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China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology Astronautics Periodical 2002 issue # 5

月球探测 preliminary tentative plan

 

East    Li    Chen Fujian Province 慷    fruit Lin Li    Zhu Dong Ge

 

(Beijing astronavigation systems engineering design department, Beijing, 100076)

 

The abstract    introduced the domestic and foreign 月球探测 history, the present situation and the development tendency, analyzed our country current technology foundation, proposed our country 月球探测 preliminary technology plan and the tentative plan.

 

The key word    月球探测, the Moon lands, China.

 

A Tentative Idea about Lunar Exploration

 

Li Dong    Chen Minkang    Guo Linli    Zhu Dongge

 

(Beijing Institute ofAstronautical Systems Engineering, Beijing, 100076)

 

Abstract   The history, states and developmenttrend of lunar exploration on domestic and abroad are introduced in this paper. And on the basi s of analysing the current technology base of China, apreliminary technical con cept and tentative idea about the lunar explorationare put forward.

 

Key Words    Lunar exploration, Lunar landing, China.

 

1       states

The Moon is is away from the Earth recent natural heavenly body, on the Moon the attraction is small, does not have the atmosphere, the not strong magnetic field, is the scientific research natural laboratory, also is the astronomical observation and the ideal base which observes to the Earth, may take the deep space survey the relay station. Therefore the world various countries all 月球探测 takes in the astronautics plan the beginning and key. Therefore, in 20th century 60's, on international once raised one 探月 upsurge. The recent years research indicated, the Moon extremely area possibly had 水冰 the existence, moreover in the month of soil contained the rich nuclear power material helium? 3, therefore, now in the world scope again raised 2nd time surveys the Moon the upsurge. In 月球探测 the domain, our country is distanced America and Soviet has fallen behind more than 40 years, this and our country astronautics great nation status is not extremely symmetric. In 1993 and in 1995 the Chinese booster rocket technology research institute once successively two time proposed 探月 the project plan tentative plan, and did the plan proof work, but because of all sorts of reasons, the plan finally not could implement. This article briefly will elaborate to the present our country 探月 project basic mentality tentative plan, soon 探月 the project divides into 3 step realizes: 1st stage mainly develops and launches the Moon extremely axle satellite, and the realization is partial 硬着陆; The 2nd stage develops softly lands the Moon detector, experiments the soft landing technology; The 3rd stage launches the Moon softly lands and returns the detector, releases the Moon robot or the Moon goes on patrol the vehicle, and the experiment returns to the technology, the Moon soil and the rock specimen will return to the Earth.

 

2    domestic and foreign situations synopses

 

2.1    overseas development conditions

 

2.1.1    1st turn of 探月 activity

USA and former Soviet Union in order to fight for the world hegemonic position, once developed in 20th century 60's one turn surveys the Moon the high-tech competition. From 1958 ~ in 1976, American and the former Soviet Communist Party of the Soviet Union launched 83 uninhabited Moon detector, American 36, former Soviet 47, USA also carried the person in the 20th century at the end of 60's realizations ascends the month. Japan also launched 1 flying apsaras Moon detector in January, 1990, along place? Dark green deer 斓 婪 Shang Xiao? And releases 1 feather robe lunar orbit.

2.1.2    2nd turn of 探月 activity

? In 1994 and in 1998, USA succeeded launches 克莱 the gate 汀 with the Moon 探测者 detector, verified the Moon two-pole truly exists massively 水冰. The Moon 水冰 discovery enormously will stimulate the humanity to return the Moon the desire, will speed up the humanity develops and uses the Moon the step. After is away from Apollo ascends the month 25 years, the American Moon 探测者 launch pulled open the world various countries 2nd turn surveys the Moon the prologue.

