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TENCAP [SIGINT & IMINT] - 1991 Desert Storm Snapshot

Programs

Sources

Other Resources

The purpose of the Tactical Exploitation of National Capabilities [TENCAP] Program is to exploit the current and future tactical potential of national space systems and to integrate these capabilities into operational military decisionmaking as rapidly as possible. TENCAP provides the commander access to national assets and the information they provide. TENCAP is also known as Joint Tactical Exploitation of National Systems [J-TENS]. These programs are mirrored by the National Exploitation of Tactical Capabilities [NETCAP] which provides tactical sensor input to national intelligence agencies and consumers.

Programs

A - Army

63730A Tactical Surveillance System TENCAP(44)

The Tactical Surveillance System project supports advanced development work directed at meeting the deep intelligence and targeting needs of tactical commanders as stated in Field Manual 100-5 and under Airland Battle tactics to fight out-numbered and win. Specific tactical imagery exploitation studies and developments are under the Army's Tactical Exploitation of National Capabilities (TENCAP) program and includes development of the tactical Imagery Processing and Dissemination System (IPDS) as part of the Joint Services Imagery Processing System (JSIPS) program with USAF and USMC. The IPDS will provide direct operational access to National and theater imagery in near-real-time to provide critical, deep target intelligence support to tactical commanders as well as support contingency missions and low intensity conflicts. Advanced development of the Tactical Radar Correlator (TRAC) which enhances survivability and ensures receipt of selected theater imagery sources directly to the IPDS for exploitation was performed in this project, but transfers to engineering development (PE #0604740A) in FY 1991. These efforts are all directed at meeting the Army's need for timely information on enemy forces under day, night, and all weather conditions anywhere in the world.

Further details may be found at the Top Secret Special Access Level in the Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities (TIARA) Congressional Justification Book, Volume VI, and the TENCAP Master Plan.

Current activities include continued joint development within the JSIPS program for the second IPDS development system, conduct of imagery exploitation studies to include secondary imagery dissemination and low-volume tactical terminals, and development of tactical processing and exploitation enhancements for new sensor technology.

In-house efforts accomplished by US Army Topographic Engineering Center (TEC), Ft Belvoir, Virginia. Contractors include: E-Systems, Garland, Texas; Aerospace Corp, El Segundo, California; MRI, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia; and Science Applications Inc., Tucson, Arizona.

63745A Tactical Electronic Support Systems - Advanced Development

D535 Intelligence Fusion Analysis Demonstration(45)

Program funds development of advanced intelligence fusion analysis technologies and validation. This project satisfies the urgent requirement for an automated intelligence processing system. Intelligence fusion analysis provides for the application of advanced computer science/artificial intelligence concepts to intelligence processing systems. Development and validation of this technology will identify and support product improvements to enhance the All Source Analysis System (ASAS), both during development and after fielding.

In-house developing organizations are: US Army Communications-Electronics Command (CECOM) Center for Signals Warfare, Vint Hill Farms Station, Warrenton, Va; and the Program Manager, ASAS Mclean, Va. Major contractor for Intelligence Fusion Analysis Demonstration is Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA.

63766A Tactical Electronic Surveillance System Advanced Development(46)

Supports the tactical commanders intelligence requirements for contingency force deployment and deep battle targeting as stated in Field Manual 100-5. Specific signal intelligence and multispectral developments are managed within the Army's Tactical Exploitation of National Capabilities (TENCAP) program. The scope of the program is to seek specific data and information available from existing and emerging national and selected theater capabilities that meet stated Army tactical intelligence information and targeting needs and deficiencies, and develop concepts, techniques and prototype processors to exploit the critical data for near-real time integration into the appropriate tactical echelon.

Specific details are provided at the Top Secret Special Access Level in the Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities (TIARA) Congressional Justification Book, and in the Army TENCAP Master Plan.

Continued analyses to define optimum tactical interfaces to emerging national capabilities, and refinement of advanced capabilities for integration of Tactical Data Information Exchange System - B/Tactical Receive Equipment (TADIXS-B/TRE) capabilities into existing Electronic Process and Dissemination Systems (EPDS), as well as on-going interface/coordination with other service TENCAP activities.

Began efforts to configure Tactical High Mobility Terminal (THMT) capabilities for increased rapid response (TENCAP) support for light/contingency forces.

Initiated development of Mobile Integrated Tactical Terminal (MlTT) downsized TENCAP interface(s) for special combat requirements within non-intelligence/electronic warfare (IEW) mission areas (i.e., Air Defense, Field Artillery, Aviation)

Deployed 4 EPDS, 3 Enhanced Tactical User Terminals (ETUT), 5 Tactical High Mobility Terminals (THMT), and 7 Forward Area Secondary Imagery Dissemination Tactical Related Application (FAST) prototyped TADIXS-B/TRE and imagery receive and display terminals to SW Asia in support of Desert Shield/Desert Storm. Integrated TADIXS-B/TRE receive capability into 17 designated TENCAP systems which supported targeting and provided early SCUD missile warning to maneuver Corps and Divisions

Work performed by in-house development agencies: US Army Information Systems Command, Fort Huachuca, AZ. Contractor is the Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, CA.

