640-1 Project - FanJi 1/2/3 Interceptors
The Chinese anti-missile system shared in part the vision of the United States Sentinel and Safeguard anti-missile systems. The United States in building these ABM system planned to use the LIM-49A Spartan exo-atmospheric missile interceptor, and the Sprint low-altitude missile interceptors. In the 640-1 projects in China, "Counterattack-III" would be like the United States Spartan, to intercept missiles outside the atmosphere, and the "Counterattack-I" and "Counterattack-II" would be like "Sprint" as the intercept inside the atmosphere.
However, China's "Counterattack" series of interceptor missiles differed in detail. China was developing the "Counterattack-I" in almost in the shape of the United States Sprint interceptor missile, and the "Counterattack-III" missile was almost exactly the same as the "Spartan", almost a "Spartan" twin brother. China was able to imitate the U.S. missiles because of the a large number of publications on the topic of missile defense books, and some books also revealed a number of technical details, resulting in leakage.
The project was launched with very strong political overtones, so the technical parameters were set too high. The Second Academy's 26 Institute had direct responsibility for China's antiballistic missile program.
On November 23th, 1964, the State Council decided to set up the Seventh Ministry of Machine-Building Industries. In 1970 the Seventh Machine-Building Ministry establisehd the general plan to develop by 1974 the main strategic missile (ICBM missiles and anti-submarine missiles, anti-satellite missiles), in time to catch up with the United States, the Soviet Union level.
The Second Institute's mission was to develop over four years the ABM system, the early warning systems, identification systems, weapons systems, guidance radar systems, control systems and other components. It was even required to build by 1974 China's first anti-missile and anti-satellite systems, so that one can intercept 15-30 incoming warheads.
This changed after the reform and opening up of Deng Xiaoping in 1978. Those in power realized that this is unrealistic, simply to achieve unconditionally high targets. Another example is the high-altitude interceptor missile counterattack III, requiring a double intercept capability, which the United States was still studying the project. Clearly China had underestimated the technical difficulty of the project, which were too far ahead of China's non-technical and economic realities whatever the results of the final fight series of missiles.
The Sufa Sheng Treasure Island conflict in 1969 shocked the world, when Soviet Defense Minister Grechko publicly clamored to call on China a "surgical nuclear strike". China began a referendum on alert. In the universal nature of the "dig deep, wide grain" movement, anti-missile program became imminent, the Institute began to focus on the "back" series of anti-missile interceptor missiles launched research.
In the "Counterattack" series Interceptor ("640-1" project), there were three low-altitude interception system to "fight One" and "counter-II" missiles. High-altitude interceptor system, mainly by the "counter-III" missile weapon system.
In May 1964, when he was fifty, Defence Academy second branch leader Qian Song Jian, wrote to propose that low-altitude interceptor should be developed anti-missile system (interceptor missile was named "Red-81 No.", later renamed "Counterattack One"), the main performance indicators: Identify a height of 80 kilometers; interception altitude of 15 km or so; missile flying time of about 20 seconds, the missile average speed 1,500 m / sec.
Thus, with the basic form of the "Counter-One" indicators envisaged, the Institute began to technical design work. December 22, 1965, seven local men worked to develop and produce programs assessment project. This required two homes to carry out the "red flag-81 number" anti-missile missiles advance research. By 19-20 February 1966, the Institute developed a "red flag-81 number" three rounds of small scale model flying experiments, which were a success.
"Counterattack One," the pilot system of programs to intercept medium-range ground missile "DF III" reentry warhead for the trial objectives, the system comprising: a missile, target precision tracking radar, radar-guided missile launching devices, and these intercept system and equipment linked into the remote early warning radar ("110" radar) work together command post.