? In the new turn of 月球探测 activity, USA pushes to the front, USA has announced, plans in 2004 the heavy Xinteng month, in 2010 establishes the permanent base on the Moon, makes use of local materials the processing propellant and the building Moon base material, the mining month surface helium? 3 ships back the Earth. Europe, Japan and Russia also unwillingly falls behind. Europe formulated the European Moon 2000 探月 plans, divided 4 steps carries on: Develops the Moon detector, the development long lasting work on Moon's robot, initially uses the Moon resources and the establishment humanity Moon base. Russia will launch 1 small Moon orbital base, again will launch each kind of survey instrument from the orbital base to the Moon studies the Moon life experience, will inquire about Moon 水冰 resources, develops on Moon extremely rich nuclear fuel helium? 3. Japan to 月球探测 made the very big resolution, month of goddess detector has entered the design and the phase of exploitation. India also has the detailed plan in 月球探测 the aspect, estimates launches Moon detector in 2005 ago, on star disposes advanced metering equipment, estimates link month flies number of lines carries, spends approximately 3500000000 rupees.

? Looks over the world various countries new turn of 探月 plan, returns to the Moon, establishes the Moon base the goal makes clear, the scale is huger, the participation country are more.

 

2.2    domestic research situations

? Our country booster rocket and passes through more than 30 years development using the satellite technology, has obtained the remarkable result, had the launch different use space detector ability, had the stronger nearly spatial survey the technical foundation, but, included 月球探测 in the inside deep space survey, our country still is the blank.

? In 1993 and in 1995, the Chinese booster rocket technology research institute once successively two time proposed 探月 the project plan tentative plan, and did the plan proof work, but because of all sorts of reasons, the plan finally not could implement. Our country astronautics technology and the overseas advanced level compares also has the very big disparity. But the present booster rocket technology and the delivery ability all greatly surpassed American and the former Soviet 30 years ago carries on 1st turn of 探月 when the ability, if carries on 探月 the activity by our country existing astronautics technology strength, may? 1.5? ~ 3.2 t detector sends in rushes the month track. In technical domain and so on the booster rocket, satellite and spatial survey has all had the suitable strength, definitely may carry out 月球探测 the activity.

 

3    our country develops 月球探测 feasible analysis

 

3.1    月球探测 several kind of main patterns

? According to collects overseas 探月 工程资料, may see the overseas launch the Moon detector probably has following several ways: a) flies over the Moon: The detector crossed the Moon from the Moon in the neighborhood of, enters solar system, this way technology difficulty is small, is easy to realize, but 探测时间 is short, the science survey value is not high; b) month surface 硬着陆: The detector directly hits the Moon, this way technology difficulty is small, is easy to realize, but 探测时间 is quite short; c) link month flight: The detector circles the month heart by the ellipse or 圆轨道 the movement, becomes 月球卫星, this way technology difficulty compares the first two ways is complex, but 探测时间 the correlation is long; d) month 面软 landing: The detector realizes the soft landing on the month surface, this way technology difficulty is bigger, but the survey distance is near, has the stronger scientific research significance; e) lands and returns the Earth: The detector realizes the soft landing on the month surface, after the gathering specimen and returns the Earth, this way is quite ideal, but the technical difficulty is big, the economical, the technical condition restriction is been serious. According to the our country existing technical level and the economic potentiality, the launch first Moon detector, should fully consider the use existing technology, but again should compare favorably with the Soviet same year plan has in the technical level progresses. Therefore may consider from plan c) or d) starts to carry on 月球探测 the activity. Simultaneously should establish our country 探月 project the long-term development goal, in " 15 " period completes partial essential technical the attack, strives for or " 十15 " the initial period launches our country in " 15 " the last stage the first Moon detector. お?

 

3.2    our country at present develops 月球探测 technical ability

 

3.2.1    spatial surveys technology

? In recent years, our country carried out the massive space sciences research, the use 探空火箭 and the satellite surveys nearly the spatial magnetic field, the solar beam, the cosmic rays, 空间辐射 the heat flow, the upper air atmosphere density; Surveyed the high energy 质子, the electron, the plasma and the health star catalogue electric potential, as well as monitored the solar activity and so on. Our country has nearly the spatial survey technical foundation, this to 月球探测 is very significant.

? The Chinese booster rocket technology research institute as early as and in 1995 successively two time proposed own in 1993 探月 the project plan tentative plan, although because of all sorts of reasons, this plan finally not could implement, but actually in the spatial environment research, the polysome track design calculation, has ascended above the month cabin overall plan design, the booster rocket aspect and so on level of plan research accumulates the massive rich experiences and the precious research material.