64321A All Source Analysis System(47)

This project funds the Block I development of the Army All Source Analysis System (ASAS). The successful execution of military operations requires an intelligence and targeting system that will provide Army commanders a common view of the battlefield at all levels. ASAS is a tactically deployable ADP system used to manage intelligence and electronic warfare (IEW) operations and to develop targets within the Army Command and Control System respectively. ASAS systems are located in Army active & reserve divisions, corps, and echelons-above-corps (EAC) units. These systems are comprised of several hardware modules: Data Processor Set Module (Common name: ASAS Interface Module) (AIM) which processes intelligence data; Communications Control Set (Common name: Forward Sensor Interface & Control Set) (FSIC) module, which provides inter-enclave communications and security protection Workstation Computer Graphics (Common name: Portable ASAS Workstation) (PAWS), which is the primary user interface with the system, at the Tactical Operations Center Support Element. HAWKEYE is the primary workstation at the Military Intelligence Battalion. TIGER provides the relay between the forward sensors and the FSIC The Technical Control and Analysis Center (TCAC) provided the communications interface for HAWKEYE at the Communications Electronic Warfare Intelligence (CEWI) unit. Fielding to Force Package I units begins in FY 93.

All Source Analysis System (ASAS) test and evaluation will be an iterative process to support an evolutionary acquisition strategy. After the completion of contractor testing, the Government will conduct both technical and operational testing on each major development block. The U.S. Army Electronic Proving Ground will conduct a Pre-Production Qualification Test (PPQT). These test results will be evaluated and reported by the Army Materiel System Analysis Agency. The operational test will be conducted by the Operational Test and Evaluation Command using trained soldiers to operate and maintain the system. A tactical simulator (TACSIM) will be used to provide realistic sensor input to systems being tested. Test results will be supplemented with simulation data provided by US Army TRADOC Analysis Center, White Sands Missile Range, NM. Development test and evaluation (DT&E) for the Data Processor Set (Common name: ASAS/ENSCE Interface Module) (AIM) and the Communications Control Set (Common name: Forward Sensor Interface and Control) (FSIC) module as well as operational test and evaluation field trials of both modules.

Work is performed by the Project Manager, ASAS under the Program Executive Office for Command and Control Systems (PEO-CCS) is responsible for development and acquisition of ASAS. The prime contractor is Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA. Major subcontractors are: Martin Marietta Corp., Denver, CO; Loral Corp., San Jose, CA; McDonnell Douglas, Huntington Beach, CA; TRW, Redondo Beach, CA; and Mantech, Pasadena, CA.

ASAS Block Improvement - The ASAS Block II Evolutionary Acquisition Program provides funds during FY92-96 for converting ASAS systems to Army Tactical Command and Control System (ATCCS) Common Hardware and Software. Additional software functionality to include jump capability, degraded operations, collateral enclave, and hardware and software diagnostics will be developed. Hardware improvements will include modifications to existing hardware to convert to ATCCS common hardware systems.

Project DB20 - ASAS Software Block Improvement Program: Evolutionary development, Block III - of the US Army All Source Analysis System. Block m upgrades will provide new capability in automated support for image intelligence (IMINT), human intelligence (HUMINT), operational security (OPSEC), electronic warfare (EW), and will update current capabilities in all-source situation analysis, communication intelligence (COMINT), electronic intelligence (ELINT), collection management and target analysis. The evolutionary software development will be accomplished using Ada. Accomplishments include definition of collateral enclave requirements through the system design review (SDR) as specified by DoD Standard 2167A, and preparation of draft functional requirement documentation for block II.

Project D396 - TACSIM - Tactical Simulation is used as the intelligence module of the Corps Battle Simulation (CBS), formerly Joint Exercise Support System (JESS). In this use, TACSIM provides critical, raw, intelligence data depicting the simulated battlefield. The data are analyzed within the training exercise to support command and control decision making by Corps/Division commanders and staffs. This project supported design of a Rapid Scenario Preparation Unit for Intelligence (RASPUTIN), that incorporates 1) digital map data, 2) weather, 3) real-world and notional force structures, and 4) tactics and doctrine in a way that will allow a user to script a high-fidelity scenario with minimal input.

Work is supervised by Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) Test and Experimental Command (TEXCOM), Ft. Hood, TX. Hardware work is performed by Contel Federal Systems, and software work is performed by Mystech Associates, Falls Church, VA;

64740F Tactical Surveillance System - Engineering Development TENCAP(48)

This project supports engineering development work directed at meeting the deep intelligence and targeting needs of tactical commanders as stated in Field Manual 100 5 and under Airland Battle tactics to fight out-numbered and win. Specific tactical imagery exploitation studies and developments are under the Army's Tactical Exploitation of National Capabilities (TENCAP) program. Prior efforts include development of the Tactical Image Exploitation System TacISES and Interim TacISES.Current efforts include: maintaining sensor interface of the existing Imagery Exploitation Systems (IES) and engineering development and testing of the Tactical Radar Correlator (TRAC), which transfers from Tactical Surveillance System Advanced Development (PE #0603740 D560) in FY 1991. These tasks will provide direct operational access to National and theater imagery in near-real time to provide critical, deep target intelligence support to tactical commanders as well as to support contingency missions and low intensity conflicts. These efforts are all directed at meeting the Army's need for timely information on enemy forces under day, night, and all weather conditions anywhere in the world.

Further details may be found at the Top Secret Special Access Level in the Tactical intelligence and Related Activities (TIARA) Congressional Justification Book (CJB), Volume VI, and the TENCAP Master Plan.

