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Chapter 6

Patriot Combat Service Support

This chapter provides the doctrine for the combat service support (CSS) of Patriot battalions and batteries. It further discusses CSS provided by the corps support command (COSCOM) and the Theater Army Area Command (TAACOM) to provide an understanding of how they provide support to Patriot battalions assigned at corps or EAC.

To be successful, any concept of operation must be logistically supportable. The battalion commander and his staff must ensure that logistics is an integral part of the total battalion operation planning process. In determining the best COA, the commander must be fully aware of the logistic constraints and limitations, and adjust his COA, or accept the risks entailed by not doing so. Examples for the task organization resources and assets are included to ensure proper understanding, but are not the only method to support the mission. Comprehensive details on logistics are in FM 3-01.13, FM 54-30, FM 4-93.3, FM 4-93.4, FM 100-10 and FM 3-100.16.

PATRIOT SUPPORT CONCEPT

6-1. The logistics concept for the Patriot battalion embodies the principles of responsiveness, flexibility, and initiative. Force-projection operations require that supporters anticipate needs and not wait and react to demands. Central to the ability to do this is constant coordination and detailed planning between supporters and those supported. Battery commanders, personnel officer (S1), and the battalion supply officer (S4) must understand the battalion commander's intent to perform responsively. Close coordination with the battalion S3 is necessary to ensure that batteries with the highest tactical priority receive required support first. Ammunition and bulk fuel resupply, direct support maintenance, personnel replacement, and medical evacuation are requirements with the highest priority depending on the tactical plan. FUs are not self-sustaining. External support is required from HHM, DS Maintenance Company and support systems in general.

6-2 The combat mission of the battalion and batteries remains the foremost consideration in carrying out logistics functions within the battalion. Resources and priorities are tailored to changing combat situations. Maintenance, supply, and other support elements are coordinated and positioned to be instantly responsive to the requirements of the battalion.

ORGANIZATIONS AND FUNCTIONS

6-3. Patriot battalions should emphasize coordination with the ADA brigade, corps, and EAC units to capture all available resources. Commanders at all levels should designate a point of main effort along with supporting efforts. This helps them and their staffs to allocate resources accordingly. Coordination with all levels is critical for overall success of the mission. Without the dissemination of information both to higher and lower, the battle cannot be won. Each unit and section has a specific function needed to provide logistics and support to the FUs. An effective fighting force requires teamwork and cohesion to ensure success on and off the battlefield.

ADA BRIGADE

6-4. Discussion about the ADA brigade is included to facilitate adequate understanding of the support operations conducted at corps and EAC level. The ADA brigade, whether assigned at corps or EAC, concentrates on centralized logistics staff planning to interface with corps and EAC materiel management centers (MMCs).

6-5. At the corps level, the ADA brigade receives support from the COSCOM corps support battalion (CSB) assigned to the corps support group (CSG). In some cases, support may come from the division support command's (DISCOM) forward support battalions (FSBs) and main support battalions (MSBs). With the proper coordination, divisional support units can support Patriot units but will require augmentation from elements of the corps support battalion. Units in the DISCOM can provide general supplies, but do not have the capability to provide adequate maintenance support peculiar to the Patriot system. To draw logistics support from corps support elements through MMCs, the ADA brigade has to centralize its requirements. The central logistics staff planning and visibility function can be accomplished by a logistics readiness center that has responsibility for planning supply, maintenance, transportation, services, and support operations functions. The brigade S4 section interfaces with the corps MMC or their supporting operations section at the corps support group or corps support battalion level. The relationship is METT-TC driven, but it should be pointed out that direct coordination with the corps MMC is not always the case.

6-6. At the EAC level, the ADA brigade receives logistics support from the appropriate functional battalion assigned to the TAACOM's area support groups (ASGs). In some cases, EAC ADA brigade elements operating within corps forward areas receive their support as described above. Because of the large area of operations for an EAC ADA brigade and the wide dispersion of the support elements, the EAC brigade must be aggressive in task-organizing available logistics personnel and assets to provide continuous support.

PATRIOT BATTALION

6-7. The Patriot battalion commander provides logistics support for his organic elements and for any attached elements. Logistics support received through the ADA battalion encompasses those support activities required to sustain campaigns and major operations.

Organization

6-8. Patriot battalion support is provided by the organic supply and maintenance support element of the battalion. It normally deals with Classes I, II, III (package), IV, V, VII, and IX. The batteries coordinate through the battalion to draw or receive support. Higher echelons provide combat elements with food, fuel, ammunition (both conventional and missile), GS maintenance, and medical support when required. The battalion S4 coordinates logistics support for assigned or attached Patriot batteries.

S4 Responsibilities

6-9. The battalion S4 along with all other staff must thoroughly understand the battalion mission. To provide positive and responsive support to each element of the supported force, he must determine the needs of each supported element, when and where it will be done, and how it will be accomplished. The type, quantity, and priority of required logistics support must be understood and defined.

Materiel Supported

6-10. Anticipation and planning are very important for supply Classes II, III, IV, V, VII, and IX and materiel maintenance because all these items and actions are sensitive to variations in weather, terrain, and the tactical situation. Class III and Class V are both particularly sensitive to variations in intensity of combat. Before any type of operation, direct coordination between the S3 and the S4 in both of these areas is required to determine support requirements. Materiel densities in each support area within the battalion must be established so risks may be assessed, proper operational decisions made and adequate supply and maintenance resources allocated to meet support requirements. For Class VIII, medical materiel requirements are based upon medical materiel densities and the level of patient support activity. The environment affects water supply.

Logistic Assets and Functions

6-11. The battalion executive officer is the commander's assistant and also second in command responsible for directing, coordinating, supervising, and training the staff, He is the manager of all administrative and logistical functions within the battalion. In addition, he is normally responsible for coordinating maintenance and reconstitution efforts. As such, he should organize and take advantage of all assets available. Some materiel readiness functions the XO must coordinate throughout the battalion are—

  • Apprising the commander of materiel readiness.

  • Cross leveling within the battalion for required repair parts.

  • Providing assistance to subordinate units on materiel readiness problems.

  • Providing liaison with higher headquarters and outside agencies regarding materiel readiness.

6-12. The XO and the logistics personnel are normally located with the battalion TOC or trains during combat operations. The XO is responsible for the supervising of all tasks assigned to the staff officers. The staff officers continuously provide information and recommendations to the XO on the progress of the battle and related events, which in turn provides the commander with needed information that allows the big picture to be seen.

S1 Responsibilities

6-13. The personnel officer (S1) prepares the personnel estimate, and assists the S4 with preparation of the support annex to the OPORD. The focus during planning must be on maintenance of unit strength and soldier readiness. The S1 is the primary administrative officer. He is responsible for administrative functions within the battalion such as strength accounting, forecasting personnel requirements, replacement operations, and casualty operations. The S1 is also responsible for mail. He is normally located wherever the battalion TOC is during combat operations. The S1 also has primary staff responsibility for enemy prisoner of war (EPW) operations and medical planning. He coordinates with the S2 for interrogation of prisoners and with the S4 for processing captured equipment and for transportation requirements. The S1 coordinates with the battalion surgeon to ensure that patient treatment and evacuation are planned and coordinated throughout the battalion. Personnel support operations maintain unit strength and provide special services to the individual soldier. Personnel support includes but is not limited to—

  • Personnel services.

  • Chaplain activities.

  • Administrative services.

  • Legal services.

  • Health services.

  • Comptroller and finance services.

  • Morale and welfare support services.

  • Personnel automatic data processing support and services.

  • Public affairs.

