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Appendix C

Theater Missile Defense Communications

This appendix provides a summary of the TMD communications architecture and the communications equipment available to commanders in a theater of operations. To support joint and Army doctrine over the full range of contingency operations, considerable freedom must be provided to the JFC to ensure that his range of operational options is not unduly restricted. The services must provide "tailored" force packages that have both the technical and operational agility to be brought together as elements of appropriately integrated operations. This means that considerable flexibility must be preserved for how these service elements can interconnect and interoperate, both in exchanging information in a timely manner (performance effectiveness) and in forming effective, cohesive, and integrated operations in terms of doctrine, concept of operations, tactics, techniques, procedures, and practices (operational efficiency). The goal is to ensure that command flexibility is not restricted by limitations in technical interoperability.
The JFC will tailor the tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) resource assignments and organizational structure of the force to meet the unique circumstances of the theater and the momentary composition of the joint/coalition force. Each situation will likely be different and may introduce new interfaces and relationships among the component force elements. Commanders will determine communications architectures based on METT-TC. METT-TC will give each theater uniqueness in terms of systems deployed and their respective connectivity.
Communications support for air defense and TMD is only achievable through the synergistic application of the family of systems concept. This requires seamless interoperability across platforms, echelons, services, and boundaries all orchestrated toward the "unity of effort" principle of war. Throughout this appendix TAMD is used to accurately reflect connectivity for battlespace operations. Connectivity is seamless regardless of whether the mission area is TMD or TAMD.


C-1. Communications architectures support joint battle management functions that exist between service component structures and the information flow required in support of these functions. The value added by a secure, reliable, and redundant communications architecture is that it provides a framework for connecting TAMD functions laterally between service operational facilities (OPFACs) and vertically between the services and the joint elements. Simply connecting service functional TMD areas via communications, data links, procedures, or other means does not, however, ensure interoperability. At best the connections facilitate cooperation and coordination between the service capabilities. Warfighting interoperability necessitates an understanding of how to share and capitalize upon the abundance of TAMD information resident within the service component systems and organizations.

C-2. The communications architectural level designations of JTF Level, Control Level, and Execution Level are illustrated in Figures C-1 through C-5. The designations reflect the complex TAMD operations and interactions exercised by that particular echelon.

Figure C-1. Command and Coordination of Other Services TAMD Systems (JTF Level Detail)

Figure C-2. Command and Coordination of Army TAMD Systems (Control and Execution Level Detail)

Figure C-3. Command and Coordination of Air Force TAMD Systems (Control and Execution Level Detail)

Figure C-4. Command and Coordination of USMC TAMD Systems (Control and Execution Level Detail)

Figure C-5. Command and Coordination of Navy TAMD Systems (Control and Execution Level Detail)

C-3. Joint Task Force Level (top level) functions detailed in Figure C-1 are primarily planning in nature and involve considerable service-wide coordination--within a service, across the services, and with the joint force elements (for example, AADC, ACA, JFACC, JFMCC, JFLCC, et cetera).

C-4. Control Level (mid level) functions shown for each of the Services in detail in Figures C-2 through C-5 involve TAMD resource management (that is, sensors and weapons), coordination of the allocation of AORs among subordinate organizational entities, monitoring of the battle progress, and making resource adjustments.

C-5. Execution Level (bottom level) functions also shown for each of the Services in Figure C-2 through C-5 are focused on the weapon/sensor system operations and engagement execution (for example, the Patriot/SHORAD battery is at the Execution Level because it executes engagements). Note that the Execution Level actually includes sensors as well as weapons.


C-6. The following voice and data communications equipment is used to communicate within a theater of operations. Due to ongoing force modifications of communication equipment, each theater will have different communication equipment based capabilities.


C-7. The CTT will provide the joint warfighter with seamless, near real-time tactical intelligence and targeting information; it provides the critical data links to battle managers, intelligence centers, air defense activities, fire support, and aviation nodes across all services. The JTT will be capable of accessing information transmitted over the Tactical Reconnaissance Intelligence Exchange Service (TRIXS); TIBS, using both UHF Single Channel Tactical Satellite (SCTACSAT) and LOS; Tactical Data Information Exchange System-B (TADIXS-B); and Tactical Receive Equipment and Related Applications (TRAP)/TDDS. The Integrated Broadcast Service (IBS) will subsume all the above radio networks, as well as several others.

C-8. The two-channel AN/USR-5 CTT receives simultaneously on two networks. The three channel AN/USC-55 is a full-duplex CTT/H3 radio, capable of operating full duplex in one network and receiving two additional networks simultaneously. The three channel AN/USR-6 receive-only CTT/HR3 is capable of receiving three networks simultaneously. As an electronic counter countermeasure (ECCM) feature, the CTT is HAVE QUICK II compliant.