In 1991, this program initiated modernization program for XVIII Air Borne Corps (ABC) and USAREUR IES (MIES) to increase performance, downsize and guarantee maintainability. Deployed TRAC and USAREUR IES to SW Asia to support operation DESERT STORM. USAREUR-ES was the imagery receiver for the theater command and TRAC supported over 311 TR-1 missions and processed 35,000 images. Efforts in 1992 included continued modernization program for IES, and initiation of development of enhanced TRAC (FIRAC) system which is a downsized TRAC using a common synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processor and is capable of processing signals from multiple inputs. In 1993 activities include fielding the modernized ES to XVIII Corps and continue development of MES for USAREUR, and continue development of ETRAC and common SAR processor.

Work is performed by in-house efforts accomplished by US Army Topographic Engineering Center (TEC), Ft Belvoir, VA. Contractors include Aerospace Corp., El Segundo, CA; DBA, Inc., Melbourne, FL; and SAIC, Dayton, OH.

64745F Tactical Electronic Surveillance System TENCAP(49)

This project supports the engineering development directed at meeting the tactical commanders intelligence mission requirements for contingency force deployment and deep battle--surveillance and targeting - as stated in Field Manual 100 5. Specific signals intelligence (SIGINT) and multi-spectral developments are managed within the Army's Tactical Exploitation of National Capabilities (TENCAP) program. Activities include development and testing of the Tactical ELINT Processor - TEP and Interim TEP.

Subsequent to FY 1982, this activity was funded under 64766A Tactical Electronic Surveillance System TENCAP.

64766A Tactical Electronic Surveillance System TENCAP(50)

This project supports the engineering development directed at meeting the tactical commanders intelligence mission requirements for contingency force deployment and deep battle--surveillance and targeting - as stated in Field Manual 100 5. Specific signals intelligence (SIGINT) and multi-spectral developments are managed within the Army's Tactical Exploitation of National Capabilities (TENCAP) program. The scope of the program is directed towards advanced techniques and capabilities to exploit National and selected theater capabilities that uniquely meet stated Army tactical intelligence and targeting needs and deficiencies, for near-real-time receipt, analysis, and dissemination into the appropriate tactical echelon. As a result of events during Desert Shield/Desert Storm, in FY 92 the Congress mandated that in the near-term Tactical Warning/Attack Assessment (TW/AA) capabilities be provided by direct data down link to the theater level tactical commander by means of a mobile tactical terminal.

To support this congressional intent, the Office of the Secretary of Defense provided $15.0 Million for FY93 to the US Army for the required engineering development to exploit the US Army Strategic Defense Command's (USASDC) Tactical Surveillance Demonstration (TSD). Specific details are provided at the Top Secret Special Access Level in the Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities (TIARA) Congressional Justification Book (CJB). Volume VI, and in the Army TENCAP Master Plan.

Software support for the Prototype All Source Analysis System (ASAS) Work Station (PAWS) based Tactical High Mobility Terminal (THMT) was not funded after 1990 in the TENCAP program, and support had not yet been picked up by the ASAS Program. When the decision was made to deploy the PAWS-based THMT to Saudi Arabia, software upgrades were required. These included bringing the system to the current software level of other TENCAP THMTs that were baselined on Perkin-Elmer computers (vis-a-vis) the VAX-based PAWS, and to include the ability to accept the Tactical Event Reporting Scenario (TERS)-SCUD alert messages. These upgrades totaled approximately $650K which was reimbursed in the FY92 Desert Storm Supplemental.

Continued integration of Tactical Data Information Exchange System-B/Tactical Receive Equipment (TADIXS-B/TRE) capabilities into existing systems. Initiated engineering development, application software upgrade evaluation to support location of critical nodes, targeting and specific emitter identification and tracking

Continued refinements of the Electronic Processing Dissemination (EPDS) family of equipments to fully exploit the national capabilities; and the upgrade these systems to Defense Intelligence Agency directed National Imagery Transmission Format (NITF). Continue upgrades for the refinement of the Electronic Processing and Dissemination (EPDS) suite of equipments to fully exploit national capabilities to meet the changing threat environment. Continue upgrades for the refinement of the EPDS suite of equipments to fully exploit the national capabilities to meet the changing threat environment.

Began development of prototype Mobile Integrated Tactical Terminal (MlTT), downsized Tactical High Mobility Terminal (THMT) for deployment with light and contingency forces. Continue development of prototype MITT for deployment with light and contingency forces. Complete Prototype development and support fielding and testing of the initial MITT based on the commercial "open architecture" baseline.

Continued joint programs to exploit National capabilities for tactical force enhancements, to include Collection Management Support Tools (CMST) efforts with the Navy for CMST Upgrades. Continue CMST improvements to include a new man-made interface on-line dynamic data base updates and a color printer.

Continue support to field exercises, Joint Chiefs of Staff special projects, and demonstrations utilizing TENCAP systems and techniques in operational scenarios.

Engineer and develop downsized system hardware, and install re-hosted software on new mobile TSD tactical terminal, and complete end-to-end hardware and software test. Define and develop necessary operations and training requirements and manuals for the TSD terminals. Coordinate and accomplish integration of necessary communications suite for incorporation with the TSD hardware/software suite. Develop necessary support requirements and package for TSD tactical terminal and related communications suite

In addition to previously described mission, in FY93, the engineering development of a mobile tactical terminal for enhanced stereo processing of infrared satellite data will be accomplished.