6-14. The S1 section provides personnel, legal, finance actions, and other general administrative services for the battalion. If the battalion chooses to echelon its trains into combat trains and field trains, the S1 section has personnel at both locations. The S1 and his staff, in the combat train's command post (CP), primarily perform the critical tasks of strength accounting and forecasting, as well as CP functions. S1 personnel in the field trains perform the critical task of casualty reporting, as well as replacement operations, administrative services, personnel actions, legal services, and finance services.

6-15. The S1 plans and coordinates EPW operations, collection points, and evacuation procedures. EPWs are evacuated from the battalion area as rapidly as possible. The capturing battery is responsible for guarding EPWs until relieved by proper authority, recovering weapons and equipment, removing documents with intelligence value, and reporting to the field and combat trains CPs. EPWs may be evacuated to the vicinity of the combat trains for processing and initial interrogation.

6-16. The battalion surgeon operates the battalion aid station. He also coordinates the operations, administration, and logistics of the medical section. This includes coordinating patient evacuation to the supporting medical company and providing support to batteries.

6-17. The medical section sorts, treats, and evacuates casualties or returns them to duty. It carries a basic load of supplies for medical section operations. It is also responsible for maintaining and evacuating battalion medical equipment.

6-18. The chaplain supports the S1 as the morale officer. He conducts religious services, personal and religious counseling, and pastoral care. He may also be asked to provide religious support to the community to include confined or hospitalized personnel, EPWs, civilian detainees, and refugees.

6-19. The S4 is the logistics officer for the battalion, and is responsible for supply, maintenance, services, and transportation of unit personnel and equipment. He forecasts logistical requirements and supports requests from subordinate units. During combat, the S4 concentrates on seven classes of supply: Classes I (subsistence items), II (general supplies and equipment), III (POLs), IV (engineer supplies), V (ammunition), VII (major end items), and IX (repair parts and components). The S4 and headquarters and headquarters battery (HHB) commander coordinate the requisition, receipt, preparation, and delivery of Classes I, III, and V. The S4 is supported by the battalion maintenance officer (BMO) located in the motors section, the food service noncommissioned officer (NCO), and the S4 section (which includes a missile reload section).

6-20. The S4 section is responsible for supply, transportation, and field service functions. The section coordinates requisition and distribution of supplies to battery supply sections and turns in captured supplies and equipment as directed. If the battalion chooses to subdivide its trains into combat trains and field trains, the S4 section has personnel at both locations. They are cross-trained with personnel from the S1 section in critical tasks to permit continuous operations. The supply section coordinates the requisition, receipt, and delivery of Classes II, IV, V, VII, and IX.

6-21. The signal officer is the principal staff officer for all matters concerning signal operations, automation management, network management, and information security. The areas of responsibility may include but are not limited to— managing radio frequencies, managing communication protocols and security, and coordinating the configuration of local area networks that support the force.

6-22. The battalion maintenance officer (BMO) monitors and supervises motor maintenance activities within the battalion. He advises the battalion XO on vehicle repair, conventional maintenance, and recovery operations during peacetime operations. However, in wartime he supports the S4. He monitors the status of the battery motor pools and coordinates with the combat support company (CSC) on priority of repair.

6-23. The electronic missile maintenance officer evaluates, supervises, and monitors Patriot missile maintenance operations throughout the battalion. He advises the battalion XO and the S3 and S4 on Patriot unit system outages, system capabilities, and status. He also assists battery warrant officers with maintenance programs and coordinates with the direct support (DS) unit on repair priority.

Task Force Operations

6-24. Task force (TF) operations with THAAD add additional planning and sustaining operations. When a THAAD battery joins the battalion and a TF is created, the attachment should bring an appropriate "slice" of CSS assets from its parent unit. Likewise, when a Patriot "slice" joins a TF, the TF S4 integrates these assets. The attached unit leader must coordinate with the TF S1 and furnish a copy of his unit battle roster. Thereafter, the attached unit submits reports and requests resupply according to the TF SOP. Everyone involved must understand his responsibilities and those of the CSS organizations.

PATRIOT BATTERY

6-25. The fire unit is the lowest tactical organizational unit with personnel designated by the modified table of organization and equipment (MTOE) to perform logistics functions. Battery elements perform unit-level maintenance and supervise unit supply operations. It is at the battery level that supplies requests, personnel status reports, and other requirements for logistics support originate.

Battery Headquarters

6-26. The Patriot firing battery headquarters has a command element, supply element, food service element, maintenance, and security section (when augmented). The first sergeant is the one who usually controls the unit trains consisting of mess teams, supply section, and medics.

Battery Elements

6-27. The battery commander has overall responsibility for logistics in the battery. During combat operations, the battery XO, first sergeant, motor sergeant and battery warrant officer assist in the supervision and execution of logistics operations.

6-28. The battery XO is the logistics coordinator. During preparation for the operation, he coordinates closely with the first sergeant, the conventional motor maintenance officer, and the Patriot missile system technician to determine what is required and makes sure arrangements have been made to support the tactical plan. Besides his tactical requirements, he manages and monitors the battery's logistics operations. The XO also receives periodic maintenance updates from platoon leaders, platoon sergeants, the first sergeant, and warrant officers.

6-29. The motor sergeant supports the battery maintenance officer and ensures all maintenance procedures are properly followed. Other section supervisors will also ensure that proper organizational maintenance is performed on equipment assigned to their respective sections. The motor sergeant organizes and supervises motor maintenance and advises the XO and first sergeant on vehicle recovery, repair, and destruction. He directs the motor maintenance and ensures requests for repair parts are prepared and forwarded to the direct support unit. This NCO distributes repair parts when they are received and supervises exchange and cannibalization when authority is delegated to him. He coordinates with platoon sergeants for maintenance status of the platoons. POL handlers fall under control of the motor sergeant, all requests and waste products are turned into the motor NCO for approval

6-30. The Patriot missile systems technicians are extremely important logistics members of the Patriot battery. They are the Patriot system experts. They are responsible for maintaining all Patriot equipment assigned to the battery according to the maintenance SOP. These officers, using the unit-level logistics system (ULLS), control the Patriot prescribed load list (PLL), and the usage of Patriot peculiar repair parts. They advise the platoon leaders and battery commander on Patriot system capabilities, limitations, and equipment status. They coordinate among battery officers to ensure Patriot peculiar parts and supplies are available for maintaining a mission-capable posture. They direct the actions of Patriot system maintenance personnel and ensure Patriot equipment outages, work orders, and requisitions for repair are initiated and recorded. Patriot warrant officers ensure Patriot equipment status reports are forwarded to the battalion per SOP. The systems maintenance officer is normally located in the battery maintenance group during combat operations, but may be located with the battery CP as necessary for coordination of missile maintenance and logistics actions.

6-31. The first sergeant is the battery's primary CSS operator. He executes the battery logistical plan, relying heavily on the battery and battalion SOP. The first sergeant directly supervises and controls the battery trains. He receives CSS reports from the platoon sergeants, provides information to the XO, helps the XO complete CSS preparations, and plans and conducts CSS operations. He also receives, consolidates, and forwards all administrative, personnel, and casualty reports to the battalion trains. He directs the medical evacuation team forward when the situation requires. He orients new personnel to the battery and assigns replacements to the platoons. The first sergeant supervises the evacuation of casualties, EPWs, and damaged equipment. Additionally, he maintains the battle roster for the battery.

6-32. The motor section personnel, using the ULLS, maintain the unit's conventional PLL. Standardized combat PLL items set forth in the mandatory parts list for the unit's TOE must be stocked in the PLL. Other items may be stocked, based upon demands and availability of funds. Arms room equipment, NBC equipment, and dining facility equipment must be considered when designing a unit's PLL.