In August 1970, "counterattack One" first made bomb in a base model flight tests carried out to reach the target. In April 1972, "counterattack One" 01 batches two independent loops telemetry bomb sent to complete assembly, the factory delivery. The so-called missile telemetry model, is in addition to without warhead, other and live is the same, the site of installation warhead installed some test instrument for testing. On May 15, telemetry missile flight test was launched from the base in Kunming (Yunnan Province on the reason why "110" radar installation in Yunnan), but shortly after launch, the missile exploded in the air, the first test launch of a missile was a telemetry failure.
Premier Zhou indicated after hearing the news: "Do not rush to hit the second hair, to seriously find out the problem, and then take steps to re-consider playing second hair." CMC Vice Chairman Ye Jianying also instructions, requiring good quality. The Second Institute then quickly held a working meeting, a careful analysis and discussion to identify the test failures.
It was decided to strengthen the ground test, and took two technical measures: Strengthening the whole shells particular transition cabin heat and improved engine ignition. After a trial ground, and achieved satisfactory results. August 1979 to September, "counterattack One" base in Kunming successfully carried out two rounds of missile flight test telemetry model. Relevant test is completed, the Central Military Commission and relevant departments of the "counter-One" interceptor missile's overall performance is satisfactory, and began plans to build China near Beijing, the first "fight One" deployment of ABM systems, the initial set up an "anti- conduction zone."
After the Beijing Conference in 1969, the second Academy officially began developing a "Counterattack-1" No. ABM interceptor missile. From the current point of view, a "counterattack-1" using two liquid rocket engines, guidance mode for the semi-active radar beam guidance, can rely on the lower altitude Fragmentation warhead to destroy incoming missiles. In August 1979 "counterattack" -1 No. conducted two flight tests, no warhead missile succeede
d in effectively meeting the target within a radius of destruction. Military to "fight back" -1 numbers were more satisfied with the overall performance, and began plans to build near Beijing the first "counterattack" -1 No. ABM interceptor missile launch position, initially built a ballistic missile strikes can be prevented zone. However, in March 1980, as national political and economic changes in the environment, the program was terminated.
Photos shows slightly different FanJi 1 ABM interceptor designs. One missile lacked the “stick connectors” between the first- and second-stage as shown in previous photos, and had a different paint scheme.
Following the "counterattack" -1 number, the second Academy made the first attempt in the seventies "rebuttal" -2 Lower Floor space ABM interceptor missile. In order to equip anti-missile defense area, in the "fight One," developed at the same time, the Institute launched in 1970 low-altitude interceptor weapon system "rebuttal II" program demonstration and development work to determine its tactical indicators are: range of 50 km, interception altitude of 20-40 kilometers. October 1971 to April 1972, "counterattack II" were carried out six times a small-scale (1:5) model catapult missile test, 5 of which have been successful.
But since then, because the missile range combat with a "counterattack" -1 numbers overlap, 1973 State terminated "counterattack" -2 development.
In June 1971 National Defense Science and Technology Commission and the Air Force held a joint meeting that decided to start developing high-altitude interceptor weapon, named after the "counterattack III." "Counterattack III" is a few hundred kilometers in altitude, in outer space to intercept incoming enemy warhead missile weapon system, the system by missiles, "715" precision-guided radar, "7010" early warning (target) radar, command post and ground equipment.
"Counterattack III" missile had three solid motors, a maximum diameter of 1.4 meters, the use of emission from underground wells the way. "Counterattack III" was quite advanced with a double block concept, which is to ensure in an interceptor missile did not hit the target in the case, there is time to launch a second interceptor missile to intercept guarantee results.
In 1974, in the "fight back" -1 number, a "counterattack" -2, based on the second Institute began a "counterattack" -3 development. Compared with the previous two models, a "counterattack" -3 using three liquid rocket engines , space can be at a higher level to intercept incoming targets. In order to improve the efficiency of destruction, "counterattack" -3 charge number of conventional and nuclear warhead charge two kinds to choose from. However, due to technical limitations force "counterattack" -3 No. progress was not smooth, and ultimately discontinued in 1977.
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