 

3.2.2    booster rockets technologies

Chart 1    CZ-3A series booster rocket

 

Our country astronautics technology and the overseas advanced level compares also has the very big disparity, but the present booster rocket technology and the delivery ability all greatly surpassed American and the former Soviet 30 years ago carries on 1st turn of 探月 when the ability. CZ-3A series rocket includes CZ-3A, CZ-3B, the CZ-3C 3 kind of rockets, may separately 1500 kg, 3200 kg and 2300 kg detector sends in rushes the month track, this 3 kind of rockets even belt has above the low temperature which two time starts the level, may directly send in the detector rushes the month track, is a launch 探月 flight vehicle better choice (see Figure 1); The delivery ability big CZ-3A series rocket, may provide the more deliveries ability, like this may as far as possible use the existing technology, to reduces the Moon detector development difficulty, reduces the development funds, the acceleration development progress has the tangible effect. From now on as a result of Moon detector not only will have in Moon surface landing, but also will have to return the Earth from the Moon, will need the launch quality correlation will be big, will need to deliver an ability bigger booster rocket.

?   According to our country booster rocket plan, in the liquid-oxygen petroleum engine and in the big oxyhydrogen engine existing achievement foundation, the large-scale booster rocket will have the possibility develops and the launch in 2010, at the appointed time might satisfy the Moon drilling sampling returns the flight vehicle the launch request. According to the overall plan which proves, the large-scale booster rocket 3 kind of configuration launches rush the month track ability separately are 4.4 t, 8.1t and 10.6 t, uses the new generation of booster rocket takes the vehicle, definitely can satisfy in the axle detector and the Moon landing, as well as the Moon drilling sampling returns to the flight vehicle the launch request (see Figure 2).

Chart 2    large-scale booster rockets plans

 

3.2.3    returns with 再入 the technology

? Our country success grasped the satellite returns the technology and the warhead 再入 technology, enhanced one step in the existing technical foundation, was allowed to satisfy in the Moon surface landing request.

 

3.2.4    traffic capacities

? At present our country has had diameter 25 m the observation and control antenna, has under the line 接收能力, and has develops 30 m or the bigger caliber antenna ability. Carries on the transformation in the initial period to the existing ground station, but basically satisfies 探月 the project observation and control communication request.

 

3.2.5    useful loads developments ability

? Our country remote sensing and the survey technology development is in the international advanced level, the visible light wave band high resolution sifts the camera, the infrared wave band scanning radiac set, the image formation spectroscope, 微波波段 the radiac set, the altimeter and the scattering counts and so on has obtained the good result on the application satellite, the optics tracking telescope, the radio interferometer and so on locates the international leading level, carries the remote sensing equipment development aspect definitely may satisfy 月球探测 the need in the spatial environment detector and the star.

 

3.2.6    scientific research and application ability

Our country has had the suitable accumulation and the reserve in the space science research aspect, the spatial physics and the spatial environment research, the spatial remote sensing research and the application aspect already forms the powerful research troop.

3.2.7    rockets launch sites

? The Xichang satellite launching center, may take the launch 探月 flight vehicle the place. Future also will have the Hainan launch site may supply the large-scale booster rocket launch heavy 探月 flight vehicle.

 

4    plans tentative plans

探月 the project ultimate objective is establishes on Moon belongs our country own permanent inspection station, the mining month surface serviceable mineral resource, and ships back the Earth, and will carry on more thorough and the widespread deep space survey in the future. Our country development goal should fully consider our country 月球探测 technology start is later, is apart from America and Soviet has lagged more than 40 years present situation, but the rocket, the satellite technical level had far surpassed America and Soviet same year just started 探月 when the level, therefore should not from America and Soviet same year when the start horizontal started, completes the total weight 复性 work, since was disadvantageously progressive to the technology, also lacked the social significance and the political influence. Therefore our country 探月 the project should have the suitable high some beginnings.

? We suggest our country 月球探测 the project development goal may divide into 3 stages, 3 stages mutually link up, form one 探月 project the whole, therefore each stage work completes, builds the foundation for the next stage work: The 1st step, realizes the detector link month flight, namely the launching lug 月球卫星, and the realization is partial 硬着陆; 2nd step, realization month 面软 landing; The 3rd step, realizes the detector softly lands and returns.