6-33. The supply sergeant is the battery's representative to the battalion CSS elements. He submits requests for issue and turn-in of Class II, IV, VII, VIII (first aid and combat lifesaver supplies only), and IX items. The supply sergeant coordinates with the battalion S4 for Class I, III, and V supplies. He maintains individual supply and clothing records and picks up personnel replacements at the battalion and or task force trains, and prepares them for the first sergeant. He also receives and evacuates personnel killed in action (KIA) to the mortuary affairs collection point in the support area.

6-34. The supply personnel maintain the battery commander's hand receipts, as well as run other supply room functions. It is the supply sergeant's job to maintain the subhand receipts, as well as the component listings. Supply is responsible for ordering supplies for the unit.

6-35. The supervisors assigned to the various sections in the unit are responsible to ensure that all supply procedures are properly followed. It is the section sergeant's responsibility to ensure that all of the equipment under his control is properly accounted for and sub-hand-receipted down to the lowest level possible.

Combat Support Company (DS)

6-36. This company provides maintenance support to HHB and up to 6 Patriot batteries through the battalion (6 batteries is based on location of theater). It repairs automotive, communications, communications security (COMSEC), construction, power generation, small arms, quartermaster, chemical, and utilities equipment. It performs metal-working functions and repairs special electronic devices and tactical microwave systems. The company also conducts 120-day and longer interval preventive maintenance checks and services. For nonsystem equipment, the DS company provides the following support to the Patriot battalion and battery:

  • The technical supply section manages the flow of repair parts. This section stocks and dispenses repair parts used by the supported units.

  • The augmentation team provides DS and general support (GS) maintenance for the Patriot missile system at EAC or corps. This support includes limited base shop and two maintenance support teams (MSTs) for Patriot peculiar equipment, limited Class IX (base shop and MST) support.

  • The conventional maintenance platoon provides automotive, communications, COMSEC, power, and air-conditioning repairs for the Patriot battalion.

PLANNING

6-37. Logistics planning ensures support during all phases of an operation. The plan is developed concurrently with the tactical plan. Supporting plans are as detailed as planning time permits. Using SOPs and planning for contingencies will greatly assist the logistics staff officers in the planning efforts. Task force orders only address deviations from the routine planning priorities established in the SOP.

PRINCIPLES

6-38. Successful operations depend on three basic principles. These principles must direct the logistics effort as follows:

  • Logistics functions are anticipatory in nature and are performed as far forward as the tactical situation permits. Support must be continuous, using immediately available assets. Ammunition, fuels, parts, end items, maintenance personnel, and replacements are "pushed" forward to the combat trains, unit maintenance collection point (if established), and logistical release points (LRPs).

  • Logistics planning is a continuous function. Coordination among tactical planners and logistics planners is essential and addresses all factors that can greatly affect the tactical mission.

  • Staff officers and commanders must act rather than react to support requirements. Personal involvement, remaining abreast of the tactical situation and on-the-scene appraisal of the situation are critical to mission accomplishment.

SUPPORT OF COMBAT OPERATIONS

6-39. Logistical planning begins when the unit starts to formulate a tactical plan. The XO and the S4 must participate in developing the logistics annex to the tactical plan. The planning process begins when the battalion commander provides mission guidance to the staff. The XO and other staff follow the planning process outlined in FM 101-5. The logistics estimate is an analysis of logistics factors affecting mission accomplishment. Logistics planners use these estimates to recommend COAs and to develop plans to support selected concepts of operation. The key concerns of ADA battalion logistics planners are the status of supply Classes III, V, and IX, and the operational status of ADA equipment, generators, and associated vehicles. To ensure effective support, logistics planners must understand the commander's tactical plans and intent. They must know—

  • What each of the supported elements will be doing.

  • When they will do it.

  • How they will do it.

6-40. After analyzing the concept of operations, logistics planners must be able to accurately predict support requirements. They determine—

  • What type of support is required.

  • What quantities of support are required.

  • The priority of support, by type and unit.

  • Capabilities and shortfalls of support that is required.

  • Analysis and solutions for shortfalls/situations.

OPERATIONS

6-41. Patriot battalion and battery commanders can ensure flexibility by tailoring organizations and methods. They should not allow themselves or their organizations to be bound by traditional support methods. Logistics planners, for their part, must accept deviation from plans as routine. They must use initiative to carry out their responsibilities, know the CSS requirements of their forces and the details of operational plans, and devise innovative ways to support the plan and reduce the risks.

6-42. The battalion's combat mission must remain the first consideration in the task organization. Resources and priorities must be adapted to changing combat situations. Assets must be flexible enough to support from any base arrangement and still be able to survive and accomplish their mission. Maintenance, supply, and other support elements must be instantly responsive to the requirements of the unit. All of this means continual and direct coordination between operations planners (battalion S3).

6-43. In coordination with the battalion S3, the S4 must establish priorities for support. Ammunition and bulk fuel resupply, DS maintenance, personnel replacement, and medical evacuation may all have high priority, depending on the tactical plan. Effective communications must be maintained between the Patriot battalion staff and the staff of the ADA brigade to determine the support requirements of the battalion and to coordinate support activities.

6-44. Close coordination is also necessary to ensure that units with the highest tactical priority receive their required support first. Effective communications and coordination enable support elements to emphasize the flow of supplies rather than the buildup of stocks. It may be necessary to stock critical supplies near points of anticipated consumption to permit continued operations in the event of disruptions in the supply system. However, such actions must not impede battery mobility. It may be necessary for the support elements to shuttle many of the required supplies. Constant and complete coordination is also necessary to ensure effective and integrated transportation support in constantly changing circumstances.

POSITIONING CONSIDERATIONS

6-45. Built-up areas are good locations for trains. They provide cover and concealment for vehicles and shelter that enhance light discipline during maintenance. When built-up areas are used, trains elements should occupy buildings near the edge of the area to preclude being trapped in the center.

6-46. The following factors govern the positioning of the battalion trains:

  • Room for dispersion.

  • Amount of cover and concealment from both air and ground observation.

  • Ground that supports vehicle traffic.

  • A nearby helicopter landing site.

  • Routes to LRPs or to battery positions.

  • Unrestricted movement in and out of the area.

  • Intensity of enemy activity in the area.

  • Whether the type of operation underway is offensive or defensive.

  • Trains security.

6-47. Elements behind the FLOT form base clusters and must be prepared to defend themselves against guerrillas, special operations type forces, and forces that have broken through or bypassed the defense. Responsibility for train's security should be delineated in the unit SOP. In all trains areas, a perimeter defense is normally planned. Elements in the trains are assigned a specific sector to defend. Mutually supporting positions that dominate likely AAs are selected for vehicles armed with heavy machine guns. Reaction forces and observation posts (OPs) are established, based on the unit SOP. To enhance security, an alarm or warning system is arranged. Sector sketches, fire plans, and obstacle plans should be prepared. Rehearsals are conducted to ensure that all personnel know the part they play in the defensive scheme. The OIC establishes a shift schedule for operations and security on a 24-hour basis. The schedule is determined based on the number of personnel, amount of area to be covered, type of security needed.

COMMAND AND CONTROL

6-48. Logistics C2 in the Patriot battalion is defined as the system used to control and direct activities to support accomplishment of the mission. The essential elements are an established hierarchy of control centers, continuous communications between those control centers, and a responsive logistics control element (S4, battalion XO, and battery executive officer), and supervision of the execution of the logistics support plan.