C-9. The JTT is the technical/materiel replacement for the CTT, as well as several other legacy radio systems. The JTT radios begin fielding in FY 2000. The AN/USC-52 is the transmit and receive model; the AN/USR-9 is the receive only model. The receive capacity of radios is determined by the quantity of cards installed. The baseline radio can receive four channels simultaneous.


C-10. The AN/VSQ-2 EPLRS or the SINGARS are the primary data distribution systems for Army SHORAD weapons systems that utilize the FAADC2 system. The Forward Area Air Defense Command, Control, and Communications (FAADC3I)-equipped SHORAD battalion uses EPLRS to establish a data network that interconnects the A2C2; Air Battle Management Operations Center (ABMOC); sensors and C2 nodes; battery, platoon, and section headquarters; and individual weapons systems. EPLRS passes the air picture and weapons control orders down and sends weapon system status back-up through the system. An extended air picture is received from Patriot, the E-3A Sentry/AWACS, and/or the E-2 HAWKEYE systems over the Joint Data Network (JDN), using the JTIDS at either the A2C2 node or the ABMOC. The external air picture is fused with the air picture received from the SHORAD's organic AN/MPQ-64 Sentinel, filtered at the individual sensor C2 node for specific geographical AIs, and broadcast to all affiliated C2 or weapons subscribers.

C-11. EPLRS is a secure, jam-resistant data communications system utilized by SHORAD to provide data distribution at corps and lower echelons. EPLRS is also utilized with the Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2) system by nonair and missile defense OPFACs to pass situation awareness information on the battlefield. In some instances SHORAD OPFACs are operating in both the FAADC3I data networks and the FBCB2 networks simultaneously. The down-sized Net Control Station EPLRS (NCS-E) is mounted on an High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) and is controlled by Army signal units.


C-12. The AN/ARC-164 radio is an Army/Air Force standard avionics UHF-AM radio that has been adopted by the Army for use in several shelter-based, developmental TOC systems. In the joint operations environment, the AN/ARC-164 will provide voice communications with the E-3A Sentry/AWACS and both voice and data communications with AEGIS ships during littoral operations. This radio is limited to LOS operations and has HAVE QUICK anti-jam characteristics. One model of the AN/ARC-164 can be configured to operate in the very high frequency (VHF) FM frequency band that makes it Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS) compatible.


C-13. The AN/GRC-193, AN/GRC-213, and AN/PRC-104 AM Improved High Frequency Radios (IHFRs) provides long-range CNR connectivity between operational elements at all echelons of the Army. IHFRs are primarily used as back-up communications, in the event the ACUS or organizational unique communications networks fail. IHFRs are capable of transmitting and receiving voice and data and must be externally secured through the use of the KY-99 MINTERM COMSEC device. The IHFR replaces the Army's AN/GRC-106 and several other AM radios. The IHFR uses the RT-1209 receiver in all three configurations. The AN/PRC-104 is a low power (20 W) system configured for man-pack operations. The AN/GRC-213 is a low power (20 W) system configured for vehicular operations. The AN/GRC-193 is a high-power (100-400 W) system configured for vehicular operations and has a planning range of up to 2,500 miles. The IHFR operates in the 2-20 MHz frequency range.


C-14. The AN/GSQ-240 JTIDS is an advanced radio system, which provides data distribution, position location, and identification capabilities in an integrated form with application to joint military operations. Army air defense currently plans to utilize the JTIDS at several operational levels as the media to broadcast and receive an enhanced joint air picture over the JDN. The in-theater JDN will provide a shared, joint C2 data and information exchange form. JDN operatives can include US Air Force (USAF) E-3A Sentry/AWACS, Control and Reporting Center (CRC), other intelligence platforms and fighter aircraft; E-2C HAWKEYE, AEGIS ships and fighter aircraft; US Marine Corps (USMC) Tactical Air Operation Module (TAOM) and fighter aircraft; and the Army AAMDC, ADA brigades, SHORAD battalions, Patriot battalions and batteries, THAAD C2 battalions and batteries, and JTAGS detachments. While JTIDS is capable of both voice and data operations, Army ADA users currently utilize the Class 2M version that provides only data communications. The Multifunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS) is the low-cost, follow-on successor to the JTIDS.