 

4.1    1st step: Link 月球卫星 and month surface 硬着陆

 

4.1.1    goals

? Launches the Moon detector, 进入高度 100 km Moon polar region track, the detector completes to the Moon and 近月空间 the survey, the breakthrough 探月 system technology, releases the Moon landing, the realization is partial 硬着陆. Its essential target is:

? a) uses the three-dimensional optics imagery system, gains the Moon surface three dimensional image;

? b) uses the microwave interference technology (microwave radiac set and radar altimeter), the survey month soil thickness, will be on international 1st time carries on the entire Moon month soil thickness survey, thus will calculate the Moon surface nuclear fusion fuel helium? 3 content, resources distribution and reserves;

? c) uses the gamma spectrometer analyzes the Moon surface useful element content and the distribution;

? d) uses the month environment synthesis sounding set survey month space environment;

? e) through releases the Moon landing in the month surface 硬着陆, by certain kinetic energy hit month surface. Through carries on the observation to the hit process, returns to parents' home the soil ingredient carries on the analysis.

 

4.1.2    plans tentative plans

4.1.2.1    overall tentative plans

? This plan and 月球卫星 is composed by booster rocket CZ-3A/SV. Booster rocket CZ-3A/SV is (SV) is composed by three-stage rocket CZ-3A and the general spatial transtage. The general spatial transtage (SV) is the general above level which develops in the CZ-2C FP level foundation, it mainly use in to deliver the deep space useful load, and completes the deep space useful load changes the axle and is mobile.

? This plan tentative plan is: Increases one level of SV in the CZ-3A rocket three levels of foundations, after the rocket passes through three levels of flights and 月球卫星 sends in SV rushes the month track, the SV delivery 月球卫星 flies to the Moon, in selected in recent months neighbor carries on the system fluctuation axle, entered 100km the Moon 极轨道, and after 极轨道 above moved one period of time, SV and the satellite separated, SV by the certain speed in the Moon surface 硬着陆, the whereabouts hit in the Moon process, will concern the data sends back the Earth, indicated arrives month surface. The satellite continues in the Moon 极轨道 above to move, completes the science survey task.

? This plan take the link month survey as the focus, simultaneously uses the rocket delivery ability major characteristic, carries on 硬着陆 the experiment, therefore the choice 硬着陆 way, mainly is considers the technical difficulty is smaller, in the development funds and under the cyclical intense situation, is easy to realize.

? SV in the Moon surface 硬着陆, besides has the certain science survey significance, but also has a bigger political influence and the society affects, is under the development funds limited situation, the realization lands the plan which Moon's one kind is easier to realize, and may for next step carry on the soft landing accumulation experience.

 

4.1.2.2    rockets choices and track design

? The CZ-3A/SV rocket has the low temperature three levels, is 探月 a vehicle better choice. May cause the detector acceleration, obtains enters rushes the month track speed, thus may guarantee 月球卫星 /SV will send in rushes the month track, will apply the brake after SV, will be allowed 月球卫星 to send in 环月轨道 (see Figure 3 ~ 5).

? The CZ-3A/SV rocket uses the integrated redundancy design the control system, may guarantee completes takes off until the month surface 硬着陆 entire process control duty from the rocket, and will build the foundation for the future deep space delivery technology. Uses the CZ-3A/SV realization link month flight may greatly simplify 月球卫星 plan. CZ-3A/SV 环月轨道 enters the axle quality is? 1000 kg? Useful load (月球卫星) the quality is? 500 kg?

? The entire flight path may divide into 4 sections, separately for 上升段, rushes the month section, enters the axle section and SV applies the brake the month section (see Figure 6).

 

 

Chart 3 spatial transtage SV and satellite in CZ-3A 整流罩 center schematic drawing

 

Chart 4    the detector (SV and 月球卫星) composes the plan tentative plan

 

Chart 5    launch 月球卫星 track schematic drawing

 

Chart 6    SV 硬着陆 schematic drawing

 

The main flight succession see Table 1.