COMMUNICATIONS

6-49. Patriot battalion logistics support has the internal UHF network as its primary communications see Figure 6-1 for breakdown. FM/AM systems net serve as the alternate communications means. For lengthy reports, use messenger, wire, or mobile subscriber equipment (MSE) communications.

Figure 6-1. ADA Logistics Net

Figure 6-1. ADA Logistics Net

SUPPLY

6-50. EAC and corps customer's request supplies from the supply point assigned to support them. Classes II, III, IV, and VII, and DS water support are provided to ADA units by the supply company (DS) respectively assigned or attached to the CSG or ASG battalions in the COSCOM and TAACOM to provide area support. ADA units submit requests for these classes of supply to the designated supply company's direct support unit (DSU), which either fills the request or passes the requisition to the corps materiel management center (CMMC) or the TAACOM MMC for action. Most requirements for Class VII items are submitted by units to the proper S4 property book officer and or section, which then submit requisitions to the DSU. Class V and IX support is provided by the designated COSCOM and TAACOM operated ammunition supply point (ASP), and the nondivisional maintenance company, respectively. All DSUs provide supply point distribution on an area or task basis.

6-51. The corps or TAACOM MMC may direct issue from another DSU to the customer, or direct issue from corps and or theater GS stocks to the servicing DSU, which then issues to the customer. While issue from the supply point is considered the normal method of distribution, the MMC can order direct unit distribution. This would consist of delivery of the requisitioned items from the designated DS or GS supply source directly to the supported ADA unit customer, using corps or theater army transportation assets. Coordination with the battery or battalion for missile reload depends on the tactical situation.

6-52. The battalion always maintains some combat-essential supplies and repair parts. These are called combat loads, basic loads, and PLLs. The minimum stockage level is normally directed by brigade or higher. The purpose of these loads is to enable a unit to sustain itself in combat for a limited period, should there be an interruption in the resupply system. This period normally is 15 days for general supplies and repair parts, and 3 to 5 days for Classes I, III, and V.

CATEGORIES OF SUPPLIES

6-53. There are three categories of supplies, with regard to how supplies are requested and issued. These are discussed in the following paragraphs.

SCHEDULED SUPPLIES

6-54. Scheduled supplies are those for which requirements can be reasonably predicted or have a recurring demand. Normally, a scheduled supply does not require submission of requisitions by users for its replenishment. Requirements are based, for the most part; on troop strength, equipment density, forecasts, and or daily usage factors. Scheduled supplies are normally shipped to users based on pre-planned distribution schemes.

  • Classes I, III (bulk), V, and VI are normally treated as scheduled supplies.

  • Class II and VI (general supplies and equipment, and personal demand items) requirements are based on troop strength.

  • Class III (bulk POL) requirements are based on long-range forecasts, equipment densities, and historic usage factors (experience).

  • Class V (ammunition) requirements are based on densities of weapons and nature of mission(s).

DEMANDED SUPPLIES

6-55. Demanded supplies are those for which a requisition must be submitted. This is for expendable items such as nuts and bolts, tools, or items that have a recurring demand. Items in supply Classes I, III (packaged), VI, VII, and IX are considered demanded supplies.

REGULATED SUPPLIES

6-56. Regulated supplies can be scheduled or demanded, but the commander must closely control these supplies because of scarcity, high cost, or mission need. Any item or group of items can be designated as regulated. Normally, some items in supply Classes II, III bulk, IV, V, and VII are regulated. If an item is regulated, the commander who designates it must approve its release prior to issue. Items designated as command regulated are identified in operation plans (OPLANs) and OPORDs for operations that occur during the time in which the items are regulated.

DISTRIBUTION METHODS

6-57. The battalion uses two distribution methods to replenish its stocks, supply point and unit. Established requisition channels are used, regardless of the issue method chosen by higher headquarters. The S4 section is organized to process supply requests and to receive, issue, and temporarily store supplies. The commander, based on recommendations by the S4 and the operational requirements of the battalion for items in short supply, determines distribution priorities.

SUPPLY POINT DISTRIBUTION

6-58. The battalion, using organic transportation, goes to the supply point to pick up supplies. This is the normal method used. The battalion supply system is designed to operate self-sufficiently.

UNIT DISTRIBUTION

6-59. Supplies are delivered to the battalion by transportation assets other than its own. The battalion uses unit distribution to resupply its subordinate elements. When feasible, supplies are shipped directly from the issuing agency as far forward as possible, if the receiving unit has the material-handling equipment necessary to handle the shipping containers. This means that some supplies may be issued directly to the battalion from COSCOM or even theater army level, especially Classes III and VII. This issue usually occurs no farther forward than the field trains.

CLASSES OF SUPPLY

6-60. Supplies are grouped into 10 classes (Classes I through X) and miscellaneous supplies. These classes are described below.

CLASS I--SUBSISTENCE ITEMS

6-61. In the initial states of combat, rations are pushed through the system based on strength reports. Water is not a Class I supply item, but is normally delivered with Class I. Water supply points are established as far forward as possible. Water for the battalion and or battery is picked up in water trailers from area water points which, whenever possible, is collocated with the Class I supply point.

CLASS II--GENERAL SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT

6-62. Battalion and battery requirements for Class II supplies (other than principal items) are submitted to the supporting COSCOM or TAACOM supply company (DS). The DSU then fills the requirement from its supply point inventory, or passes the requisitions to the CMMC or the TAACOM MMC for action.

CLASS III--PETROLEUM, OILS, AND LUBRICANTS

6-63. POL consists of petroleum fuels, hydraulic and insulating oils, chemical products, antifreeze compounds, compressed gases, and coal. Unit requirements for Class III packaged materials are submitted to the supporting COSCOM or TAACOM supply command (DS). The DSU fills requisitions from its supply point inventory or passes the requisition to the CMMC or the TAACOM MMC for action. A dedicated supply system manages, transports in special containers, and issues the supply of bulk petroleum products. POL is obtained by the battalion or battery using organic bulk POL assets from the designated Class III supply point established by the supply company (DS). A formal request is not needed to obtain bulk fuel at a supply point. Requests from batteries to the battalion are not required for bulk POL resupply. POL carriers move forward with each logistics package (LOGPAC) to the batteries as needed.

CLASS IV--ENGINEER SUPPLIES

6-64. This class includes construction and barrier materials: lumber, sandbags, and barbed wire. Class IV supplies are requisitioned in the same manner as Class II.

CLASS V--AMMUNITION

6-65. Timely resupply of ammunition is critical. To determine the requirements for a specific operation or time, Patriot units develop a required supply rate (RSR) for each type of ammunition. Expressed as rounds per weapon per day, the RSR may derive from experience or from reference manuals. The operations officer (S3) prepares the RSR for the commander during the planning stages of the operation. Requests are consolidated at each level until they reach the highest Army headquarters in the theater (corps and EAC). At that level, the G3, G4, and commander review the requirements and availability of ammunition. Based on this review, the force commander establishes a controlled supply rate (CSR), the actual resupply rate. The CSR is expressed as rounds per weapon per day by ammunition item. The OPLAN or OPORD will normally identify those ammunition items for which the CSR is less than the RSR. After consulting with their operations and logistics staff officers, commanders will normally establish priorities for the allocation of ammunition.

6-66. The unit basic load is the quantity of conventional ammunition authorized and required by a unit to sustain itself until normal resupply can be affected. The unit basic load must be capable of being carried in one lift by the unit's soldiers and organic vehicles. SOPs will prescribe distribution of the basic load. In a mature theater, units will have their basic load. Units deploying to a theater normally carry their basic load with them. However, a unit arriving in theater without a basic load will receive it at a designated ammunition supply location. A unit's basic load is designed to meet its anticipated initial combat needs and is influenced by the following factors:

  • Mission.