C-15. The JTIDS radio satisfies the integrated requirements by basing the system architecture on a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) design to provide a time slot, multinet structure. This structure divides time over a 12.8-min epoch, into 7.8125 msec time slots, which results in 128 time slots/sec/net and 98,304 time slots/net in one epoch. Frequency hopping patterns are used to provide anti-jam capability by forcing enemy jammers to spread jamming energy over a wide frequency hopping, frequency range. JTIDS frequency hopping is done in pseudo random patterns based on the JTIDS crypto variables, which are impossible for a potential enemy jammer to predict. One hundred and twenty-seven separate nets can be operated simultaneously, in synchronization with a Net Time Reference (NTR) network.


C-16. The ACUS is the in-theater, tactical communications equivalent to civilian phone service. The ACUS is installed and operated by the Army signal brigades at the EAC and corps levels and organic signal battalions in the divisions' environment. The ACUS utilizes the MSE communications family of equipment that consists of a variety of multichannel radio and switching systems to form a communications network to provide bulk-encrypted (secure), voice and data, and tactical packet network switching. User owned and operated devices that facilitate connectivity to the MSE-ACUS include the TA-1035/U Digital Nonsecure Voice Terminal (DNVT) with data port; the KY-68 Digital Secure Voice Terminal (DSVT) with data port, used for above SECRET and/or special security access transmissions; the AN/UXC-7 lightweight tactical facsimile; and the AN/VRC-97 mobile subscriber radio terminal (MSRT), which provides mobile secure voice into the MSE network. MSE equipment operates at 16 Kbs and is not operationally compatible with EAC TRITAC-ACUS.

C-17. At the EAC, the ACUS uses TRITAC equipment. TRITAC is a joint communications family of equipment that uses a variety of multichannel radio and switching systems to form a network that provides bulk-encrypted (secure), voice and data, and tactical packet network message switching. TRITAC user owned and operated devices that facilitate connectivity to the TRITAC-ACUS include the TA-1042/U DNVT with data port; the KY-68 DSVT with data port for above SECRET and/or special security access; the AN/UXC-7 lightweight tactical facsimile; and for a very limited number of subscribers the AN/VRC-97 MSRT, which provides mobile secure-voice into the MSE network. TRITAC equipment operates at both 16 kbs and 32 kbs (selectable) and may be used with both the TRITAC and MSE equipment networks.

C-18. The Warfighter Information Network-Terrestrial (WIN-T) is the Army ongoing force modernization initiative that will field a new generation of both network and common user equipment. The High Capacity Trunk Radio (HCTR) will replace the current AN/GRC-226 UHF multichannel radio in order to provide more trunk capacity to units. Major nodes will be interconnected by beyond line-of-sight (BLOS) satellite system equipment capable of operating in both the military and civilian frequency bands. Asynchronous Transfer Method (ATM) switching will more efficiently utilize the rapidly shrinking frequency band availability. Wireless TOCs that utilize deterministic, multi-path radio systems will further reduce the demand for frequency spectrum, making tactical video teleconferences (VTCs) possible on future battlefields.


C-19. The QUADNET is a COTS radio that provides receive-only connectivity to most UHF frequency band radio nets. The QUADNET radio may be operated in either the LOS or SCTACSAT mode, and is capable of simultaneous reception of four radio networks, that is, TDDS, TIBS, Secondary Imagery Dissemination System (SIDS) (imagery), and Tactical Digital Information Link (TADIL)-A. Through the use of a software configuration, the QUADNET radio is also TADIXS-A and TADIXS-B capable. The QUADNET radio may be configured for secure operations through the addition of an internal COMSEC/Transmission Security (TRANSEC) Integrated Circuit (CTIC) Device Hybrid (CDH) crypto chipset or an externally connected KGV011A, KG-84, KG-40, or KGR-96 COMSEC device. The QUADNET radio will be replaced by the JTT.


C-20. SINCGARS is the Army's current generation of tactical CNR. SINCGARS is primarily used during mobile operations, site installation and set-up, and as a local area back up for ACUS. SINCGARS is also routinely used for C2 with elements that by their very nature are mobile and therefore, normally accessible only through CNR; such activities would include vehicle recovery platforms (tracked and wheeled), ammo/missile/logistical resupply operations, and forward deployed, mobile weapon platforms.


C-21. SCTACSAT facilitates secure voice and data communications between ground elements that are BLOS, for which it is not possible to support with ground retransmission resources. SCTACSAT has been allocated for use in corps and division warfighter and operations-intelligence nets. SCTACSAT is also utilized for the TBM Early Warning Net, which connects a variety of air and missile defense OPFACs at the EAC and corps levels (AAMDC, THAAD, Patriot, and JTAGS). Through the use of the mandated Demand Assigned Multiple Access (DAMA) feature, it will be possible to multitask a single radio into more than one radio net. This feature reduces the requirement for cascading early warning notification and eliminates the time delays associated with such operational methods.