 

Table 1    main flight succession

 

Flight path section

Flight procedure

time

Rushes the month flight vehicle leaves the Earth, rushes to the Moon section

The rocket takes off

0

procedure turn

12 s

One, two stage separations

148 s

Two, three stage separations

270 s

Rushes the month flight vehicle leaves the Earth, rushes to the Moon section

Enters nearly anchors the track, starts to slide

630 s

Slides the conclusion, the engine two starts

1230 s

SV and the rocket separates

1460 s

SV along rushes the month track continues to fly

109 h

Applies the brake to enter 环月轨道 the section

Applies the brake the engine ignition

0 s

Applies the brake the engine flameout, 末速 the revision starts

60 s

末速 the revision ended, SV enters 环月轨道

30 s

SV month section

Chooses the month spot, the SV separation, adjusts the posture

0 S

Decelerates the engine ignition

5 s

Decelerates the engine flameout

30 s

Reaches the last month of pregnancy surface, completes 硬着陆

150 s

 

 

4.1.2.3    spatial transtages SV plan

? SV mainly by the structure, the propulsion system, the control system, warm controls the system, the correspondence observation and control system and the power source is composed. Designs fully inherits the model development the mature technology. Basically inherits CZ-2C/FP the mature plan.

? a) the structure mainly uses FP the mature technology.

? b) the propulsion system use solid engine achievement decelerates enters the lunar orbit the energy, the solid engine applies CZ-2C/FP and the CZ- 2E mature technology, the track revision and the attitude control uses the single component liquid engine, its technology in CZ-3, on the CZ-3A series as well as CZ-2E all applied.

? c) the SV control system inertia component uses the small Czechoslovakia association combines, in 上升段 and rocket three cascade control systems composition redundant system. After enters rushes the month track guides the form is the combined guidance, is sensitive and the star using the sun is sensitive carries on the revision to the inertia datum, guarantees in the flight process the attitude control and the guidance request.

? d) warm controls the system the plan uses passively hotly controls the plan, the endophragm cloth wrapper thermal insulation material, to partially has a higher request the component and the instrument uses automatically warm controls the way.

? e) observes and controls the communications system selects unifies the S wave band transmitter, 跟踪信号 by the picture, the telemetry parameter and the range finder 测角 beacon parameter is composed.

? e) the power source system uses take the battery as the focus plan.

? Enters 环月轨道 after SV heavy approximately 500 kg, because selects 硬着陆 the method, the duty is unitary, therefore does not need special strengthen in the structure. Separates after the detector decelerates to the axle, the SV natural whereabouts, is different according to the propellant amount used, may obtain the different month speed, see Table 2.

 

Table 2    each kind of propellant amount used month speed

 

Applies the brake 速度增量

km/s

Month speed

? km/s

Month angle

( °)

The month applies the brake to have to advance the dosage

? kg

Month quality

kg

1.2

2.027

36

173

327

1.7

2.357

46

225

275

2.2

2.74

53

270

230

 

 

 

4.1.2.4    月球卫星

? Its duty is maintains the satellite 环月轨道, guarantees returns to parents' home observation and survey. Mainly by the structure, the control system, warm controls the system, the telemetry system, the power source, the data processing system and the useful load is composed. Sees also chart 3 ~ 4.

4.1.2.5    launch sites and observation and control

? Uses the CZ-3A/SV rocket launch 月球卫星, the launch site chooses the Xichang launch site, 主动段 the flight ground observation and control system is partial may use the current diameter 15 m antenna. Mainly had to solve is the long-distance range deep space observation and control question, our country already grasps the larger-scale antenna technology, if had the necessity may the newly built diameter 30 m observation and control antenna control station. Because the CZ-3A rocket delivery ability is bigger, through increases the dot frequency, enhances the transmitter power and selects method and so on big caliber antenna, may reduce the deep space correspondence observation and control ability the pressure.

4.1.3    essential technologies

? a) polysome 探月 track design and launch window research: Launch lunar orbit computation model and analysis software; Different 探月 轨道发射 window selection principle, procedure and method.

? b) detector plan research: Determines the Moon detector platform overall plan, the SV overall plan.

? c) the deep space hot environment and the detector hotly controls the technical research.

? d) deep space granule environment and electromagnetism protection technology research.

? e) combined guidance technology: Combined guidance system research; Star light guidance technology research.

? f) electrical system integration design: The development satisfies the electrical system which the long time flight needs.