Deployed 4 EPDS, 3 Enhanced Tactical User Terminals (ETUT), S THMT, and 7 Forward Area Secondary Imagery Dissemination Tactical Related Application (FAST) Prototyped TADIXS-B/TRE and imagery receive and display terminals to SW Asia in support of Desert Shield/Desert Storm. Integrated TADIXS-B/TRE receive capability into 17 designated TENCAP Systems which supported targeting and provided early SCUD Missile and provided early SCUD Missile warning to maneuver CORPS and divisions.

Work is performed by in-house development agencies: USASDC, Huntsville, AL, Fairfax, VA; CECOM, Ft. Momnouth, NJ; Contractors include Gen Corp AEROJET Space Systems Division, Azusa, CA.

Prior to FY 1983, this activity was funded under 64745A Tactical Electronic Surveillance System TENCAP.

B - Navy

25670N Tactical Intelligence Processing(51)

The Shipboard Tactical Intelligence Processing System (STIP) is an integrated tactical shipboard processing system which is the central data base for the Navy Tactical Command System-Afloat (NTCS-A), Space and Electronic Warfare Console (SEWC), and tactical mission planning systems. Developing this integrated data base server provides for data distribution, including dynamic update for Naval Warfare Tactical Data Base (NWTDB), and Military Integrated Intelligence Data System / Intelligence Data Base (MIIDS/IDB). It also supports integration with digital map and imagery systems. STIP began inter-service development with the Joint Services Imagery Processing Systems - Navy (JSIPS-N) in 1990. This work includes integration of the SYQ-9(V)/MIIDS/IDB with dynamic data base update and compression techniques to support digital imagery via available communication paths, as well as integration of hardware to support Sensitive Compartmented Information (SCI) requirements. Additional efforts include development of improved digital imagery transmission capability for the Fleet Imagery Support Terminal (FIST).

Work is performed by NAVELEXACT, St. Inigoes, MD; NAVOCEANSYSCEN, San Diego, CA, and NAVELEXSYSENGACT, Philadelphia, PA. Contractors include Planning Research Corp., McClean, VA, and SAIC, Vienna, VA.

26625M Marine Corps Intelligence Systems (Operational Systems)

C1296 Joint Services Imagery Processing System JSIPS-N)(52)

The Joint Services Imagery Processing System (JSIPS) is intended to exploit and analyze multi-sensor digital imagery in soft copy format. JSIPS supports downlink of both tactical and national imagery in near-real time. The planned acquisition of eight processor stations will eventually replace the current Imagery Interpretation and Imagery Processing Subsystems of the Marine Air Ground Intelligence System, which only have the capability of analyzing visible-spectrum hard copy. The soft copy digital data linked imagery exploitation capability of the JSIPS becomes a critical requirement with the replacement of the RF-4B aircraft with the F/A-18(R) data-linked aircraft.

Work is performed by Air Force Electronic Systems Center, Hanscom AFB, MA, with the prime contractor, E-Systems, Garland, TX.

Prior to 1989, this activity was funded under 64718M Project C1296 All Source Image Processor.

31303N Field Operations Intelligence Office (TENCAP)

Navy and Marine Corps TENCAP is performed by the Naval Space and Warfare Systems Command and the Naval Supply Systems Command.(53) This "provides direction and management of overall ocean surveillance and targeting programs by the Director, Command and Control Programs....[It] provides for a continuation of a 1978 Congressional initiative to investigate tactical applications of National assets to Navy missions and to develop tactical concepts to utilize those systems in the out-years."(54)

The Navy's increasing reliance on space intelligence is notable. "The Navy appears to operate with considerably more space-derived sensor data than is generally appreciated. An October 1982 Signal issue featured an article on OSIS by a former naval intelligence officer who disclosed that the Navy has operated satellites `placed in various orbits to not only detect, locate and disseminate information on surface contacts but to photograph units as well.'"(55)

"Today we use over three-quarters of the tactical data gathered by National space systems," according to Dr. E. Ann Berman, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy. She notes the need to expand the Navy's tactical use of space for surveillance, "first, by more affective leveraging of National assets; and second, by designing, developing, acquiring, and operating tactical space systems dedicated to our warfare commanders."(56) Naval Space Command Commodore Richard H. Truly concurred, as he considered direct fleet support the preeminent mission of his command, and this includes "...exploring methods for improving national systems support through such programs as Tactical Exploitations of National Capabilities."(57)

Navy TENCAP aims "to exploit all available National and Service sensor systems for tactical support to fleet operational commanders....and provides support to fleet exercises, which will provide background for development of modifications to existing programs and assist in establishing/validating requirements for new programs."(58) In 1985 Navy TENCAP refined collection management support; evaluated and tested Blue Force Location System using national assets; trained to operating forces in National Systems exploitation; developed analysis capability to evaluate contributions of National Systems to exercise operations; investigated cross-cuing of National Sensors using inputs from the OSIS; supported OTH Targeting concept development; upgraded Naval Wargaming. In 1986 the Navy worked on collection Management Support; prepared testing of tactical support applications of man in space; prepared tactical impact statement on new National Sensor Systems; In 1987 the Navy participated in JCS TENCAP Special Project and arranged non-routine support from national Systems for fleet exercises.(59)

In 1985, the TENCAP program incorporated the TADIX-B and National Systems Enhancement Tactical Support projects.(60) Other related Navy activities include the Naval Command and Control System (NCCS) System Engineering and Integration; Navy Command and Control, Afloat, which include the Outlaw Shark terminal for submarine and the Outlaw Hawk terminal on aircraft carriers; and the Navy Command and Control System, Ashore Nodes. "These are key elements of Tactical Satellite Reconnaissance Office (TENCAP) initiatives whereby national sensors are continually being tasked and outputs evaluated to analyze time and quality of receipt through each of these elements in reaching the tactical commander."(61)

34114N Special Activities Support(62)

Includes costs specifically identified and related to Navy support of special classified projects information on resources will be provided only on a "need to know" basis to authorized personnel identified on the proper special access list.