  • Types and numbers of weapon systems.

  • Transport capability.

  • Time required to conduct resupply.

6-67. For requisition of Patriot missiles, (missile support) the battalion S4 generates requests based on missile expenditure reports submitted to the S3. The S4 coordinates these requests with the ADA brigade S3 or corps/theater (G3) before submitting his paperwork to the appropriate ammunition transfer point (ATP), ASP, corps storage area (CSA), or theater storage area (TSA). The requests are prioritized at brigade by the S3 in coordination with the brigade S4 to ensure that there is no impact on the brigade's mission. The battalion is then notified of what has been approved for annotation using the necessary paperwork.

6-68. Patriot missiles are classified as conventional ammunition, and as such arrive at the theater of operation from the continental United States (CONUS) using the same channels as conventional ammunition see Figure 6-2 for illustration. From port areas, missiles move directly to the TSA. Theater transportation assets can make delivery of high-cost, low-density missiles such as Patriot directly to the Patriot battalion from the theater storage area (throughput). This is the desired method of delivery. The battalion accepts delivery in or near the battalion area. In emergencies, Army aviation assets may be used to airlift Patriot missiles directly from the CSA to the battalion or fire unit.

Figure 6-2. Ammunition Supply

Figure 6-2. Ammunition Supply

6-69. Missile resupply operations depend on the tempo of combat operations, the number of missiles available in the theater, and the availability of transport. Resupply may be either centralized (push) at battalion or decentralized (pull) at battery.

6-70. Key considerations have to be taken into account by commanders and staff officers when deciding how to structure missile resupply operations. First, the guided missile transporter (GMT) is the only organic means the battalion has for loading missiles onto the launcher. If GMTs are used for transporting missiles, they cannot, at the same time, be used for reloading launchers. Second, the launcher that has fired its missiles is of no use to the battery. Third, Patriot missiles delivered by theater transportation assets directly to the Patriot battalion area may be delivered in military vans (MILVANs). Upon receipt of the MILVANs, the battalion S4 is responsible for the unloading of the missile canisters.

6-71. The S4 must use two 10-ton all-terrain forklifts for removing missiles from MILVANs and loading GMTs. The battalion must request use of forklifts from service support.

6-72. Under centralized Patriot missile resupply in Figure 6-3, theater or corps transportation assets, or host nation transportation support, move missiles forward to ATPs designated by the brigade. This point should be located within the AO. Current Patriot TOEs establish a missile resupply section under the supervision of the battalion S4. This section includes the personnel and equipment necessary to operate five missile resupply teams (based on location of theater).

Figure 6-3. Centralized Patriot Missile Resupply

Figure 6-3. Centralized Patriot Missile Resupply

6-73. The missile resupply section operates the centralized facility that provides the batteries with ready-to-fire missiles. The battery sends the launcher to the missile resupply point. When the launcher has been loaded, the reload crew chief notifies the battalion S3, who decides where that launcher should go. The centralized concept assumes that launchers may not go back to their own battery, but will be sent where the tactical situation dictates they are most needed. The ability to communicate between the battalion TOC and the missile resupply point is critical. Launcher section chiefs must be able to navigate well for this concept to function effectively. The decision to provide the missiles to a battery is based on the tactical situation and mission requirements.

6-74. Decentralized missile reload has two possible variations. The first is battalion control; where the battalion retains control over all reload assets. This requires the battalion missile resupply section to pick up, deliver, and load missiles at the batteries designated by the S3. The second is battery control, where the battalion attaches GMTs to the batteries for them to pick up their own missiles. As shown in Figure 6-4, the battery uses an attached battalion missile resupply vehicle to pick up missiles from the closest CSA/ASP or division ATP. The battery then transports the missile to its location where the missiles are either stored or placed on launchers. Both variations of this concept should be used when the tempo of combat operations in corps areas is slower, or in theater rear areas where batteries may be located close to ASPs. Considerations for centralized missile reload are organic transportation for missiles by each battery. If the battery does not have a working GMT or other available transportation, they would need to take their LS to a centralized location for reload determined by the battalion. Considerations for decentralized would include time constraints and LSs being completely expended or partially expended. Depending if the operations tempo is fast or slow the commander would make the decisions on whether to have the missiles delivered to site, or to take the LS to the ASP for reloading. Decisions for use of centralized versus decentralized must be carefully planned to provide a continuous firing capability.

Figure 6-4. Decentralized Battery Control for Patriot Missile Resupply

Figure 6-4. Decentralized Battery Control for Patriot Missile Resupply

CLASS VI--PERSONAL DEMAND AND MORALE ITEMS

6-75. Class VI includes candy, cigarettes, soap, cameras (nonmilitary sales items), and sundry packs. Requests for Class VI support are submitted by the S1 through supply channels when an Army exchange is not available. Resupply flow is the same as for Class I resupply.

CLASS VII--MAJOR END ITEMS

6-76. Launchers, generators, vehicles, and other major end items are Class VII supplies. Major end items are issued in combat based on battle loss reports. Large items may be delivered by COSCOM directly to the battalion trains. Smaller items are picked up by the S4 at the distribution point in the theater or corps support area. The battalion XO sends ready-to-fight weapons systems forward with the LOGPAC.

CLASS VIII--MEDICAL SUPPLY

6-77.The medical platoon maintains a 2-day (48-hour) stockage of medical supplies. Normal medical resupply of the platoon is performed through backhaul. Medical resupply may also be by preconfigured Class VIII packages (push packages) throughput from the forward medical logistics (MEDLOG) battalion located in the corps support area.

6-78. In a tactical environment, the emergency medical resupply (ambulance backhaul) system is used. In this environment, medical supplies are obtained informally and as rapidly as possible, using any available medical transportation assets. The medical platoon submits supply requests to the supporting medical company. Ambulances of the medical platoon perform class VIII resupply of combat medics.

CLASS IX--REPAIR PARTS AND COMPONENTS

6-79. Class IX includes kits, assemblies, and subassemblies—repairable or unrepairable—, which are required for maintenance support of all equipment. ADA brigade, battalion, or battery unit maintenance personnel submit Class IX requests and turn-ins to their supporting DSUs. Corps and theater army ADA units receive Class IX support from the non-divisional maintenance company (DS) assigned to either the COSCOM or the TAACOM. The corps missile support company and the missile support company (EAC), respectively assigned to the COSCOM or TAACOM, provide missile Class IX and repairable exchange (RX) supply support to customer units. The designated non-divisional maintenance company (DS) maintains the ASL for corps and theater army units. ASL stockage is determined by the corps materiel management center (CMMC) or the TAACOM MMC.

6-80. The Patriot Maintenance Company (DS) is authorized a shop stock of DS replaceable items, while organic battery maintenance elements are authorized a PLL.

6-81. Batteries obtain Class IX supply support for their PLLs. Requirements for parts not supported by the PLLs are submitted on DA Form 2765 or requested by the unit-level logistics system.

6-82. RX for selected repairable items (to include components, racks, and major assemblies) is accomplished by exchanging the unserviceable item for a serviceable item. Unserviceable items must have a DA Form 5988E attached so the maintenance support activity can do a quality assurance (QA) inspection. RX items are normally limited to those authorized for replacement by supported units.

6-83. Unit PLLs submit requests to their supply element. This allows validation of mission critical repair parts at the supporting supply element. From there, requests are delivered or transmitted to the non-divisional maintenance company ASL and from there to either the CMCC or the TAACOM MMC.