C-22. The AN/PSC-5 is the Army's objective SCTACSAT radio that will replace the AN/PSC-3, AN/VSC-7, Motorola LST-5 Series, the MISTE-II, and the WSC-3. SCTACSAT radios may also be operated in a "LOS mode," which allows them to operate in most UHF radio networks.


C-23. The Synthesized UHF Computer-Controlled Equipment Subsystem (SUCCESS) radio is a fully automated microprocessor-based, computer-controlled, UHF-band radio. Data may be transmitted and received simultaneously over its one transmit and three receive channels. Two SUCCESS radios may be stacked to provide an integrated, fully redundant, two transmit and six receive channel capability. The radio is designed to communicate with selected airborne, terrestrial, and satellite systems. The SUCCESS radio is compatible with the AN/ARC-164, AN/ARC-171, WSC-3, AN/PSC-3, KG-34, and KG-84. This is not a standard Army radio.


C-24. Trojan Spirit is a remote intelligence collection and distribution system. It consists of mobile satellite ground terminals, which transmits and receives bulk encrypted intelligence information and data to designated subscribers. Trojan Spirit is a tri-band satellite terminal system capable of operating in the C, Ku, and X bands. This system will receive, display, and transmit digital imagery, weather, and terrain products, templates, graphics, and text between CONUS and outside CONUS bases and can be used to support split-based, inter- and intra-theater operations. Trojan Spirit uses CONUS-based data processing, whose database is constantly updated from multiple sources and either broadcast to designated users or may be "pulled" by designated users. Trojan Spirit is unique to the intelligence community.


C-25. Tactical Automated Situational Receiver (TASR) utilizes the GPS receiver to transmit early warning or other situational awareness. Messages are stored on the device so that if the user later moves into an area contaminated by NBC attack, the device will cross-reference the location resident from its GPS with a stored warning message and warn the user to leave the area. Warnings are provided if the message is still valid with respect to time and the user's current location. This concept of allowing the receiver to filter messages based on knowledge and location is referred to geodynamic filtering.


C-26. The Global Broadcast System (GBS) will utilize a militarized version of direct broadcast television to augment and interface with other theater and global communications systems to provide a high-speed, one-way flow of high volume information. Utilizing an in-theater inject node, the GBS will broadcast, on separate channels, a variety of information that could include friendly force situational awareness or threat force situational awareness--on separate channels and updated at regular times. Commercial news and sports for health and welfare, as well as intelligence, logistical, weather, and medial information would all be available by selecting a channel and either watching or down-loading the information. The GBS will facilitate both smart-push information tailored to specific situations and will also respond to warfighter requests for specific information (user-pull). User owned and operated receivers, currently anticipated to go to the battalion level at corps and division, would utilize the user's OPFACs processor to process the desired information.


C-27. The AN/ARC-187 UHF radio is utilized by a number of air and missile defense and nonair and missile defense C2 OPFACs to exchange both voice and data. Currently the AN/ARC-187 is not type classified [does not have an Army line item number (LIN)]; and is utilized in air and missile defense C2 operations to transmit and receive data in TADIL-A format. This radio is HAVE QUICK II anti-jam capable and is also TADIL-C capable. When utilized for voice operations, the AN/ARC-187 uses the KY-57 COMSEC device and, when utilized for data operations, uses the KG-40 COMSEC device for over-the-air security.


C-28. The R-350K radio is a COTS device utilized to facilitate the exchange of TADIL-A data over the high frequency (HF) band. This radio is currently found in several Army air and missile defense C2 OPFACs. The R-350K radio is operated with the data terminal set AN/USQ-111 (MX-512P, touch screen) and data terminal set AN/USQ-125 (MX-512PV). It utilizes the KG-40 COMSEC device for over-the-air security during data operations.


C-29. The Army has implemented the I-PAWS to facilitate early warning to individual soldiers and other larger OPFACs utilizing a COTS paging system. Following detection by larger theater resources, early warning would be disseminated by a number of means, which normally involves cascading to one degree or another. Through a theater inject node, PAWS would provide a simultaneous warning capability down to the individual soldier level.

C-30. While a technically sound capability, the operational aspect of frequency allocation and paging protocols in different countries does present challenges to effective employment of PAWS. From an operational perspective, the area of coverage may be reduced to best utilize limited pager resources and cover the critical assets that TBMs are most likely to be targeted against.

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