35166N Special Development(63)

Includes personnel authorizations, peculiar and support equipment, necessary facilities and the associated costs specifically identified and measurable to the following: Costs specifically identified and related to Navy support of Classic Wizard, a classified project, for which information on resources will be provided only on a "need to know" basis to authorized personnel identified on a special access list.

63451N Tactical Space Operations - Project X2055(64)

The Space Surveillance Development project evaluates maturing technologies to assess their applicability to space-based wide-area ocean surveillance programs, including assessment of test results for possible technology transfer to space-based ocean surveillance programs. A major activity of this project is work conducted under the 24 September 1987 International Exchange Program agreement with the United Kingdom (IEP-1987-UK-DOD-02) on exchange of space-based radar and infrared radiometry technical data.

Work on this project is conducted by the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC. There are no outside industrial contractors.

63730M Marine Corps Intelligence/Electronics Warfare Systems

Project C1296 All Source Image Processor

The Project supports the development of the Joint Services Imagery Processing System (JSIPS) is intended to exploit and analyze multi-sensor digital imagery in soft copy format. JSIPS supports downlink of both tactical and national imagery in near-real time.

Starting in 1989, this activity was funded under 26625M Marine Corps Intelligence Systems (Operational Systems).

64718M Marine Corps Intelligence/Electronics Warfare Systems

Project C1296 All Source Image Processor

The Project supports the development of the Joint Services Imagery Processing System (JSIPS) is intended to exploit and analyze multi-sensor digital imagery in soft copy format. JSIPS supports downlink of both tactical and national imagery in near-real time.

Starting in 1989, this activity was funded under 26625M Marine Corps Intelligence Systems (Operational Systems).

65155N Fleet Tactical Development and Evaluation

Project R0131 Fleet Tactical Development & Evaluation(65)

This program provides commanders in the Fleet with technical and analytical support during fleet operations, exercises, and operational experiments for the purposes of developing and evaluating tactics necessary to achieve maximum combat readiness of operational forces and systems.

Activities under Project R0131 in 1982 included taking advantage of emerging technology in capability of receiving real-time satellite photography to support planning and conduct of amphibious operations.

65867N C2 Surveillance / Reconnaissance Support (TENCAP)(66)

The Command & Control Surveillance / Reconnaissance Support program provides resources for Tactical Exploitation of National Capabilities (TENCAP), which was established by Congressional direction in 1977. This program consists of three projects. The Tactical Satellite Reconnaissance Office (Project Z1034) is the Navy's point of contact between the National Reconnaissance Office, the National Security Agency, and the Central Imagery Office. The Space Management Support project (R2007) supports various Navy space research and development projects and space systems testing. The Navy Space Systems Activity (Project X1368) is located in Los Angeles and is the primary field support activity of the Navy Space Program Office.

65871M TENCAP Marine Corps(67)

This program is designed to enhance the ability of tactical Marine Corps forces to exploit the capabilities of national intelligence gathering systems. Congressionally directed, it requires close liaison with the intelligence community, particularly the Defense Special Projects Office (DSPO) and involves complex and highly-sensitive activities. Activities include preparation of Marine Corps Master Intelligence Plan (MCMIP), Imagery Plan (MCIIP) and TENCAP Plan, participation in National Intelligence System Development (NISD) and the Corrective Actions Review Committee, and preparation of Tactical Impact Statements (TIS) for three future national systems. The project also initiated exploration and demonstration of alternate communication/dissemination paths, and provided intelligence collection management and secondary imagery dissemination equipment for field test and evaluation.

Work is performed by SPAWAR, Washington, DC; NSSC (NAVSUP), Washington, DC, and NOSC, San Diego, CA. There are no outside industry contractors.

C - Air Force

Spaceborne Equipment COMSEC

Includes personnel authorizations, peculiar and support equipment, necessary facilities and the associated costs specifically concerned with or in support of the Communications Security (COMSEC) efforts related to Air Force spacecraft. This includes personnel directly related to spacecraft COMSEC RDT&E; the generation and distribution of keying material; COMSEC surveillance; COMSEC doctrine; engineering and technical support; compromising emanations; and depot maintenance of COMSEC materials.

Space Systems COMSEC - Other

Includes personnel authorizations, peculiar and support equipment, necessary facilities and the associated costs specifically concerned with or in support of the Communications Security (COMSEC) efforts related to Air Force space systems. It also includes all other resources, equipment, and facilities related to COMSEC RDT&E; procurement of cryptographic and crypto-ancillary equipment and their associated spares; modification, distribution and storage of that equipment; the generation and distribution of keying material; Tempest efforts and facilities; COMSEC surveillance; and the depot maintenance of COMSEC materials.