6-84. The CMCC or TAACOM MMC provides document control and supply management for the items requested. Supply management is accomplished by a combination of manual and machine methods. DSU procedures provide increased management control. The materiel officer (MATO) can introduce criteria and parameters to be programmed so machine methods may be used to control available assets, or manual intervention can be used when human judgment is required.

6-85. Receipt, storage, and issue of items are done under the direct supply support (DSS). Class IX items arriving in the battalion are received by the battalion maintenance company's technical supply operating elements. Non-stockage list (NSL) items are forwarded directly to the units that ordered them. Turn-ins are handled in the same manner as receipts and are reported.

CLASS X--NONMILITARY ITEMS

6-86. Material to support nonmilitary programs such as agriculture and economic development (not included in Classes I through IX) is Class X. These items are requested and obtained by the S4 based on civil-military requirements. Specific instructions for request and issue of Class X supplies are provided by division or higher.

MAINTENANCE

6-87. Maintenance is sustaining materiel and equipment in an operational status, restoring it to serviceable condition, and upgrading functional abilities through modification. These functions are performed at four levels—organizational, DS, GS, and depot. Successful maintenance at these levels is the key to a unit's ability to shoot, move, and communicate. Therefore, maintenance must be a top priority at all levels.

OPERATOR MAINTENANCE

6-88. A key aspect of maintenance is the ability to repair equipment quickly and as close as possible to the point of equipment failure or damage. The operator is the first link in the chain of maintenance followed by the organizational mechanics of the using and or owning unit. These soldiers must use their fullest capabilities to reduce downtime and to identify organizational deficiencies. If a deficiency is beyond organizational-level capability, then DS-level or GS-level maintenance is requested.

DS/GS MAINTENANCE

6-89. The function of direct support maintenance is to repair end items and return them to the user and or owner unit. It must be mobile and support focused as far forward as possible.

6-90. Direct support (conventional) maintenance units perform maintenance on an area or task basis in the theater of operations. Each DS maintenance unit establishes and operates maintenance collection points (MCPs) and base maintenance areas for support of all customer units. Certain units may have the job of providing area support and backup support to other maintenance units during surge periods or to provide reconstitution support. In cases such as these, mobile augmentation (tailored support) teams may be assigned.

6-91. DS maintenance units use maintenance support teams (MSTs) or contact teams to provide close-in support and on-site repair (fix forward) of critical systems. DS maintenance units will then establish base operations and MCPs for repair of equipment, which cannot be repaired on site. Their capabilities and capacities are tailored to the types and densities of equipment and units for which they provide support. The MSTs are deployed from the maintenance units to supported unit MCPs or directly to downed equipment evacuated to a safe position, depending upon the situation.

6-92. The MST's maintenance capability is constrained by time, environment, and total maintenance burden. At supported unit MCPs, teams must assess the total maintenance burden with the objective of returning the maximum number of weapon systems to combat in the minimum amount of time. Thus, full use of controlled substitution and cannibalization is made. The tactical situation is the overriding factor. By using diagnostic test sets, the MSTs can concentrate on component or assembly replacement. The unserviceable components are sent to the DS maintenance unit.

6-93. For DS maintenance units, emphasis is placed on repair of end items, and some repair of components and modules. The extent of maintenance performed is restricted by time available for repair, availability of repair parts, resupply, workload, and priorities. The DS maintenance is performed at corps level by the non-divisional maintenance company (DS) assigned or attached to the CSB/CSG in the COSCOM. DS maintenance is performed at EAC by the non-divisional maintenance company (DS) assigned to the maintenance battalion of the ASG or TAACOM. These COSCOM or TAACOM missile support DS maintenance units provide DS or backup DS to the Patriot battalion or battery, and have a Class IX repair parts direct support supply mission. These units maintain ASLs and RX functions, which reflect the items in demand-supported stocks. Parts and RX items are also provided to the MSTs in the repair of end items or components. If the maintenance unit is unable to repair Patriot end items or components at its level, the end item or component is sent to depot. GS maintenance is primarily limited to repair and return to the supply system. GS maintenance is provided at the COSCOM or theater level.

DEPOT-LEVEL MAINTENANCE

6-94. Depot-level maintenance is performed in fixed facilities and is production-oriented. The mission is primarily rebuilding or refurbishing end items and some components. Repair time guidelines are not established.

RECOVERY AND EVACUATION

6-95. Each unit is responsible for recovering its own damaged equipment. Wreckers and other recovery vehicles should be used to move irreparable equipment to collection points along designated routes. Immovable items remain in place until supporting maintenance units can recover them. Unserviceable materiel should be recovered to the nearest collecting point or main supply route (MSR) as appropriate, and should be protected from pilferage and deterioration. Maximum use is made of on-site repairs before unserviceable equipment is recovered. Using units should attempt recovery within their capability and request assistance from the supporting element, when necessary.

6-96. Evacuation begins when recovery operations end. It is a coordinated effort between maintenance, supply, and transportation elements. It includes end items and unserviceable assemblies and components. Evacuation of unserviceable materiel starts at the DS maintenance collection point or designated MSR.

6-97. Commanders must establish priorities for recovery and evacuation of materiel under their control. Priorities established should offer the greatest potential for the early return of equipment to service.

OPERATIONAL READINESS FLOAT

6-98. An operational readiness float (ORF) is a major end item to provide replacement for an unserviceable item of equipment when repairs cannot be accomplished within a command set time.

6-99. Selected ORF end items are maintained by maintenance companies supporting the ADA battalions (brigade when appropriate). The responsible major commander (theater and corps) establishes policies and procedures for control of these float assets. The issue of items from float stocks is rigidly controlled. Within the ADA brigade, the battalion commanders establish policies and procedures for the control and use of float assets.

6-100. The authorized ORF for the ADA brigade is carried by the maintenance operating elements located in the brigade support area. Maintenance elements in the battalion trains areas are not normally capable of providing a float, although specific items may be retained by the battalion support elements. ORF assets must be accounted for, and ORF items should be maintained in a ready-to-issue state by DS elements.

MAINTENANCE DEFINITIONS

6-101. Maintenance definitions are discussed below. These methods are used when required parts, components, or assemblies cannot be obtained in a timely basis through normal Class IX supply channels.

CONTROLLED EXCHANGE

6-102. Controlled exchange is authorized by battery commanders for the systematic removal of serviceable parts from unserviceable equipment for immediate use to restore a like item to readiness. When controlled exchange is practiced, the serviceable part is removed and replaced by the unserviceable part. Controlled exchange is performed at the organizational and intermediate maintenance levels.

PARTS CANNIBALIZATION

6-103. Parts cannibalization is authorized by the battalion commander for removal of serviceable repair parts, components, or assemblies from unserviceable, uneconomically repairable, or excess end items of equipment authorized for disposal. It is a supply source for authorized low-mortality or difficult-to-obtain repair parts. Additionally, cannibalization is a source for high-priority items when delivery cannot be made by the required delivery date. It is also a source for items not stocked in the supply system. This function is normally performed at a cannibalization point. Cannibalization of organic equipment in a peacetime environment is not authorized.

BATTLE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT

6-104. This is the process of assessing the status of damaged equipment. Trained battle damage maintenance personnel will perform this function. They will make the critical decision whether the equipment will be repaired on-site, recovered, or evacuated. If the decision is to recover or evacuate, the equipment is moved directly to maintenance units with the capability to repair it.

