibration data and validation data in order to meet the needs of quantitative remote sensing; and (3) to create a high spatial and spectral resolution ground-truth database which will play an important role in the selection and design of subsequent satellites in the CBERS series.
China's earth resources satellite series will play a very important role in resources investigation and the monitoring of environment disasters. Earth resources satellite data can be applied to such fields as agriculture, forestry, water resources, land use, cartography, mineral exploration and ocean investigations. It can provide useful information about quantity, quality, and distribution of such resources. It is mainly used in crop monitoring and yield estimation, urban planning, land use, map compilation and resources exploitation/protection.
Another important application of resources satellite data is environment monitoring, administration and protection. The data can also be used to monitor the changes of river channels, lakes and glaciers, as well as grassland degradation, soil erosion/loss and soil desertification /saltification. Applications of resources satellite data to disaster monitoring include prediction and evaluation of losses caused by flood, monitoring of forest fire and earthquake occurrences and providing basic data for governmental decision-making in disaster fighting and relief.
CRESDA is composed of 11 branches such as system technology, data pre-processing, application and research, operation management, and data distribution, etc.. The number of people working in CRESDA is limited to 70 with the help of deeper reform of its personnel system. CRESDA is very flexible and can invite experts and people from other organizations. Since its establishment in 1991, CRESDA closely circumfused the project design and the development of its application systems with the warm solicitude and support of leaders and administrative offices at all levels. The leaders of CRESDA always pay attention to encouraging employees efficiency through the hiring practices of one person for multiple functions and one has one specialty, but multiple abilities. The data processing system and optical product processing system have been now in operation since CBERS-1 was launched. The wide applications of the CBERS-1 in governmental macro-decision making and other areas will give a great impetus to social and economic development.
The Data Processing Center of CRESDA has several subsystems such as data preprocessing, data distribution and user service, operational management, etc.. The center can provide four-level products for each type of three sensors (CCD, IRMSS and WFI) for CBERS-1, which can cover the entire Chinese mainland, neighboring seas, and some regions of peripheral countries. To meet the needs of users, this center can provide four types of product media, which are CD-ROM, 4-mm cartridge tape, 8-mm cartridge tape, and 9-track 1/2 industry steam tape. The procedure for HDT data ingesting, data management and the generation of image products is highly automatic. The Data Processing Center has production capacity of 50 scenes each for Level 2 and Level 3 CCD and IRMSS and 8 scenes each for Level 2 and Level 3 WFI images respectively. Because the CBERS-1 has a total of 11 spectral bands of its three cameras, and 3 receiving stations,the data processing system has an unprecedented scale with respect to the processing speed and capacity.
The system is also equipped with an automatic robot tape library management system with a total capacity of 12.6 TB (360 DLT tapes), which can store all Level 0 image data (raw data) obtained in the 2-year lifetime of the spacecraft. The method of data archiving facilitates the generation of image products and utilization on demand. To develop large data storage, the data archiving and storage capacity can be increased by expanding robot tape libraries.
The data processing system has some distinguished features such as versatile query, simple and quick ordering operation, etc.. Users can access desired image data through a GUI by longitude/latitude of row /path searching or by picking out the area of interest in the displayed map. Users can also perform browse image?queries based on acquisition date, sensor type, operational mode, receiving station, cloudy coverage and scene ID. Quests through the entire database of archived scenes are very rapid and the results are quickly displayed for user selection. By means of man-machine conversation, users can fill in order forms by themselves in a user-friendly fashion or let an operator help finish the order. The processing system has flexible software and hardware structure, which can be easily expanded to meet the needs of new missions and new sensor types.
In order to generate optical image products, the data distribution and user service subsystem is equipped with a large-scale optical product processing system which is composed of: 1) Enlarger, development devices for color and black-and-white films (positive and negative), and photo products; 2) An advanced LC-3000 film recorder, which can produce positive and negative films. Color and black-and -white negative films produced by the film recorder can be enlarged to produce various remote sensing images at different scales; 3) A most advanced Light Jet-5000 RS laser digital imager, which can also produce a variety of color and black-and-white images at different scales, and the maximum photo size is about 1.27m×2.44m.
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