27217F Follow-On Tactical Reconnaissance System(68)

The Joint Service Imagery Processing System (JSIPS) provides a common transportable system capable of receiving, processing, exploiting, and disseminating, in softcopy or hardcopy, digital imagery. JSIPS will replace the costly and manpower/logistics intensive Photo Processing and Interpretation Facilities (PPIFs) associated with the RF-4C. JSIPS can be configured in one~,of~three ways: National Receive Segment; Tactical Receive Segment; or National.and Tactical Receive Segments. JSIPS will meet the Tactical Commander's need for timely and responsive imagery for the detection, location and classification of tactical targets. The tactical JSIPS will support USAF, USN, and USMC manned and unmanned reconnaissance vehicles carrying the Tactical Air Reconnaissance System (TARS) sensor suite. Under the JSIPS project, the USAF will also develop a Mission Verification System (MVS) for unit-level operations. The MVS supports training, sensor maintenance, and is capable of first phase exploitation.

Electronic Systems Center, Hanscom AFB MA, has responsibility for in-house management. The contractor for full-scale development of the Joint Service Imagery Processing System (JSIPS) is E-Systems, Garland TX. Subcontractors supporting the JSIPS project include Brunswlck, Marion, VA (Shelters); CALSPAN, Alexandria, VA (CATIS Augmentation); Autometric, Alexandria, VA (Hard Copy Exploitation); Datatape, Pasadena, CA (Digital Tape Unit); Paramax, Salt Lake City, UT (Data Link); and CONTEL, Westlake Village, CA (IWS Software Testing/CATIS Integration).

27247F TENCAP Air Force(69)

The Tactical Exploitation of National Capabilities (TENCAP) program objective is to improve national systems support for combat operations. This includes: 1) educate warfighters about national systems, 2) Advocate tactical missions for new national systems, 3) Influence the design and operation of new national systems, and 4) Exploit tactical use of existing systems. Activities in 1992 included TALON SWORD exploration of use of national information in-cockpit and support of Advanced Defensive Avionics Response Strategy program, TALON JADE Support of PACOM Korean exercise, TALON SCENE/STAMP support for precision guided weapons programs, ECLIPSE CHARLIE support for Special Operations Forces (SOF) exercise, and organization, training, equipping Forward Space Support Teams to support JFACC & combat units. 1993 activities include establishment of the Space Applications Project Office, TALON HOOK support to the Combat Survivor/Evader Locator Program, TALON LINK interface TENCAP simulation and wargaming with exercise and training, support of the planned USAFE Air/Space Tactics Center, and support of BLACK FLAG development of AF doctrine and tactics.

Future work will focus on restructuring and expanding the program in direct response to significant changes underway in the national systems architecture, including influence design of emerging national systems and begin development of national systems to match.

The 1977 House/Senate Joint Appropriations Conference Committee directed the AF to establish and maintain TENCAP organization. HQ Pamphlet 21-1 (U), Mission Statement for the National systems Requirements and Integration Division (HQ USAF/XORR), assigns AF/XORR as the Office of Primary Responsibility for the AF TENCAP program. PD/NSC-37 (U), National Space Policy direct the AF to be directly involved in specifying the requirements to influence the design of future National space systems. Defense Appropriations Bill, 1980, report No. 96 450 (TS-SI/TK), emphasized TENCAP should provide input in determining capabilities of all new national systems. Related programs include 351591 Defense Reconnaissance Support Program, 35158F Constant Source, 3411lF Special Activities, 31313F Defense Dissemination System.

Field Operating Agent is Air Force Space Command, Peterson AFB, Colorado. Support Command is Air Force Material Command, Space and Missile Center, Los Angeles AFB, California. There are three prime support contractors at this time: 1) Autometrics Inc., 2) McDonnell Douglas, and 3) Space Applications Corp. These contractors provide technical, exercise and demonstration support along with prototype development and acquisition. TENCAP formally interfaces with numerous national programs/agencies, the Major Commands and their components, the Air Staff, Office of the Secretary of Defense, Secretary of the Air Force, and the other Services.

27431F Tactical Air Intelligence System Activities /

Operational Applications of Special Intelligence Systems OASIS

Current Air Force systems for TENCAP applications include the Operational Application of Special Intelligence System (OASIS) at the Air Force's Tactical Fusion Center co-located with the Allied Forces Central Europe (AFCENT) Static War Headquarters (SWHQ) at Boerfink in West Germany.(70) OASIS will provide a "complete integrated air and ground situation assessment, based on both NATO's operations data and data from United States special intelligence sources."(71) This includes two-way links between OASIS and the USAFE Combat Operations Intelligence Center (COIC) at Ramstein AB, Germany.

31313F Defense Dissemination Program

Includes costs specifically identified and measurable to special classified projects for which information on resources assigned will be provided only on a "need to know" basis to authorized personnel identified on a special access list.

31339F Intelligence Telecommunications & Defense Special Security(72)

Includes personnel authorizations, peculiar and support equipment, necessary facilities and associated costs specifically Identified and measurable for the Special Intelligence Telecommunications (SPINTCOM) network, other telecommunications used primarily to transmit special compartmented intelligence and collateral information, and certain sensitive and privacy information to and between intelligence organizations. Includes:

Subscriber costs of switched backbone costs (CSIF trunks and switch operations). Telecommunications terminal devices nd communications equipment including processors used as switching and distribution devices; spares and supplies for the devices.

