Phased Adaptive Approach (PAA)
On September 17, 2009, President Barack Obama announced the U.S. decision to adopt a new approach to ballistic missile defense in Europe called the European Phased Adaptive Approach (PAA) – a plan where EUCOM would complement NATO’s new strategic concept of incorporating missile defense as a core element of alliance security. The plan proposes a network of sensors, interceptors and associated command-and-control structures to provide regional capability that is flexible, scalable and responsive. It consists of four phases:
- Phase 1: Existing/maturing systems vs. Short Range (SR)/Medium Range Ballistic Missile (MRBM) threat. Sea-based missile defenses will be used as necessary to protect parts of southern Europe. A forward-based sensor also will be fielded to augment existing homeland defense capabilities (2011-2015 timeframe).
- Phase 2: Enhanced missile defense systems vs. SR/MRBM threat. After appropriate testing, the advanced sensors and improved version of SM-3Block 1B interceptor will increase the defended area of Europe, as part of a combination of sea- and land-based configurations that includes an additional SM-3 ballistic missile defense interceptor site in Romania (2015-2018 timeframe).
- Phase 3: Improved area coverage vs. MR/Intermediate Range (IR) BM threat. After development and testing are complete, the more advanced SM-3 Block IIA interceptor will be complemented by a second land-based SM-3 site in Poland as part of a combination of sea- and land-based configurations (2018-2020 timeframe).
International partnerships are critical to this approach and vital to address this common, wide-ranging security challenge. The capabilities it offers provide increased opportunity for international partnering and will trigger cooperative solutions with regional allies and partners.
Washington has said that NATO's U.S.-led missile shield would be aimed not at Russia’s nuclear arsenal, but at missile threats from rogue nations such as Iran and North Korea. Putin, however, said 11 November 2015 that references to threats from Iran and North Korea nuclear threats are "just a cover" for the "true purpose" of the U.S.-led missile shield, which he said is "to neutralize the potential of other nuclear states ... primarily Russia.” The United States "is attempting to achieve strategic military superiority, with all the consequences that entails," Putin said.
The magic words “arms race” were uttered by Vladimir Putin quite deliberately. In his message to the Federal Assembly on 4 December 2014, he said, “We have no intention of getting drawn into a costly arms race.” At the same time, he added, “You can be completely confident that we will safeguard our country’s defence capability in the new circumstances.” He concluded, “Nobody will succeed in gaining military superiority over Russia. Our army is modern and combat-ready. It is, as they say, polite but formidable. We have the strength, the willpower, and the courage to protect our freedom.” It would be a mistake to talk about the start of a new arms race, because the last one never stopped.
"The references to the Iranian and North Korean nuclear threats only disguise true plans. And their true purpose is to neutralize the strategic nuclear potential of other nuclear states, except the United States and its allies, first of all, the nuclear potential of our country, Russia," Putin said 10 November 2015. The United States and its allies continue building the global missile defense system, the Russian president said. "Moreover, unfortunately, they are not taking into account either our concerns or proposals for cooperation," Putin added.
Russia has been assured on many occasions that the European segment of the US missile defense shield is developing in the wake of a threat from Iranian ballistic missiles, the Russian president said. "However, we know that the situation with the Iranian nuclear problem has been settled and the relevant agreements have been signed. Moreover, they have been approved by the relevant parliaments. Nevertheless, the work on anti-missile defense systems is continuing," Putin said.
Therefore, the references to the Iranian and North Korean nuclear threats are only a cover for the US true plans, the Russian president said. "And the US true goals are to neutralize the strategic nuclear potential of other nuclear states, except the United States and its allies, first of all, the nuclear potential of our country, Russia. Hence the desire to get decisive supremacy with all ensuing consequences," Putin said. "We have said on many occasions that Russia will take all necessary measures to strengthen the potential of its strategic nuclear forces," the Russian president said.
Russia will be developing strike systems capable of penetrating any missile defense shield, Russian President Vladimir Putin said on 10 November 2015. "We’ll be working on the anti-missile defense system as well, but at the first stage, as we have said on many occasions, we’ll also be working on strike systems capable of penetrating any anti-missile defense shield," Putin said at a meeting on the development of the Russian Armed Forces. Putin said the meeting would discuss the development of such weapon systems that would determine the outlook of the Russian Armed Forces for the next decade and will become a response to the challenges confronted by Russia.
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