TRANSPORTATION

6-105. As the connecting link between other logistics functions, transportation moves personnel and materiel. A Patriot battalion is 100 percent mobile. However, higher echelon transportation moves repaired equipment from maintenance units to storage areas or using units, and moves supplies, including repair parts, where they are needed. It also moves personnel replacements from reception areas to combat units.

6-106. The transportation elements within a theater perform three functions: modal operations, terminal operations, and movement management. Modal operations move personnel or materiel in any conveyance by one of four modes: air, rail, road, or sea. Terminal operations shift cargo from one mode of transportation to another or from one type of transport within a mode to a different type. The COSCOM provides integrated movement management and transportation support services through its CMCC and corps movement control teams (CMCTs). Light-medium or medium transportation truck companies are assigned or attached to corps support battalions as required, while a mix of light-medium and heavy truck companies are assigned or attached to the corps-level transportation battalion.

6-107. Command and control of the battalions are exercised by the corps support group (CSG). In the theater army, the Transportation Command (TRANSCOM) provides command and control of attached or assigned motor transport units engaged in line-haul operations, and in support of the TAACOM supply and maintenance missions. The Theater Army Movement Control Agency (TAMCA) provides movement management and highway traffic regulation through its subordinate theater army regional movement control teams (RMCTs), movement regulating teams (MRTs), and air terminal movement control teams (ATMCTs). Theater army motor, aviation, rail, terminal service, and terminal transfer units operate in the COMMZ and combat rear area, as well as in the corps AO, as required. Delivery and retrograde transportation services can be provided all the way into the division sector, if needed.

FIELD SERVICES

6-108. Field services are services required by units in the field but not usually available with the units. Clothing exchange and bath (CEB) and mortuary affairs services are provided on an area basis by the field service company and mortuary affairs elements respectively assigned or attached to the CSG or ASG. Field services generally include—

  • Mortuary affairs.

  • Airdrop.

  • Bath/ laundry.

  • Clothing exchange.

  • Bakery.

  • Textile renovation.

  • Salvage.

  • Decontamination.

  • Clothing renovation.

  • Post exchange sales.

  • Provision of general duty labor.

6-109. These are generally divided into the classifications of primary and secondary field services.

  • The primary field services are those considered essential to the support of combat operations. Mortuary affairs and airdrop comprise the primary classification. These are necessary from the beginning to the end of hostilities. The Army must always take proper care of its dead. Airdrop is also essential. It provides a method of supply delivery that is responsive and fast enough to meet the demands of modern battle. Details on airdrop services are in FM 4-20.42.

  • The secondary classification consists of those field services that are not immediately critical to combat operations. Mortuary affairs procedures are controlled by the S4. All procedures for field services must be covered in battalion SOPs.

REAR AREA BASE SECURITY

6-110. Rear area and base security includes rear area combat operations (RACOs) and area damage control (ADC) activities. The purpose of rear area base security operations is to prevent interruption of combat, combat support, and CSS operations, and to minimize the effects when interruptions occur as a result of enemy activity, sabotage, or natural disaster. Those actions taken to prevent, neutralize, or defeat hostile actions against units, activities, and installations in the rear area are RACOs. ADC activities are those prevention and control measures taken prior to, during, and after an attack or a natural or manmade disaster to minimize its effects.

REAR AREA COMBAT OPERATIONS

6-111. The ADA brigade has defined responsibilities for RACO. The ADA brigade or battalion participates in RACO, which is the responsibility of the corps or theater support commander. The RACO commander has tasking authority for all units within rear areas. The ADA brigade S3 has primary staff responsibility for rear AD planning and coordination for the brigade. In coordination with the S2 and S4, he plans and assigns ADA brigade rear area protection (RAP) responsibilities for RACO.

FORCES

6-112. Each unit provides its own local self-defense and assists in the defense. The battalion S3 may be required to provide support operations with combat forces to secure critical areas and resupply routes, escort convoys, or counter hostile forces that threaten accomplishment of the support battalion mission. Surveillance and security for those areas not essential to accomplishment of the support battalion mission are the brigade's responsibility.

MEASURES

6-113. Unit personnel are trained by the battalion in basic defense techniques including passive AD measures and use of non-AD weapons against attacking aircraft. Communications and warning systems are established, SOPs are developed, and OPLANs for reaction forces are developed and rehearsed. Protection is provided for personnel, key activities, and essential lines of communications. Operations are dispersed, and defensive positions are prepared consistent with the effective execution of the mission. Other RAP measures employed include—

  • Conducting a vulnerability analysis of the rear area to determine which battalion elements and facilities are the most vulnerable to enemy attack.

  • Prescribing instructions for the coordination of local security plans of adjacent units.

  • Employing an alert system to provide early warning and notice of enemy activity.

  • Requesting armed aircraft escorts for resupply flights and armed escorts for surface convoys.

  • Posting security elements from attached security forces at critical locations on the MSRs.

  • Employing local route reconnaissance and patrols.

  • Enforcing light and noise discipline.

  • Employing natural and artificial obstacles.

  • Performing NBC reconnaissance, chemical detection, and radiological monitoring and survey operations.

  • Coordinating with the battalion S2 to ensure adequate counterintelligence support for the detection, prevention, and neutralization of hostile intelligence threat.

  • Coordinating with the appropriate local civilian and paramilitary authorities and forces. If control of the civilian population becomes a prime factor in RAP operations, a request may be submitted to the ADA brigade S3 for additional psychological operations support and military police support to control refugees and displaced personnel.

  • Coordinating with the brigade S3 and with the military police unit for area security operations. These operations may include area reconnaissance, convoy security, security of critical points along MSRs, and chemical detection and radiological monitoring and survey operations along the MSRs.

6-114. When enemy activity exceeds the capability of Patriot units, military police provide the initial force to close with and destroy enemy forces. In the event of a large-scale enemy incursion, tactical forces will be required.

AREA DAMAGE CONTROL

6-115. The battalion S4 has primary staff responsibility for ADC within the battalion AO. The battalion S3 is responsible for the plans and activities necessary to reduce the effects of enemy attack or natural disaster on battalion elements. During the planning and supervising of ADC, the priority is on actions that prevent or reduce the interruption of CSS operations. The battalion commander and staff must be aware of any diversion of CSS elements to an ADC mission.

FORCES

6-116. The personnel and equipment of subordinate units located in the area are the principal ADC means available. Coordination with the brigade staff for engineer, military police, and signal support is essential in ADC activities. Locally procured resources and assistance from nonbrigade units located in the brigade support area (BSA) may be available in some situations.

MEASURES

6-117. Area damage control measures include—

  • Providing SOPs and implementing instructions for self-help.

  • Designating, training, and employing firefighting, damage clearance, decontamination, rescue, food service, chemical detection, biological sampling, radiological survey, medical, chaplain, and repair personnel. Each unit will organize teams with appropriate skills and equipment.

  • Assessing the extent and significance of damage and instituting area damage control measures to reduce the effects of losses in personnel, materiel, and facilities.

  • Ensuring that coordination is made for military police to control traffic, conduct law enforcement, and protect designated personnel, facilities, units, and installations.

  • Rerouting traffic, as required, to provide continual support to tactical elements and to facilitate the reduction of damage and contamination.

  • Dispersing units and facilities to reduce their vulnerability to attack by enemy forces and nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons.

  • Establishing warning procedures for prompt information dissemination of known or suspected attacks and natural disasters. Preparations must be undertaken to reduce vulnerability. The warning system should include fallout prediction, if appropriate.

  • Coordinating battalion area damage control plans with local host nation authorities.

  • Coordinating with other units located nearby for their roles in the area damage control mission.

  • Establishing and coordinating a health service support (HSS) plan for mass casualty situations.