Leased costs of AUTODIN switched network access lines. Other communications circuits and terminal equipment including Installation charges. IDHS communications devices nd services required for communications between IDHS computer sites and between computers and remote users (for purposes of this definition, a user or device is termed "r-mote" normally when it is outside the physical security perimeter within which the computer system resides).

base communications for installations with a primary mission of intelligence. Nonrecord telecommunications facilities for the exchange of intelligence information; and Dod component activities participating in INTELLCOMM and Defense Special Security System (DSSS) located worldwide.

Excludes:

Personnel at network switches operated under the Communications Services Industrial Fund (CSIF).

COMSEC resources included in PE 334010, switched network backbone costs included in PE 331260, and Cryptological communications resources, included in PE 310550.

Costs of shared leased and government-owned common user channels traditionally provided in the general service communications programs, i.e., STARCOM, NAVCAM, and AIRCOM.

Costs of equipment -- computer miniframes, peripheral devices, communications processors - which service initially every user but are primarily dedicated to other military purposes.

35158F CONSTANT SOURCE(73)

This program established as part of-the AF TENCAP normalization effort. Program leverages national and tactical capabilities to deliver near-real-time threat information directly to combat units/aircrews for mission planning and mission execution. This information enables air crews to effectively avoid, defeat, or destroy enemy threat systems. Project 4071 Constant Source efforts include software engineering, P31 upgrades, and development of a miniaturized, airborne qualified, multi-channel, multi-source capability (i.e., receive and correlate inputs from national and tactical sources simultaneously) for airborne and ground deployment. Recent accomplishments include continued development of the airborne qualified system called the Multi-mission Advanced Tactical Terminal (MATT), with two flyable-MATT prototypes completed and integrated into SOF aircraft. The Army is developing a similar capability (the Commanders Tactical Terminal Hybrid Receive-only CTTHR) to the Constant Source MATT airborne system. Other related activities include 28019F Tactical Cryptologic Activities, 35885G Tactical Cryptologic Program, 35159I Defense Reconnaissance Support Program, and 34111F Special Activities.

Work is managed jointly by the Directorate of Communication and Intelligence Systems, Electronic Systems Center (ESC/IC), Hanscom AFB, MA and the Navy's Systems Application Program Office (SAPO), Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR 42). Top four contractors include Assurance Technology Corp., Carlisle, MA; BTG, Inc., Vienna, VA; Mnemonics, Inc., Melbourne, FL; and Harris Corp., Melbourne, FL

35159F Defense Reconnaissance Support Program

Includes costs specifically identified and measurable to special classified projects for which information on resources assigned will be provided only on a "need to know" basis to authorized personnel identified on a special access list.

[ The Defense Reconnaissance Support Program apparently funds processing and dissemination systems designed to enhance the ability of strategic forces to exploit the capabilities of national intelligence gathering systems, and to improve national systems support for combat operations. It is related to but distinct from the Tactical Exploitation of National Capabilities (TENCAP) program. ]

35185F CAVALRY

Includes costs specifically identified and measurable to special classified projects for which information on resources assigned will be provided only on a "need to know" basis to authorized personnel identified on a special access list.

63238F Global Surveillance / Precision Strike

Advanced Surveillance Satellite(74)

Directly supports Advanced Technology Demonstrations under the revised OSD Science and Technology (S&T) Investment Strategy by developing and demonstrating key technologies to support Precision Strike and Air Superiority and Defense thrusts. Project 4185 will simulate, integrate, and demonstrate air vehicle, strike planning, and weapon technologies to meet the capability to achieve affordable, adverse-weather (night/day) precision strike (less than three meters circular error probable (CEP)) with conventional munitions from standoff distances against time-critical fixed and mobile (stationary) surface targets. This includes: enroute targeting, using data from on-board sensors or data from off-board assets such as a reconnaissance aircraft; responsive mission planning; precision weapon deliver,v; and battle damage assessment. The focus includes: fusion of multi-source sensor data; linking information to shooter aircraft to produce required targeting data for download to weapon; command, control, communication, and near-real-time (minutes not hours) mission planning; strike option generation and analysis; battle damage assessment; and replan/restrike decisions. Project 4216 will simulate, integrate, and demonstrate technologies required to extend the global grid concept into any theater of conflict, at any time, in support of any mission. The project focus is on employing existing commercial fiber-optic communication infrastructure in the world coupled with additional links from the "end-points" of the commercial network to the war-fighting force. Project 4217 will simulate, integrate, and demonstrate technologies for assured superiority in aerial combat environments, spanning from beyond-visual-range to within-visual-range, to successfully engage, kill, and survive existing threats. The project focus is on improved combat situation awareness, expanded weapon launch and lethal envelopes, and improved abilities to defeat or avoid threats with an advanced air-to-air attack capability. Simulations, both digital and pilot-in-the-loop, will be used to determine design requirements and most cost-effective method of providing assured air superiority.

63260F Intelligence Advanced Development

Includes costs specifically identified and measurable to special classified projects for which information on resources assigned will be provided only on a "need to know" basis to authorized personnel identified on a special access list.

64238F Constant Pices

Includes costs specifically identified and measurable to special classified projects for which information on resources assigned will be provided only on a "need to know" basis to authorized personnel identified on a special access list.

