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Appendix E


This appendix describes the responsibilities of the commander and safety officer, and discusses procedures for identifying and assessing safety problems that may arise during training or operations. It also describes general safety precautions that must be observed during Patriot operations as well as special hazards associated with Patriot system.


E-1. The commander has overall responsibility for unit safety and normally appoints a safety officer to coordinate safety activities. The commander must ensure that the safety annex of the unit tactical SOP is current and covers all field-training operations. He must also ensure that adequate provisions for safe practices, procedures, and physical standards are incorporated into unit functions, activities, exercises, and combat operations.

E-2. The safety officer must keep the commander informed of the unit safety status by reporting all accidents, injuries, and incidents, and recommending corrective actions. The safety officer must also—

  • Develop, supervise, and monitor command safety, risk management, and accident prevention programs.

  • Coordinate with other staff officers to ensure appropriate safety measures are implemented and safety issues are addressed. Specific coordinating responsibilities are listed in FM 101-5.

  • Prepare risk assessments and recommend appropriate risk reduction control measures. Specific risk management and assessment responsibilities are described in FM 101-5.

  • Document and file accident reports, safety training, and risk assessments in accordance with the Modern Army Records Keeping System (AR 25-400-2).


E-3. Safety issues that arise during Patriot operations can be categorized as follows:

  • Known issues that have been previously identified and assessed during Patriot system development, test and evaluation, and field exercises. These include such hazards as misfires, RF radiation, launcher backblast, equipment noise, toxic materials, high voltages, and vehicle movement hazards.

  • Unknown issues that may arise when the Patriot system is operated in a dynamic battlefield environment. On the battlefield, the weather, terrain, enemy situation, and other factors are continuously changing, placing additional demands on personnel and equipment, and increasing the likelihood accidents may occur.

E-4. To ensure that safety issues are proactively identified and assessed, a risk management process, described in FM 3-100.14 (Risk Management), should be implemented. FM 3-100.14 explains the principles and procedures that must be followed to successfully identify, evaluate, and resolve (or mitigate) safety problems that are likely to arise during training or operations.


E-5. Patriot system operator and maintenance personnel must be aware of the hazards associated with the equipment. All personnel must observe safety practices and procedures outlined in DA publications. The Patriot operations and crew drill manuals should be consulted for complete information on equipment hazards.


E-6. The following general safety precautions must be followed to prevent personnel injury or equipment damage—

  • Never work on electronic equipment unless there is another person nearby who is familiar with the operation and hazards of the equipment and who is trained in administering first aid.

  • Be careful when handling high voltage power cables. This hazard can result in death or serious injury to personnel.

  • Wear adequate hearing protection when working in the vicinity of operating equipment. Irreversible hearing loss may result from long-term exposure to high noise levels.

  • Wear gloves or other protective clothing when working in extremely cold or icy conditions. Frostbite or other incapacitating injuries may result.

  • Work in well-ventilated areas when operating the power units and vehicles. Carbon monoxide emissions may be sufficient to cause death when inhaled.

  • Do not walk on tools or components removed from the system. Damage to equipment or personnel injury may result.

  • Do not smoke or have any open flame near or around any fuel containers or solvents.


E-7. Special hazards associated with Patriot operations include misfires, RF radiation, launcher backblast, toxic materials, and equipment electrical, mechanical, and thermal hazards. These hazards, possible adverse effects and remedial (or preventative) actions are summarized in Table E-1. Figure E-1 shows the possible placement of Patriot equipment with the hazard areas for the radar (located in the center) marked in relation to other equipment. Additionally the figure shows possible STLs for the radar.

Table E-1. Special Hazards

Table E-1. Special Hazards

Table E-1. Special Hazards (Con't)

Table E-1. Special Hazards (Con't)

Figure E-1. RF Radiation Hazard

Figure E-1. RF Radiation Hazard


E-8. Vehicle movements and convoys require leaders to think about safety. The following list is not comprehensive, but is meant to be a start for building a complete safety list for movements:

  • Basic issue items must be on every vehicle in convoy.

  • Ancillary equipment (example drip pans, tone down, chock blocks, etcetera) must be properly secured to prevent falling off and creating a road hazard.

  • Drivers and assistant drivers must perform before-, during-, and after-operation PMCS with each movement.

  • Drivers must be trained to drive in adverse weather (ice, snow, fog, and rain), in difficult terrain, and under blackout conditions.

  • Drivers must be briefed on the route and observe proper speeds, following distances, rest periods and signals. They must also be briefed on hazardous areas or conditions that may be encountered.

  • Drivers must be provided with adequate rest (8 hours rest for each 10 hours of driving a tactical vehicle within a 24-hour time period).

  • Drivers must be briefed on what to do during emergencies (example, tire blow out, overheating, other types of breakdown).

  • Assistant drivers must ensure that he/she is alert and serves as the driver's second set of ears and eyes to prevent road hazards.

  • All vehicle occupants must use available seat restraints.

  • Ground guides must be used when appropriate.

  • Sleeping in, under, and or near running vehicles is prohibited, as death may result due to carbon monoxide poisoning or accidental movement of the vehicle.

  • Fire drills must be practiced on all vehicles.

  • Equipment and soldiers cannot be transported together in the cargo bed of a truck.

  • Troop safety strap is required when carrying soldiers in the cargo bed.


E-9 When Patriot is deployed (collocated) with THAAD in an AMD Task Force, Patriot operator and maintenance personnel must be aware of the THAAD radar RF-radiation and launcher backblast hazards. The radar RF-radiation ground and "no-fly" danger zones are shown in Figure E-2. Personnel should stay out of the ground danger zone, and friendly aircraft should be alerted to stay outside of the "no-fly" zone.

Figure E-2. THAAD Radar RF Hazard Distances

Figure E-2. THAAD Radar RF Hazard Distances

E-10. The launcher backblast hazard area for THAAD is equal to Patriot's. For example, personnel must stay at least 90 meters from the THAAD launcher to avoid being injured by the backblast. To preclude hearing damage, personnel must stay at least 185 meters from the launcher if they are not wearing protective equipment.

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