OPERATIONS SECURITY

6-118. Operations security (OPSEC) deals with protecting military operations and activities by identifying and eliminating or controlling intelligence indicators that the enemy could use. It is concerned with the protection of both classified and unclassified data that hostile intelligence agencies could process into military intelligence. It includes physical security, signal security (SIGSEC), and information security. OPSEC consideration must be a routine part of operations. It must become second nature to CSS planners and operators in all types of units and at all levels of command.

6-119. Modern military forces are increasingly dependent upon electronic devices for command and control, employment of forces, weapons security, and logistics support. This dependence makes them vulnerable to hostile actions designed to reduce the effectiveness of friendly Communications-Electronics (CE) devices. Command posts, weapon systems, and logistics bases cannot survive during force-projection operations if they are easily identified and located because of their electromagnetic emissions. Tactics, which conceal emitters or deceive the enemy as to their identity and location, are vital to successful operations.

6-120. Because of technical advances in intelligence collection, sensors, communications, and data processing, survival on the battlefield requires extensive countersurveillance. Countersurveillance must be a state of mind; a skill reduced to habit, where everyone practices camouflage, noise, light, litter, smoke, and communications discipline. OPSEC considerations must be included in all CSS plans.

RECONSTITUTION

6-121. The increasing capabilities and lethality of modern weapon systems greatly increase the chances of high losses of troops and equipment over short periods. The success or failure of Patriot units during the air attack depends upon their ability to reconstitute their combat power. The quality of prior planning will determine how quickly Patriot units will be able to reenter the air battle.

RECONSTITUTION PRINCIPLES

6-122. Reconstitution consists of non-routine actions taken to restore damaged units to a specific level of combat readiness. These non-routine actions are based on priorities established by the battalion commander and result in the receipt of specified available resources to accomplish the reconstitution mission. Commanders have two reconstitution options available for returning a unit to a specified level of combat capability.

REORGANIZATION

6-123. Reorganization is accomplished within the unit. Reorganization consists of asset cross leveling to form composite teams, sections, platoons, or higher-level units. Since reorganization is conducted internally, it is the most expedient means of maintaining combat power in the early stages of a conflict and in forward units throughout the duration of the conflict. It is the option most often executed by commanders.

REGENERATION

6-124. Regeneration requires outside support. Regeneration consists of rebuilding a unit by infusing new personnel, equipment, and supplies into a unit and then conducting the necessary training to develop combat effectiveness.

6-125. Regeneration is the more difficult of the two available reconstitution options. It requires a great deal of both outside assistance and time for training. Commanders may choose regeneration as the method of reconstitution because regeneration can preserve the cohesion, trust, and confidence of the unit by infusing new personnel into existing squads and sections.

6-126. Patriot units should attempt to reconstitute at the lowest level possible based on the following considerations:

  • Enemy situation.

  • Size of the attrited unit.

  • Personnel and resources available.

  • Availability of ground or air transportation to move resources to the unit or vice versa.

  • Future deployment plans for the reconstituted unit.

6-127. Reconstitution responsibilities rest with the commander one level higher than the damaged unit. Reconstitution efforts flow from the platoon leader all the way to the theater commander.

RESPONSIBILITIES AT BATTERY LEVEL

6-128. The battery commander reestablishes the damaged unit's AD capability. A key ingredient for the return of unit command and control is the initiation of damage assessment leading to subsequent reconstitution efforts. Unit reconstitution points, the predetermined chain of command, decontamination procedures, and the requirements for determination of equipment operability following enemy attack must be addressed in detail in unit SOPs.

PRIORITIES

6-129. SOPs must also address specific priorities for reconstitution. Prioritization should always be oriented towards reestablishing the combat power of the unit.

MEDICAL SUPPORT PROCEDURES

6-130. Medical support procedures are carried out as the unit attempts to reestablish C2 within the unit and to higher headquarters. Soldiers perform buddy aid on wounded personnel, and unit teams initiate rescue, collection, identification, and separation of contaminated casualties. Combat medics triage, treat, and request evacuation of patients. Predesignated field ambulances evacuate the critically injured to the battalion aid station.

COMMANDER'S ASSESSMENT

6-131. The battery commander and key personnel determine soldier and equipment losses. The commander assesses the unit's capability to function in the air battle, and the unit forwards the information to the battalion using a standardized weapons system status report.

BATTLE DAMAGE CONTROL

6-132. The battle damage control team saves as much equipment as possible and estimates the requirement for further assistance. The damage control team forwards this estimate as part of the unit report.

DECONTAMINATION

6-133. In the presence of NBC agents, the unit conducts decontamination as soon as possible. The decision to do hasty or deliberate decontamination will depend on the situation, the extent of contamination, decontamination resources, and the mission. Only that which is necessary to accomplish the mission is decontaminated.

SUPPORT UNIT RECONSTITUTION

6-134. The same basic reconstitution procedures apply to the DS unit. The battalion supply and equipment (BSE) manages the reconstitution of the DS maintenance unit. The scarcity of Patriot assets and ORFs makes DS maintenance unit reconstitution a critical priority.

SITE DETERMINATION

6-135. The battery and battalion commanders determine the best location for the reconstitution effort, whether on-site, at a jump location, at the reconstitution point at battalion, brigade, major AD command, or support command. For ground security purposes, the lowest level of reconstitution should be at the battalion. If reconstitution at battalion level is not feasible, the unit jump location should be near a main supply route.

RESPONSIBILITIES AT BATTALION LEVEL

6-136. The battalion commander is responsible for Patriot battery reconstitution. It is, however, primarily a staff activity (see the following checklist), and the battalion XO is the manager of the reconstitution effort. Based upon priorities set by the S3 and the commander, he manages and coordinates the activities of the S1, S2, CESO, headquarters battery commander, and DS unit commander. When the battalion receives the status report from one of the batteries, the XO and staff determine the severity of the situation, and the XO dispatches a battalion control and assessment team if he deems it necessary. The XO briefs the battalion commander on the essential elements of the status report and on staff recommendations. The following is a staff checklist for reconstitution:

  • S1—

    - Determines availability of replacements.

    - Coordinates personnel replacements.

    - Fills positions based on priorities set by S3.

    - Coordinates medical support.

  • S2—

    - Provides threat assessments for rear area reconstitution sites.

    - Advises S3 on the threat situation.

  • S3—

    - Recommends priorities for reconstitution to commander.

    - Identifies critical shortfalls.

    - Redesigns air defense based on available firepower.

    - Sets communications priorities.

    - Sets priorities for decontamination.

    - Sets priorities for resupply of Classes III and V (missile) by unit.

    - Monitors Patriot system repair actions.

    - Sets priorities for personnel replacements by MOS and unit.

    - Coordinates locations for hasty and deliberate decontamination.

  • S4—

    - Recommends allocation of critical supply items.

    - Coordinates resupply of critical items (Classes I, III, V, and IX) according to the priorities.

    - Coordinates movement requirements to support reconstitution.

    - Coordinates delivery of ORF equipment with the DS unit.

PLANNING AND TRAINING FOR RECONSTITUTION

6-137. The coordination between the AD chain of command and the corps or theater chain of command is critical. Standardization of procedures during exercises should be emphasized. Staff training in reconstitution procedures at all levels are essential to ensure success in wartime operations. Since Patriot resources are finite, "push-packs" under a program such as the pre-configured unit load program could reduce the transportation requirements for critical Patriot components in a corps area. The criteria and layout of reconstitution points should be addressed in detail in battalion and brigade OPLANs. This is because of the sheer number of activities that must occur.



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