? g) deep space observation and control correspondence plan.

 

4.2    2nd step: The Moon softly lands

4.2.1    goals

? Launches the Moon landing detector, experimental and the breakthrough month 面软 landing technology, carries on the month surface environment survey, 月震 the survey; Launches the Moon goes on patrol the vehicle, to 着陆地区 carries on the inspection.

4.2.2    plans tentative plans

? The plan tentative plan see Table 3.

? In had under the 1st step of 月球卫星 survey technical foundation, developed the Moon soft landing, used CZ-3B rocket +SV the plan, carried on the soft landing launch. The soft landing detector with ascends the month cabin two parts by spatial transtage SV is composed. The after detector departs the dense atmosphere enters nearly anchors the track, chooses the appropriate position acceleration flies to the Moon, applies the brake after SV to decelerate enters 环月轨道, the choice opportune moment, SV with ascends the month cabin separates, when ascends month cabin distance month surface 80 km, applies the brake engine ignition applies the brake, when highly is 4km, ascends the month cabin adjustment for 着陆姿态, decelerates the engine ignition, enable to ascend the month cabin is opposite to Moon's speed is smaller than? 10 m/s? Mays then to realize the month 面软 landing. The track may divide into: 上升段, rushes the month section, enters the axle section, the SV 再入 section, see Figure 7.

 

Table 3    plans tentative plans

 

serial number

Rocket model

Rushes the month track

Delivery ability /kg

Soft landing

Quality /kg

1

CZ-3A

1500

500

2

CZ-3C

2300

800

3

CZ-3B

3200

1250

 

 

? Ascends the month cabin configuration initially uses the cylindrical assembly plan, the lumpy mass is about 1250 kg. The detector mainly by the structure, hotly controls, the control, the observation and control, the power, the power source, the radar and the embarkation instrument division system is composed. The survey cabin overall layout see Figure 8.

? Ascends the month cabin is loaded with decelerates the engine, the landing support, measures the high rate antenna and so on, the flank is loaded with the solar cell windsurfboard, by 伺服机构 actuates the directional antenna and the camera, in the cabin installs the electronic equipment, the embarkation instrument and so on.

? Embarks the instrument according to surveys carries on the science experiment needs to embark the corresponding instrument. May embark 月球车 or the Moon robot, carries on the thorough science inspection and the research.

 

4.3    3rd step: Ascends the month and returns

As the our country 3rd step of 探月 long term plan, the goal is realizes the month surface lands and returns. Its goal is for realize to the Moon resources development and the use, after the realization month 面软 landing, should enable to ascend the month cabin has returns the Earth the ability, depends upon ascends the month cabin carries on the month surface environment survey with the Moon 土壤分析, the research, the Moon soil and the rock will return to the Earth.

According to our country booster rocket plan, the large-scale booster rocket will have the possibility develops and the launch in 2010, at the appointed time might satisfy the Moon drilling sampling returns the flight vehicle the launch request. According to its overall plan, the large-scale booster rocket 3 kind of configuration launch rushes the month track ability separately is? 4.4 t? 8.1 t and 10.6 t, delivery ability biggest configuration namely ties up 4 3.35m auxiliary booster plan rushes the month track ability achieves? 10.6 t? Ascends the month cabin the quality may reach 4 t, definitely may satisfy the Moon drilling sampling returns the flight vehicle the launch request. The preliminary track plan see Figure 9.

 

 

Chart 7    ascends the month cabin track schematic drawing                                    chart 8    ascends the month cabin composition and the layout

 

Chart 9    ascends the month and 返回轨道 the schematic drawing

 

5    tie    theory

  According to the above elaboration, passes through ten several years track overseas 探月 technology and studies in advance, we at present basically have 探月 ability, in " 15 " period carries on the attack to the key essential technology, in addition the present delivery technology, we may step out 探月 the 1st step, realizes the link month flight, new booster rocket research and development, also will walk for us 2nd step of and 3rd step flattens the path.

The Moon said so near to us, also is so mystical, it contain the rich energy and the mineral, is waiting for we develop and the research, the Chinese astronautics strength and 40 years experience enable us to have the confidence and the ability completes 探月 the mission and the duty.



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