64321F Joint Tactical Fusion Program

The Joint Tactical Fusion Program was a joint Army/Air Force effort to develop a near-real-time (NRT), all-source, tactical intelligence fusion and processing/ dissemination system. The joint program office was disestablished in Dec 90 and the Air Force is proceeding with the development of an Intelligence Correlation Module (ICM), which was formerly called the Tactical Air Force (TAF) Linked Operations/Intelligence Centers - Europe (LOCE) Capability (TAFLC). The air combat forces have a need to rapidly (on a NRT basis) exploit time-sensitive and high volume multi-sensor information. The ICM will be fielded at the Combat Air Force Air Operations Centers (AOCs) to support Air Tasking Order (ATO) generation. The ICM will interface with the unit level intelligence system, Sentinel Byte. and force level intelligence systems. an effort to meet Theater Battle Management goals (specifically, provide a correlated intelligence display of enemy activity to support the planning and execution of the battle), this program element funds the development of software into an open system standard architecture, hosting the software in the ACC Contingency Theater Automated Planning System (CTAPS), and development of an SCI-level capability for ACC, USAFE and PACAF. ICM will be used to support theater missile defense beginning in FY 1994.

AFMC/Electronic Systems Center is the Air Force in-house developing organization. Contractors are BTG Corporation, Vienna, VA, and PRC Corporation, Omaha, NB.

References

44. Department of the Army, Supporting Data Amended FY 1992 / FY 1993 Biennial Budget Estimate, Descriptive Summaries of the Research, Development, Test & Evaluation Army Appropriation, January 1992, page 337.

45. Department of the Army, Supporting Data Amended FY 1992 / FY 1993 Biennial Budget Estimate, Descriptive Summaries of the Research, Development, Test & Evaluation Army Appropriation, January 1992, page 343.

46. Department of the Army, Supporting Data Amended FY 1992 / FY 1993 Biennial Budget Estimate, Descriptive Summaries of the Research, Development, Test & Evaluation Army Appropriation, January 1992, page 357.

47. Department of the Army, Supporting Data Amended FY 1992 / FY 1993 Biennial Budget Estimate, Descriptive Summaries of the Research, Development, Test & Evaluation Army Appropriation, January 1992, page 427.

48. Department of the Army, Supporting Data Amended FY 1992 / FY 1993 Biennial Budget Estimate, Descriptive Summaries of the Research, Development, Test & Evaluation Army Appropriation, January 1992, page 493.

49. 49 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), The Five Year Defense Program; Book 1 FYDP Program Structure, DoD 7045.7-H, August 1984, page 6A-101.

50. Department of the Army, Supporting Data Amended FY 1992 / FY 1993 Biennial Budget Estimate, Descriptive Summaries of the Research, Development, Test & Evaluation Army Appropriation, January 1992, page 503.

51. Department of the Navy, Amended FY 1992 / FY 1993 Biennial Budget Estimates, RDT&E Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, Navy, January 1992, page 105.

52. Department of the Navy, Supporting Data for the Amended FY1988/1989 Biennial Budget, Budget Estimate Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, Book 3, Tactical Programs, Intelligence & Communications, Defense Wide Mission Support, February 1988, page 680.

53. U.S.Navy, FY 1987 RDT&E Program Element Descriptive Summaries, page 1461.

54. U.S. Navy, FY1987 RDT&E Program Element Descriptive Summaries, page 1455.

55. "Army, Intel Officials Note TENCAP Uses," Military Space, 29 October 1984, page 6.

56. Ann Berman, "Space and Maritime Strategy," IEEE An Anatomy of Space - 86, September 1986, page 23.

57. L.E.P. "Above the Battle: The Naval Space Command," Sea Power, October 1985, page 59.

58. U.S. Navy, FY1987 RDT&E Program Element Descriptive Summaries, page 1456.

59. U.S. Navy FY1987 RDT&E Program Element Descriptive Summaries, pp.1456-1459.

60. U.S. Navy FY1987 RDT&E Program Element Descriptive Summaries, page 1457.

61. U.S. Navy FY1987 RDT&E Program Element Descriptive Summaries, page 1456.

62. 62 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), The Five Year Defense Program; Book 1 FYDP Program Structure, DoD 7045.7-H, August 1984, page 3-29.

63. 63 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), The Five Year Defense Program; Book 1 FYDP Program Structure, DoD 7045.7-H, August 1984, page 3-41.

64. Department of the Navy, Amended FY 1992 / FY 1993 Biennial Budget Estimates, RDT&E Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, Navy, January 1992, page 279.

65. Department of the Navy, FY 1984 Budget Estimates, RDT&E Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, Navy, January 1983, pages 1099-1101.

66. Department of the Navy, Amended FY 1992 / FY 1993 Biennial Budget Estimates, RDT&E Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, Navy, January 1992, page 875.

67. Department of the Navy, Amended FY 1992 / FY 1993 Biennial Budget Estimates, RDT&E Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, Navy, January 1992, page 881.

68. Department of the Air Force, Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1994, Budget Estimate Submission: Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, April 1993, page 53.

69. Department of the Air Force, Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1994, Budget Estimate Submission: Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, April 1993, page 67.

70. "Martin Marietta to Lead Tactical Intelligence Effort," Defense Electronics, January 1985, page 28.

71. U.S. Air Force, FY1985 RDT&E Program Element Descriptive Summaries, page 714-717.

72. 72 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), The Five Year Defense Program; Book 1 FYDP Program Structure, DoD 7045.7-H, August 1984, page 3-9.

73. Department of the Air Force, Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1994, Budget Estimate Submission: Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, April 1993, page 154.

74. Department of the Air Force, Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1994, Budget Estimate Submission: Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, April 1993, page 357.

Other Resources

Army Intelligence Systems Guide

Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin - July-September 96




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